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i^ n'>o. c^ 




CLASS OP 1838 



Social <4lifc in ^ucen Jlnne's iHcign 

VOL. I. 



@aken from Original Sources 






[All right. r„.rv,d 


/Si- ^'^70 . 4 u 





.' i 



From the time of Dean Swift downwards to our own 
days, many Political Histories of the Reign of Queen 
Anne have been written, but its Social Life we have 
been left to gather mainly from the efforts of novelists, 
who have been more or less conscientious, according 
to their knowledge, in placing it before us. 

No doubt the drudgery of the work, the wading 
through all the newspapers, and reading all the litera- 
ture of the time, has deterred many from attempting 
what, in its execution, has proved a very pleasant 
task ; for in doing it, one has got to be thoroughly 
identified with the age — its habits and customs — 
which, being taken from the very words of the people 
then living, writing for living people, who could con- 
tradict their statements, if false or exaggerated, a 
charm was lent to the task, which fully compensated 
for its labour. 

All histor}% unless it is contemporary, must neces- 
sarily, if honest, be a compilation, and my idea is, 
that it should honestly be avowed as such, and the 
authorities given for all facts ; and this I have done, 
even at the risk of proving wearisome. 


In compiling it, my task has been similar to one 
who, having a necklace of old beads, finds it broken, 
and the beads scattered hither and thither. His 
business, naturally, is to gather them together, and 
string them so as to satisfy criticism. He may not 
pick them all up, and he may not please everyone's 
taste in his arrangement, but his course is clear — 
he should not add new beads of his own to supply 
deficiencies, but should confine himself to putting 
together all he can find in the best manner he pos- 
sibly can. 

The almost total absence of domestic news in 
the newspapers has compelled me to draw largely on 
the essays and descriptive books of the time, and in 
one or two instances I have ventured to transcribe 
(as in the case of Misson) from works published, or 
written, two or three years before Anne actually 
reigned — but the facts were precisely the same as 
then obtained, so that mu4| has been gained thereby. 

The Illustrations might, undoubtedly, have been 
made more artistic and unreal — but I have carefully 
taken them from contemporary prints, and prefer to 
present them in all their uncouthness and reality. 

John Ashton. 






The Duke of Gloucester — The Queen's refusal to marry again — 
Treatment of children after birth — Baptismal feasts — A 
christening — * Daffy's Elixir' — Treatment of infantile diseases 
— The nursery — Toys — Children's books — Horn-books — Private 
tuition — Boarding and day schools — Free schools — Classical 
education — School-books — Penmanship — Runaway boys — Col- 
lege education — Charity schools ^ i 


Boarding schools — Town and country education — Pastry schools 
— Dancing — Toasts — * The little Whig ' — Madame Spanheim . 22 




Eloping with heiresses — Marriage between children — Tax on 
bachelors — Valentines — Marriage settlements — Pin money — 
Posies — Drummers — Private marriages — Irregular marriages — 
Fleet parsons — Marriage Act — Facility of marriage — Liability 
of husbands — Public marriages — Marriage customs -Bride's 
Garters — Throwing the Stocking — The Posset — Honeymoon . 29 




Longevity— Undertakers' charges — Costliness of funerals — Mourn- 
ing — Burial in woollen — Burial societies-r-Burial by night — ^A 
cheat — Mourning rings — Funeral pomp — Monuments — Descrip- 
tion of a funeral — ^A Roman Catholic funeral — Widows . 46 



* Queen Anne ' houses — Vanbrugh's house — Real * Queen Anne * 
houses — Hangings and wall papers — Letting and rent — Pre- 
vention of fire — ^A fire — Insurance companies — Water supply — 
Thames Water Works — New River — Coals — Furniture — Chini 
— Bedsteads 60 



Number of servants — Footmen— Wages — Liveries — * How d'ye ' — 
The Upper Gallery — Footmen's Parliament — Accomplishments 
— White slaves from Barbary — Negro slaves — Runaways — 
Apprentices 76 



Out-of-door amusements — A holiday — Hatred of French fashions 
— Beaus' oaths — Kissing — Fops : their daily life • . . Z^ 



Receiving in bed— A lady's life — A fine lady's diary— Walking 

- Visiting— Tea-table scandal — Shopping — Daily church -Pets 

— Dancing— Books on ditto— A dancing master . ... 89 




Games at cards — Curious cards — Price — ^Tax on cards — Female 
passion for gambling — The Groom Porter's — Gaming houses — 
Gamesters — Noted gamesters — Debts of honour — Speculation — 
Life insurances — Marine and other insurances — Shopkeepers' 
lotteries — Government lotteries — Prizes and winners . . .103 


Astrologers — Their advertisements — Their tricks — Witchcraft- - 

Cases of witchcraft 117 


Habit of snuflf-taking — Perfumes — Charles Lillie — List of scents — 
Soaps — Wash-balls — * Complections' — Tooth powder — Hair-dye ^ 
— Spectacles 125 


The penny post — Dockwra's vindication of himself — Abolition of 
penny post — Post days and rates — Halfpenny post — Method 
of doing business — The Exchange — Description of frequenters 
— Bankers — Curious advertisement of Sir Richard Hoare's . 130 



A beau — An inventory of him— Hats — Wigs : their price : varieties 
— Hair powder — Robbery of wigs — Natural hair — Neck-cloths 
— Shirts — Open waistcoats — Colonel Edgworth — Coats — Cheap 
clothiers — Stockings — Boots and shoes — Shoeblacks and 
blacking — Handkerchiefs - Muffs — Swords — Walking-sticks — 
Watches Overcoats— Night-caps -Night-gowns . . . 138 




The Commode — Description of ladies' dress — The Petticoat — The 
Bodice — A costly wardrobe — Underlinen — Dressing like men 
— Scents — Patches — Patching Whig and Tory — Masks — The 
hood — High-crowned hats — Furs — Umbrellas — Pattens — The 
fan — Mobs — Shopping — Stuffs — List of Indian stuffs — Lace — 
Linens — Tallymen — Jewellery — Diamonds — Plate — Children's 
jewellery 163 



English fare — Time of dining — Pontack's — Other ordinaries — 
Books on cookery — Receipts — Pudding — Fish — Oysters — 
Poultry — Assize of bread — Markets — Vegetables — Lambeth 
gardeners — Fruit — Dried fruit 185 


Beer — Hard drinking — *Whetters' — Wines — List of French and 
Spanish wines — Wines of other countries — Duties on wines — 
Spirits — Liqueurs — Home-made wines — Prices of tea — Adul- 
teration — Price of coffee — Chocolate — Its price — Duty on. . 197 


Habit of smoking — Women and children smoking — Prices of 
tobacco — Customs duty — Origin of snuff-taking — The Vigo 
expedition — Snuff-rasps — Ladies taking snuff — Proper use of 
the snuff-box — Use of a spoon — Prices of snuff— List of ditto — 
Duty on snuff 206 


Universal use of coffee-houses — Their convenience — Company — 
First coffee-house — Number of them — Anecdote of Bishop 
Trelawney— Description of interior— The news — Advance in 



price — Chocolate-houses — Famous coffee-houses — Button's Lion 
— Lloyd's — Sales by candle — Jenny Man — Don Saltero's collec- 
tion — Taverns — Noblemen frequenting them — Drinking own 
wine — Purl houses — List of old taverns . . . .214 


Origin— October Club^Calves Head Club— Kit Cat Club— Other 

clubs — Suggested clubs • 237 


Royal visits to the City — Lord Mayor's show — The lions at the 
Tower — The Armoury — Tombs at Westminster — Bartholomew 
Fair — Description — Shows — Tight-rope dancing — Natural 
curiosit^s — Theatrical performances, etc. — Abolition — M ay 
fair — Lady Mary — Pinkethman — Shows — Visit to — Abolition — 
Southwark Fair — Its Shows 245 


The Lincolnshire ox — The large hog — The whale — Monkeys and 
wild beasts — *The Lest Man and Hors in the World' — Perform- 
ing horse — Dwarfs and giants— Human curiosities — Helen 
and Judith — Conjurors — Posture masters — Mr. Clinch — Wax- 
work — Mrs. Salmon, etc. — Westminster Abbey wax-figures — 
Powell's puppets— Moving pictures — Glass-blowing — Miracu- 
lous fountain— Winstanley — His waterworks — The four Indian 
chiefs 268 



Bear-baiting— Bear-gardens — Bull-baiting — Description — Extra- 
ordinary bull-bait— Cock-fighting— Cock-pits— Value of matches 
—Training 296 




The Queen's love of Racing — Visit to Newmarket — Queen's plates 
— Value of matches — Race meeting^ — Tregonwell Frampton — 
His horse Dragon — The Queen's love of hunting — Sir Roger de 
Coverley — Fox-hunting — Stag-hunting — Hare-hunting — Cours- 
ing — Packs of hounds — Fishing — Hawking — Netting — The 
Game Act — Shooting sitting and flying — Match shooting- 
Archery 303 


Challenges — The stakes — ^The combatants — Description of fights 
— General combativeness — Boxing — Cudgel-playing — Pedes- 
trianism — Tennis — Cricket — Football — Skating — Billiards — 
Country wakes — Bowling — Bowling greens — Formal garden- 
ing — Clipping trees — Books on gardening — Trees and Flowers 
— Town and country life — Country labourers . . • 315 





The Nursery (Steele's * Ladies' Library,' ed. 1714) . . . . 10 

* Troope, every one ' (Lauren's * Habits and Cryes of the City of 

London,' ed. 1709) , 11 

A Raree Show (*Cris de Paris,' 1700. Print Room, B. M.) . . 12 

* Oh, Raree Show ! ' (Lauron) 12 

* Ripe Strawberryes ! ' (Lauron) 13 

•Six Pence a Pound Fair Cherryes ' (Lauron) . . 13 

A Corpse (Undertaker's Bill, Harl. MSS. 5931, 129) . . . 48 

Invitation to a Funeral (HarL MSS. 5931, 186) ... 49 

Lying in State (Fletcher's * The Tamer Tamed,' ed. 1711) . . 56 

A Widow (* Ladies' Library ') 59 

A Fire (* Verses of John Hall, Bellman of Canterbury,' 1708) . . 67 

*New River Water!' (Lauron) 68 

'Small Coale!' (Lauron) 72 

Fireplace and Utensils ^Harl. MSS. 5961, 220) - - - 7Z 

A Bed (Harl. MSS. 5961, 180) 75 

•The Merry Fidler' (Lauron) 85 

Men Kissing (from a Contemporary View of Marlborough House 

—Guildhall) 87 



A Tea Party (Satirical Prints, No. 1555. 1710? B. M.) . 95 

A Lady and Footman (View of Marlborough House— Guildhall) 96 

Riding Pillion (From a View of Whitehall— 1713— Guildhall) . 99 

A BouRi^E and a Contretemps (Weaver's *Orchesography') . 100 

A SissoNE (Siris* translation of Feuillet's book on Dancing) 100 

A Card Table (Mrs. Centlivre's * Basset Table/ ed. 1706) . . 104 

A Gambling Scene (Lucas's * Memoirs, &c., of the most famous 

Gamesters, &c.,' ed. 1714) . . • . . . 107 

A Lottery (Steele's *A Good Husband for Five Shillings,' 

ed. 1710) 115 

An Astrologer (HarL MSS. 5931, 12) 120 

* 4 Paire for a Shilling, Holland Socks ! ' (Lauron) . • i S3 

A Jack-Boot 154 

Shoe-black (*Cris de Paris') . 155 

A Watch Riband (Harl. MSS. 5961, 222) 159 

Old Cloaks, Suits, or Coats!' (Lauron) 161 

*Old Satin, Old Taffety or Velvet!' (Lauron) . . .161 

A Commode (Anna Sophia of Hanover — Playing Cards, 1 707, B.M.) 163 

Coiffure (Princess Royal of Prussia — Playing Cards, 1707, B.M.) 169 

Patching (Lauron) 170 

A Mask or Vizard (Harl. MSS. 5996, 3) 172 

An Umbrella (Gay's * Trivia,' 1st ed.) 174 

Costume of a Lady 184 

*FouR for Sixpence, MackerellI' (Lauron) . . 189 

Twelve Pence a Peck, Oysters!' (Lauron) .... 191 

A Coffee House (*Vulgus Britannicus,' 1710) . . 215 

The Lion at Button's (Ireland's * Graphic Illustrations of 

Hogarth') 222 

A Tavern Scene (Satirical Prints, No. 1582. B. M. 1712) . . 233 

A Leopard (HarL MSS. 5961,327) 270 




•The Lest Man and Hors in the World' (Harl. MSS. 
5996,0 273 

Hungarian Youth (Had. MSS. 5931,280) 277 

A Posture Master (Harl. MSS. 5961, 5) 280 

Portrait of Powell (from * A Second Tale of a Tub/ ed. 17 15) 285 

Glass-blowing (Harl. MSS. 5961, 224) 290 

Wonderful Fountain (Harl MSS. 5961, 331) . . . .291 

Thk Tour Indian Kings (Hand Bill, B. M. li^iJ^iJ^) . . 294 

26 ' 

1 :■ I si Cotton's *Conipleat Gamester,' ed. 1709) . . . 322 







The Duke of Gloucester— The Queen's refusal to marry again — Treat- 
ment of children after birth — Baptismal feasts — A christening — 
'Daffy's Elixir' — Treatment of infantile diseases — The nursery — 
Toys — Children's books — Horn books — Private tuition — Boarding 
and day schools — Free schools — Classical education — School 
books— Penmanship — Runaway boys — College education — Charity 

In all climes, and in all ages, since Man's creation, he has 
been subject to the same conditions, modified only by circum- 
stances. He has been bom — Has had to receive some educa- 
tion (if only taught to fish and hunt for his subsistence), 
which was to fit him for the position he was to occupy in this 
life. This was absolutely necessary, for it is scarcely possible 
to imagine a more helpless being than an infant. In most 
cases he married, and so helped to preser\'c his species, and 
most certainly he died. 

The scheme of existence in Queen Anne's time was no 
exception to the normal state of things — only, as the wa\'s 
of people then, were not exactly similar to ours, it will 
be interesting to note the differences attending childhood, 

VOL. I. B 

2 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

education, marriage, and death. The Queen herself had more 
than once been a mother ; * but only one child, the Duke of 
Gloucester, lived any length of time, and in his infancy he 
was indebted for his life to a young Quakeress, who acted as 
his wet nurse. Poor little fellow ! his brief stay on earth was 
not a pleasant one. He suffered from hydrocephalus (water 
on the brain), and his head was so big that at five years of age 
his hat was large enough for an ordinary man. He could 
hardly toddle about, and felt himself unable to go up stairs 
without being led. His father and mother seemed to think 
that this assistance was not necessary ; and, shutting them- 
selves in a room with the poor little boy. Prince George gave 
him such a severe thrashing with a birch rod, that sheer pain 
made him move, and from that time he managed to get up 
and down stairs without help. Coddled by the women, and 
with somewhat rough playmates of his own sex, he amused 
himself by drilling his company of boy soldiers, even re- 
viewing them on his eleventh birthday, the day before he 
sickened with scarlet fever, of which he speedily died. His 
mother grieved sorely for him, but never had another child to 
supply his place. 

On her accession to the throne, the succession (failing her 
issue) was unsettled, and most anxious was the whole nation 
that she should yet be the mother of their future sovereign. 
In * The form of prayer with thanksgiving to Almighty God 
to be used in all churches and chapels within this realm, every 
year upon the eighth day of March (being the day upon 
which Her Majesty began her happy reign),' in the prayer at 
the Communion ser\'icc, immediately before the reading of 
the epistle, * for the Queen as supreme Governor of this 
Church,* was the following petition : * And that these Bless- 
ings may be continued to after Ages, make the Queen, we 
pray thee, an happy Mother of Children, who being Educated 
in Thy true Faith and Fear may happily succeed Her in the 
Government of these Kingdoms.' Her husband. Prince George, 
died October 28, 1708 ; and it was not until January 13 of 
the next year, that the Council struck out this portion of the 
service, some one evidently remembering that the 8th of March 

> Seventeen times, in fact. 


was approaching. On January 28, 1709, both Houses of 
Parliament petitioned Her Majesty to marry again ; but her 
wounds were too recent and too sore. She replied that the 
provision she had made for the Protestant succession would 
always be a proof of her hearty concern for the happiness 
of the nation ; but that the subject of their address was of 
such a nature that she was persuaded they did not expect a 
particular answer.* 

Ignorantly as the little Duke of Gloucester was treated, 
what was the condition of ordinary babies } Let a contem- 
porary tell the tale. Steele,' writing as if his familiar Pacolet 
was speaking, and giving an experience of his sensations, 
says : * The first thing that ever struck my senses was a 
noise over my head of one shrieking ; after which, methought 
I took a full jump, and found myself in the hands of a 
sorceress, who seemed as if she had been long waking, and 
employed in some incantation. I was thoroughly frightened, 
and cried out ; but she immediately seemed to go on in some 
magical operation, and anointed me from head to foot. 
What they meant I could not imagine : for there gathered a 
great crowd about me, crying, " An heir ! an heir 1 " upon 
which Tgrew a little still, and believed this was a ceremony 
only to be used to great persons, and such as made them 
what they called heirs. 

' I lay very quiet, but the witch, for no manner of reason 
or provocation in the world, takes me, and binds my head as 
hard as possibly she could ; then tics up both my legs, and 
makes me swallow down an horrid mixture. I thought it an 
harsh entrance into life, to begin with taking physic ; but I 
was forced to it, or else must have taken down a great instru- 
ment in which she gave it to me. When I was thus dressed, I 
was carried to a bedside, where a fine young lady (my mother, 
I wot) had liked to have hugged me to death. From her 
they faced me about, and there was a thing with quite another 
look from the rest of the company, to whom they talked 
about my nose. He seemed wonderfully pleased to see me ; 
but I know since, my nose belonged to another family. 

* The Chrmolof^ical Historian^ &c., by W. Toone, ed. 1826. 
« Toiler, No. 15. 

B a 

4 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

* That into which I was born is one of the most numerous 
among you ; therefore crowds of relations came every day 
to congratulate my arrival ; amongst others, my cousin Betty, 
the greatest romp in nature ; she whisks me such a height 
over her head, that I cried out for fear of falling. She pinched 
me and called me squealing chit, and threw me into a girl's 
arms that was taken in to tend me. The girl was very proud 
of the womanly employment of a nurse, and took upon her 
to strip and dress me anew, because I made a noise, to see 
what ailed me ; she did so, and stuck a pin in every joint 
about me. I still cried ; upon which she lays me on my face in 
her lap ; and to quiet me, fell to a-nailing in all the pins, by 
clapping me on the back, and screaming a lullaby. But my 
pain made me exalt my voice above hers, which brought up 
the nurse, the witch I first saw, and my grandmother. The 
girl is turned downstairs, and I stripped again, as well to find 
what ailed me as to satisfy my granam's farther curiosity. This 
good woman's visit was the cause of all my troubles. You- 
are to understand that I was hitherto bred by hand, and 
anybody that stood next me gave me pap if I did but open 
my lips ; insomuch, that I was grown so cunning as to pre- 
tend myself asleep when I was not, to prevent my being 

* But my grandmother began a loud lecture upon the idle- 
ness of this age, who, for fear of their shapes, forbear suckling 
their own offspring ; and ten nurses were immediately sent 
for ; one was whispered to have a wanton eye, and would 
soon spoil .her milk ; another was in a consumption ; the 
third had an ill voice, and would frighten me instead of 
lulling me to sleep. Such exceptions were made against all 
but one country milch-wench, to whom I was committed and 
put to the breast. This careless jade was perpetually romp- 
ing with the footman, and downright starved me ; insomuch 
that I daily pined away, and should never have been relieved 
had it not been that on the thirtieth day of my life a Fellow 
of the Royal Society,^ who had writ upon " Cold Baths," came 
to visit me, and solemnly protested I was utterly lost for want 

> Probably Sir John Floyer, who wrote several books on the wonderful cures 
made by cold water bathing. 


of that method ; upon which he soused me head and ears into 
a pail of water, where I had the good fortune to be drowned/ 

After its birth the babe was soon baptized, but there does 
not seem to have been a great social fuss made about the 
event That most entertaining and observant traveller Henri 
Misson, who visited England at the very close of the seven- 
teenth century, and whose book was translated into English 
in 17 19,* says, * The custom here is not to make great feasts 
at the birth of their children. They drink a glass of wine 
and eat a bit of a certain cake, which is seldom made but 
upon these occasions.' 

Ward,^ however, has left us a humorous description of a 
private christening. He was asked by a relation to stand 
Godfather to his newborn Child, and * I, wanting ill-Nature 
enough to resist his Importunities, submitted to his Requests ; 
and engag'd for once to stand as a Tom Doodle for an hour 
or two, to be banter'd by a Tittle-Tattle Assembly of Female 
Gossips. The time appointed for the Solemnisation of this 
Ancient piece of Formality being come, after I had put on a 
clean Band, and bestow'd Two Penni worth of Razorridge on 
the most Fertile part of my Face, whose Septuary Crop re- 
quired Mowing, away I Trotted towards the Joyful Habitation 
of my Friend and Kinsman, but with as aking a Heart as a 
Wise Man goes to be Married, or a Broken Merchant comes 
near the Counter. ... As soon as we came into the Room, and 
had bow*d our Backs to the old Cluster of Harridans, and 
they in return had bent their knees to us, I sneak'd up to the 
Parson's Elbow, and my Partner after me . . . whilst Old 
Mother Grope stood rocking of the Bantling in her Arms, 
wrap'd up in so Rich a Mantle as if both Indias had club'd 
their utmost Riches to furnish out a Noble covering for my 
little Kinsman, who came as callow into the world as a Bird 
out of an Eggshell. 

* At last the Babe was put into my hands to deliver, tho' 
not as my Act and Deed, to the Parson, who having con- 
secrated some New River water for his purpose, wash'd away 

' M, Missoris Memoirs and Observations in his Travels over England ^ &c., 
translated by Ozells, 1 719. 

» J^he London Spy, ed. 1703. 

6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

Original Sin from my new Nephew, and brought him amongst 
us Christians into a state of Salvation. But when my froward 
Godson felt the Cold Water in his face, he threatened the Priest 
with such a parcel of Angry Looks, that if he had been strong 
enough I dare swear he would have serv'd him the same 
Sauce, and under the same Ignorance would have retum'd 
him but little thanks for his Labour. After we had joined 
together in a Petition for the good of the infant Christian, 
the Religious part wa^ concluded. . . . As soon as the Parson 
had refreshed his Spirits with a bumper of Canary, dedicated 
to the Mother ; and the Clerk had said Amen to his Master's 
good Wishes, after the like manner, each of 'em accepted of a 
Paper of Sweetmeats for his Wife or his Children, and away 
they went, leaving the Company behind.' They then seem 
to have drunk a full quantity of wine, and the women having 
eaten, drank, and gossiped sufficiently, were each presented 
with * a Service of Sweetmeats, which every Gossip carried 
away in her Handkerchief . . . Having now struggled 
through every difficult part of these Accustomary Formalities, 
I had nothing to do but to Thank them for our Liberal Enter- 
tainment, Wish the Women well again, and both much Happi- 
ness in their Male Offspring, and so take my Leave, which 
I did accordingly ; and was as greatly overjoyed when I got 
out of the House as ever Convict was that had broke Gaol or 
Detected Pick Pocket that had Escaped a Horse Pond.* 

Having launched our baby thus far in life, we will see 
how he was treated when suffering from any of the numerous 
ailments which infancy is subject to. The marvel is that so 
many grew up. It was eminently * the survival of the fittest' 
Sanitary arrangements were extremely rudimentary ; little 
care being taken either as to the purity of the water supply, 
or the efficiency of drainage. Fever was always in their 
midst, and, neither inoculation nor vaccination being known, 
or practised, smallpox was rampant, and spared no class, from 
the Queen (Mar>') to the beggar. Was the child fretful, there 
was that cordial dear to old nurses of the Gamp school — 
Daffy's Elixir. This remedy, which has survived as a popular 
nostrum to our own time, was not new in Queen Anne's 
reign. It must then ever have been a profitable property, for 


rivals could afford to quarrel over it, as the following advertise- 
ments show : — 



The Finest now exposed to Sale, prepared from the best 
Druggs, according to Art, and the Original Receipt, which 
my Father Mr. Thomas Daffy, late Rector of Redmik^ in 
the Valley of Belvoir, having experienced the Virtue of it, 
imparted to his Kinsman Mr. Anthony Daffy ^ who publish'd 
the same to the Benefit of the Community, and his own 
great Advantage. This Very Original Receipt is now in my 
possession, left to me by my Father aforesaid, under his own 
Hand. My own Brother Mr. Daniel Daffy ^ formerly Apothe- 
cary in Nottingham^ made this ELIXIR from the same Re- 
ceipt, and Sold it there during his Life. Those who know 
me will believe what I Declare ; and those who donot may 
be convinced that I am no counterfeit, by the Colour, Tast, 
Smell, and just Operation of my ELIXIR. To be had at 
the Hand and Pen in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, London \ 
and many other Places in Town and Country.* 

Priind facie, the lady would seem to have made out her 
case ; but there were other aspirants to fame — as the following 
notice^ will show : — 


* Forasmuch as Mrs. Elizabeth Daffy has lately Published 
an Advertisement containing Invidious Reflections upon me, 
in relation to my Elixir Salutis, I should be wanting to my 
Self if I should not obviate them in the like public manner, to 
let the World see they are Malicious, unreasonable, and false. 

* In the first place she charges me with Clandestinely taking 
the House in Prugeotis Court ; which, by her leave, is equally 
absurd and unjust ; for the House was to be Lett a long time 
before I took it (nor had she any lease of the House, or any 
Power to Lett it), so consequently any one else might have 
taken the same. As for my pretending to have been her 
Husband's Assistant in preparing the Elixir, I will only say 

" Harh 5931, 226. » Ibid, 121. 

8 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

this IS just as true as the former Story ; and I challenge her to 
produce one single Evidence of Refutation to prove her Asser- 
tion : nor had I need of any such trifling pretence, having 
known the Secret some time before the Death of his Father 
Dr. Anthony Daffy \ which I presume was before the said 
Elias Daffy was privy to the preparing of the said Elixir (he 
being then a Cambridge scholar), and the same was com- 
municated to me in the year 1684, at the time I was going to 
travel beyond Sea, where, in divers Countries, considerable 
Quantities of my Elixir has been taken by Persons of the 
greatest Rank, Quality, and Note, to their great Satisfaction. 

* And whereas the said Mrs. Daffy is pleased to call my 
Elixir Spurious, and Insinuates as if it were hazardous to the 
Lives of Men ; the numerous Instances of Good it has done, 
both here and abroad, do manifestly evince the Contrary. And 
I appeal to all who have taken it in this City, or elsewhere, 
whether they have not found at least as much Benefit from 
This as from any Thing of the like Nature they have ever 
taken ; insomuch that I am well assured that those who have 
tried mine will apply themselves to nobody else for Elixir 

Saliitis. *JOHN Harrison. 

* From my House in Prujean's Court in the Great Old 
Baly (The Original and famous Elixir Salutis) being wrote in 
Golden Characters over the Door fronting the Court Gate. 
March the 31st, 1709.' 

One doctor at least, (John Pechy) made the diseases of 
infants and children his study, and wrote upon the subject 
I have been unable to get his book, but a few remedies from 
the medical works then in vogue will show how these diseases 
were then treated. Here is a recipe for a child's cough.* 

* Horehound 'ix ; Liquorice, Maidenhair, Hyssop, Wild 
Thyme, Coltsfoot, Penny royal, ana^iij. Aniseeds and Fennel 
seeds ana Jiss. Raisins of the Sun Jvj. Figs, Jujubes ana 5iv. 
Elecampane Jij, boil all in lb. vj of water to ^. Strain, and 
add Honey, Sugar, ana Ib.j. Boil to a Syrup ; and when almost 
cold add Orrice, Woodlice, both in fine powder, ana 5j.' 

* Collectanea Medica^ by Wm. Salmon, M.D. 


This mixture might not have been bad, but why add 
powdered woodlice ? 

Worms in children were to be treated with * Prevotius's 
Oyl to kill Worms.* Take — Wormwood, Carduus, Scordium, 
Tobacco, ana Mj, Roots of Sow bread Jfs, Coloquintida, Jij, 
Oyl, Vinegar, ana lb. j : boil to the consumption of the vinegar, 
then add Myrrh in powder ,?j ; mix, and boil to the dissolu- 
tion of the Myrrh. The Title shows the Virtues, anoint it 
upon the Stomach and Belly.' If this was not effective, the 
child might be given some lozenges made as follows — * Take 
Rhubarb, Citron seeds husked. Worm seeds, seeds of Purslain, 
of Coleworts, Broom finely powdered, ana 5iij 8 dulcis 5ij, 
White Sugar 3xvj, all being in fine pouder ; mix and in- 
corporate with mucilage of Gum Tragacanth, made with 
Orange-flower water, of which Past make Lozenges each 
weighing 5J. They kill all Worms in the Stomach and 
Bowels, and you may give one or two of the lozenges at a 
time to a Child in the Morning fasting, but some suppose 
that the best time is the last three days of the Moon.' 

The Measles were simply treated — the patient only had 
a draught to soothe any cough, * Let the sick keep their bed 
two days after the first coming forth of the spots.* ^ 

In teething, a child should be soothed every four hours 
with a spoonful of black cherry water, in which two, three, 
or four drops of Spirits of Hartshorn have been mixed.^ 

There is* *An experimented Remedy for the Rickets. 
Take roots of Smallage, ^arsly. Fennel, and Angelica Roots, 
slice and boil them in distilled water of Angelica, unset Hyssop 
and Coltsfoot, of each one part, till they are tender, then strain 
it, and boil it up to a syrup, with white Honey. Then take a 
stick of Liquorice, scrape it, and bruise one end of it, and give 
the Child with it of the syrup one spoonful in the Morning, at 
four of the Afternoon, and at night.* 

There was also advertised * A necklace that cures all sorts 
of Fits in children occasioned by Teeth or any other Cause ; 
as also all fits in Men and Women. To be had at Mr. 
Larance's in Somerset Court, near Northumberland House in 

' Collectanea Medica. 

» The Family PhysUian, by Geo. Ilartman. • Ibid, * Ibid, 

10 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

the Strand ; price icxr. for 8 days, though the cure will be 
performed immediately ;' and there was a palatable medium 
for the little ones in ' the so-much approved Purging Sugar 

Of the Nursery we know very little ; indeed children are 
very seldom mentioned. It is most likely that, in welUto-do 
families, they were relegated to the nursery, and the care of 


their mothers, until they were of fit age to go to school. The 
accompanying illustration, taken from ' The Ladies' Library-,' 
ed. 1714, by Steele, gives us an excellent view of the nur- 

The very babies were amused much as now — for Addison, 
Spectator No. i, speaking of his natural gravity, says, 'I 
threw away my rattle before I was two Months old, and 
would not make use of my Coral till they had taken away 
all the Bells from it' Some of these corals were very beau> 
tiful and costly, even being made of gold. 

We know how, from the earliest ages, a doll has been the 
favourite toy with girls, and the reign of ' Good Queen Anne ' 
was no exception to the general rule 
— but they were not then called Dolls, 
but ' Babies ' ; so, indeed, were Powel's 
Marionettes — as also the milliner's , 
models. ' On Saturday last, being the 
1 2th instant, there arrived at my 
House in King Street, Covent Garden, 
a French Baby for the year 1712,' &c. 
Some were made of wax, but these 
were, of course, of the expensive sort, 
as must also have been those in Wi- 
dow Smith's raffle — ' large joynted 
dressed Babies.' Probably, dolls were 
the girls' only playthings. As to 
the boys, history records very little 
of their amusements. Give a boy in 
the nursery a whip, or a stick, to beat 
somebody,or something, he generally 
is content. How superlatively happy, however, must he have 
been in the possession of one of these wonderful horses .' — 
warranted chargers — troop horses, every one ! They also 
had card-board windmills on the end of sticks. We hear 
nothing of marbles, tops, or any other toys ; but, doubtless, 
children's ingenuity supplied any defects that way, then as 
now, and made shift to play, and amuse themselves, until 
the time of enfranchisement came, and the boy could wander 
in the streets and see the marvels of the raree show, and 

12 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

buy 'hot baked wardens— hot,' or some of old 'Colly Molly 
Puffe's ' pastry — or, should his tastes be simpler, there were 
' Ripe Strawberries," or ' Sixpence a pound fair Cherryes,' 

These little folk, however, had their special literature. 
For there was compiled and printed 'A Play book for Chil- 
dren, to allure them to read as soon as they can speak plain ; 
composed of small Pages so as not to tire children ; printed 
with a fair and pleasing Letter, the Matter and Method plainer 
and easier than any yet extant.' The price of this was four- 
pence, and it must have been a favourite, for it is advertised 
as being in its second edition in 
1703. Certainly, the little ones 
then, lacked many advantages in 
this way that ours possess - but, 
on the other hand, so much was 

not required of them. There was no dreaded 'Exam.' to 
prepare for — no doing lessons all day long, and then working 
hard at night to get ready for the next day''s toil. They 
were not taught half a dozen languages, and all the olo- 
gies, whilst still in the nursery ; but, were the suggestions 
and advice given to ' the Mother ' in Steele's ' Lady's 
Library ' thoroughly carried out, they would grow up good 
men and women. 

The boys, however, had strong meat provided for them in 
such tales as ' Jack and the Giants,' &c. Steele, in Tatler 


95, says, speaking of a little boy of eight years old, 'I 
perceived him a very great historian in " jEsop's Fables," but 
he frankly declared to me his mind " that he did not delight 
in that learning, because he did not believe they were true," 
for which reason I found he had very much turned his studies 
for about a twelvemonth past unto the lives and adventures 
of Don Bellianis of Greece, Guy of Wanvick, the Seven 

Champions, and other historians of that age He would 

tell you the mismanagements of John Hickerthrift, find fault 

with the passionate temper in Bcvis of Southampton, and 
loved Saint George for being the champion of England. . . . 
I was extolling his accomplishments, when his mother told 
mc that the little girl who led me in this morning was in 
her way a better scholar than he. " Betty," says she, "deals 
chiefly in Fairies and Sprights ; and sometimes in a winter 
night will terrify the maids with her accounts, until they are 
afraid to go up to bed." ' 

In all probability the child learned his letters in the 

14 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

first instance from a * Hornbook/ such as were then com- 
monly used and sold — as the following excerpt from an 
advertisement shows: 'Joseph Hazard at the Bible, in 
Stationers Court, near Ludgate, sells . . . Spelling books, 
Primers, HombookSy &c/ Hornbooks are now very scarce 
indeed, and the man lucky enough to possess a genuine one 
must feel proud of his rarity. It consisted of a small sheet 
of paper, generally about 4 in. x 3 in. or so — sometimes 
smaller — on which was printed the alphabet, both in capitals 
and small text, the vowels, and a few simple combinations, 
such as ab, eb, ib, ob, ab, — ba, be, bi, bo, bu, &c., and the 
Lord's Prayer. This was laid on a flat piece of board with a 
roughly shaped handle, and covered with a thin plate of horn, 
fastened to the board by copper tacks driven through an 
edging of thin copper. It therefore would stand a vast 
amount of rough usage before it would be destroyed — a fact 
of great importance in elementary education. 

Private tuition existed then as now. * A Grave Gentle- 
woman of about 50 years of age desires to be Governess to 
any Gentleman's Children ; she can give a very good account 
of herself,' and * Whereas in this degenerate Age Youth are 
kept for so many Years in following the Latin Tongue, and 
many of them are quite discourag'd, Mr. Switterda (who 
was formerly recommended to the late King William, and 
well known by their Excellences my Lord Sparkein and my 
Lord Methuen) offers a very easy and delightful Method, by 
which any Person of tolerable Capacity, who can but spare 
time to be twice a Week with him, and an Hour at a Time, 
nay, Children of ten Years of Age, may in one Year learn 
to speak Latin and French fluently, according to the Grammar 
rules, and to understand a Classical Author ; and if they are 
not compleat in that time, he will teach them without any 
farther Charge, provided they will be manag'd.' Another 
gentleman, living in Abchurch Lane, offered to do the same, 
and, moreover, * he oflereth to be bound to every one for the 
performance thereof, and to give a Month's trial.* 

But a Day School was the normal institution for a boy, 
although there were Boarding Schools. Judging by the 
advertisements, these must have been but few in the 


beginning of the reign, as they gradually become more 
numerous towards its close. A record of one or two will 
suffice to show what kind of education they gave. * At the 
upper end of Knights Bridge, near the Salutation, there is a 
Boarding School for young Gentlemen, where, besides French, 
are carefully taught, after the best English method, Latin, 
Greek, Writing, Arithmetic, Geography, &c.' And again, * At 
Lady Day next will be open'd a Boarding School for young 
Gentlemen at Kensington Gravel Pits, by Richard Johnson, 
A.M., author of the Grammatical Commentaries. . . . There 
will be taught also French, Writing, Arithmetick, and Mathe- 
maticks ; ' whilst another takes a wider range : * A boarding 
School will be open'd after Easter, at Chertsey ... for the 
Instruction of Youth in the English, French, Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew Tongues, besides Geography, History, Mathe- 
maticks. Writing, and Accompts ; to fit *em either for the 
University, Study of the Law, or other Business.' 

In London, too, were many free schools. There were 
Westminster, Merchant Taylors', Paul's, Greyfriars, Christ's 
Hospital, and St. Olave's, Southwark. There were three free 
schools in Westminster besides the Queen's School ; these 
were. Palmer's in Tuttlefields, Almery School, and Hill's 
School. Besides which were Lady Owen's School, Islington, 
and Bunhill School— and there were free schools in Cherry- 
tree Alley, Castle Street (Tennyson's), Great Queen Street, 
Parker's Lane, Church Entry, Old Jewry, Whitechapel, 
Ratcliffe, Foster Lane, Hoxton, St. Saviour's, Southwark, 
Plough Yard, Rotherhithe, and East Smithfield— and this 
probably is not an exhaustive list. 

Although French, High Dutch, and Italian were taught, 
it was a Classical age, and every gentleman was bound to 
be a fair, if not a good, classical scholar ; indeed, other 
branches of education were neglected for this, as Steele com- 
plains {Spectator, No. 147) that boys at school, 'When they 
are got into Latin, they are looked upon as above English, 
the reading of which is wholly neglected, or at least read 
to very little purpose.' Wc might look a long time now- 
a-days for an advertisement such as the following : * At 
Hogarth's Coffee House in St John's Gate, the mid-way 

i6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

between Smithfield Bars and Clerkenwel, there will meet every 
day at 4 o'clock some Learned Gentlemen who speak Latin 
readily, where any Gentleman that is either "Skilled in that 
Language, or desirous to perfect himself in speaking thereof, 
will be welcome. The Master of the House, in the. absence 
of others, being always ready to entertain gentlemen in the 
Latin Tongue.' It is much to be doubted if that literary 
society, the Urban Club, which till lately held its meetings 
at the same place, St. John's Gate, could do the same. 

L^t us glance at a few of the school books then in vogue. 
First of all is one of the immortal Cocker, * according to * whom, 
all correct calculations should be made. Although he had been 
long dead (since 1677), his works lived after him ; and there 
were also other works on Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, 
and the use of the Globes. (By the way, a pair of 9-in. diam. 
globes only cost a guinea.) There were Latin Dictionaries, 
Lilly's Latin Grammar, and an abridgment of it for the use 
of Blackheath School. There was that English Grammar 
which * Isaac Bickerstaff' (Steele) puffed up so: *That as 
grammar in general is on all hands allow'd the foun- 
dation of all arts and sciences, so it appears to me that this 
grammar of the English tongue has done that justice to our 
language which, 'till now, it never obtained ;' and there was * A 
Guide to the English Tongue, by Thos. Dyche, schoolmaster 
in London,' the second edition of which was published in 1710, 
but which has been so popular that a revised edition of it was 
published as late as 18 16; and there were any quantity of 
books on writing — notably the * Paul's Scholar's Copy Book, 
by John Rayner,' immortalised in Tatler 138. The writing 
of the age was very good — and many are the specimens of 
elaborate caligraphy in the * Bagford Collection * : for unassum- 
ing and yet good writing, perhaps, however, the best are in 
Harl. MS. 5995, 211, &c. In the eighteenth century penman- 
ship was held in higher estimation than now, and in 1763 W. 
Massey published * The Origin and Progress of Letters,' in 
which he gave the lives of the most famous writing masters 
during the preceding hundred years. He mentions some half- 

' UarL MSS,, British Museum. 


dozen or more, as living in Anne's reign, but Charles Snell 
seems to have been the most famous. 

As may be supposed, when so much pains was taken in 
writing, there were many curiosities of caligraphic art. Here 
is one: *A piece of close Knotting, viz. 2 Boys holding 
Circles in their Hands, either being less than a Silver Penny, 
in which are perspicuously wrote the Lords Prayer in Latin 
and English. Invented- and performed by John Dundas (who 
will shortly publish a Copy book with about 50 new Fancies). 
. . . N.B. Any Gentleman or Lady that desires small Writing 
for a Ring, Locket, or other Curiosity, may be furnished by 
the Author.' 

That pens other than quill were in use is evidenced by 
an advertisement re a lost pocket-book, which contained 

* a Brass Pen.' 

Stenography was practised somewhat extensively, to 
judge by the numerous advertisements ; but William Mason, 
living at the Hand and Pen, in the Poultry, claimed to be 

* the Author and Teacher of the shortest Shorthand extant* 

And yet, with all these scholastic advantages, some boys 
would not be happy ; but, as boys have done ever since 
boarding schools have been invented, they sometimes ran 
away. Vide the following advertisements : * A Gentleman's 
only Child is run from School ; he is about 12 years of Age, 
with light Cloaths lin'd with red, a well favour'd brisk Boy, 
with a fair old Wig : speaks a little thro* the Scots, his Name 
Alex Mackdonald : he has been in Spain and Portugal, 
which makes his Parents fear that some Ship may entertain 
him.' Whoever captured this lad was to be * sufficiently 
rewarded,' whilst the next runaway was only valued at * half 
a guinea and charges,' although he was dressed so smartly : 

* A little slim, fair hair'd handsome English Boy, who speaks 
French very well, between 1 1 and 12 Years of Age, with a sad 
colour, coarse Kersay Coat trim'd with flat new Gilded Brass 
Buttons, with a whitish Calla-manca Waistcoat with round 
Plate Silver Buttons, and a little Silver Edging to his Hat, 
with fine white Worsted rowl'd Stockings, and with Silver Plate 
Buttons to his sad colour Sagathy Stuff Britches : went away 
from School on Thursday, the 6th Inst. Supposed to be gone 

VOL. I. ^ 

1 8 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

towards Wapping, Rotherif, Greenwich, or Gravesend, he 
having been seen near the Thames Side asking for a Master 
to go to sea.' Curious how, in every century since Elizabeth's 
time, the runaway English boy naturally flies to the v;ater. 
Always the same tale : ran away and went to sea. Here 
were two well-nurtured lads, more than ordinarily accom- 
plished, yet they were bitten by this same tarantula. 

Let the Spectator describe the rising generation of that 
time after they had finished their academic career and had 
gone to the university. In No. 54, attributed to Steele, 
speaking of Cambridge, he says, * Now for their manner of 
living : and here I shall have a large field to expatiate in ; 
but I shall reserve particulars for my intended discourse, and 
now only mention one or two of their principal exercises. 
The elder proficients employ themselves in inspecting mores 
homimim multonim, in getting acquainted with all the signs 
and windows in the town. Some have arrived to so great 
knowledge, that they can tell every time a butcher kills a 
calf, every time any old woman's cat is in the straw ; and a 
thousand matters as important One ancient philosopher 
contemplates two or three hours every day over a sun-dial ; 
and is true to the dial. 

As the dial to the sun, 
Although it be not shone upon. 

Our younger students are content to carry their speculation 
as yet no further than bowling greens, billiard tables, and 
such like places.' 

Of the reading men, he says, *They were ever looked 
upon as a people that impaired themselves more by their 
strict application to the rules of their order than any other 
students whatever. Others seldom hurt themselves any 
further than to gain weak eyes, and sometimes headaches ; 
but these philosophers are seized all over with a general 
inability, indolence, and weariness, and a certain impatience of 
the place they are in, with an heaviness in removing to another. 

* The loungers are satisfied with being merely part of the 
number of mankind, without distinguishing themselves from 
amongst them. They may be said rather to suffer their time 


to pass than to spend it, without regard to the past or prospect 
of the future. All they know of life is only in the present 
instant, and do not taste even that. When one of this order 
happens to be a man of fortune, the expense of his time is 
transferred to his coach and horses, and his life is to be 
measured by their motion, not his own enjoyments or sufferings. 
The chief entertainment one of these philosophers can possibly 
propose to himself is to get a relish of dress. This, methinks, 
might diversify the person he is weary of, his own dear self, 
to himself. I have known these two amusements make one of 
these philosophers make a tolerable figure in the world ; with 
variety of dresses in public assemblies in town, and quick 
motion of his horses out of it, now to Bath, now to Tunbridge, 
then to Newmarket, and then to London, he has, in process 
of time, brought it to pass, that his coach and his horses have 
been mentioned in all these places.' And this description, 
with a little alteration, would pass as a fair reflex of modern 
undergraduate existence at either Oxford or Cambridge. 

Before closing the question of male education, we must 
not forget that in Queen Anne's time was inaugurated that 
system of charity schools which has played so prominent a 
part in our national system of education, and which has not 
yet been superseded by our Board Schools. Steele {Spec- 
tator^ 380) notices this movement — 

*St. Bride's, May 15, 17 12. 
* Sir,— Tis a great deal of Pleasure to me, and I dare say 
will be no less Satisfaction to you, that I have an Opportunity 
of informing you that the Gentlemen and others of the Parish 
of St. Brides have raised a Charity School of fifty Girls as 
before of fifty Boys. You were so kind to recommend the 
Boys to the Charitable World, and the other Sex hope you will 
do them the same Favour in Fridays Spectator for Sunday 
next, when they are to appear with their humble Airs at the 
Parish Church of St. Brides. Sir, the Mention of this may 
possibly be serviceable to the Children ; and sure no one will 
omit a good Action attended with no expence. 

* I am. Sir, 

* Your very humble Servant, 

'The Sexton.' 

C 2 

20 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

At the public thanksgiving for peace in 17 13,' the charity 
children were placed in rising rows of seats in the Strand to 
see the procession pass, and the Queen go to St. Paul's to 
return thanks — and bitter must have been the disappointment 
of the little ones a^t the Queen's absence, on account of illness. 

A contemporary account of this festival says : * Upon the 
Thanksgiving day for the Peace, about Four Thousand Charity 
Children (Boys and Girls), new Cloath'd, were placed upon a 
Machine in the Strand, which was in Leogth above 600 Foot, 
and had in Bredth Eight Ranges of seats one above another, 
whereby all the Children appeared in full View of both Houses 
of Parliament, in the solemn Procession they made to St. 
Paul's upon that joyful Occasion, and who, by their singing 
Hymns of Prayer and Praise to God for her Majesty, as well 
as by their Appearance, contributed very much to adorn so 
welcome a Festival ; and gave great Satisfaction to all the Spec- 
tators, not without some Surprize to Foreigners who never had 
beheld such a glorious Sight. The Trustees of the several 
Charity Schools in and about London and Westminster readily 
agreed upon Measures for placing the Children in the expected 
View of Her Majesty, as a Testimony of their great Duty and 
humble Thankfulness to Her Majesty for the particular Coun- 
tenance and Encouragement Her Majesty hath always vouch- 
safed to give to the Charity Schools,^ whereby She may be 
truly stiled their Patron and Protector. Her Majesty not 
being present, the Hymns were both sung and repeated during 
the whole Procession, which lasted near Three Hours ; and for 
the Satisfaction and Entertainment of the Publick they are 
printed as follows : — 

* Hymns to be sung by the Charity Children upon the 7th of 
July, 171 3, being the Thanksgiving Day for the PEACE. 

» There is a very large and beautiful engraving of this scene, from which are 
taken the illustrations of carriages, post. 

* The Queen recommended the design of charity schools to the Archbishops of 
Canterbury and York, in a letter dated August 20, 171 1 : 'And forasmucft as 
the pious Instruction and Education of Children is the surest Way of preserving 
and propagating the Knowledge and Practice of true Religion, it hath been very 
accepuble to US to hear, that for the Attaining these gocS Ends, many Charity 
Schools are now Erected throughout the Kingdom, by the liberal Contributions of 
OUR Good subjects ; WE do therefore earnestly recommend it to you, by all proper 


•As Her MAJESTY goes to St Paul's— 

Lord give the QUEEN Thy saving Health, 

Whose Hope on Thee depends : 
Grant Her Increase of Fame and Wealth, 
With Bliss that never ends ! 
Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah ! 
Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah, Allelujah ! 

For Her our fervent Vows aspire, 

Our Praises are Address'd ; 
Thou hast fulfilPd Her Heart's Desire 

And granted Her Request. 
Allelujah, &c. 

A Nursing Mother to Thy Fold, 

Long, long may She remain, 
And then with Joy Thy Face behold. 

And with Thee ever Reign. 
Allelujah, &c. 

As Her MAJESTY returns from St. Paul's— 

Glory to GOD who Reigns on High, 

W^hom Saints and Angels praise ; 
Who from His Throne above the Sky, 

The Sons of Men surveys. 
Allelujah, &c. 

PEACE, His best Gift, to Earth's returned. 

Long may it here remain \ 
As we too long its Absence moum'd, 

Nor sigh'd to Heav'n in vain. 
Allelujah, &c. 

Good Will, Fair Friendship (Heavenly Guest !) 

And Joy and Holy Love, 
Make all Mankind completely bless'd, 

Resembling Those above. 
Allelujah, &c. 

Ways, to encourage and promote so excellent a Work, and to countenance and 
assist the Persons principally concerned in it, as they shall always be sure of Our 
Protection and Favour.' 

22 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 




Boarding schools— Town and country educations — Pastry school 
Dancing — Toasts — * The little Whig ' — Madame Spanheim. 

Girls were not all educated at home — though, doubtless, 
the majority of them were, with the exception of their 
dancing lessons— but had boarding schools of their own ; 
and the schoolmistresses seem always to have been harassed 
by malicious reports. For instance : * Whereas it is reported 
that Mrs. Ovcring who keeps a Boarding School at Bethnal 
Green near Hackney, is leaving off; this is to give Notice that 
the said Report is false, if not Malicious. And that she con- 
tinues to take sober young Gentlewomen to board, and teaches 
whatsoever is necessary to the Accomplishment of that Sex.' 
Take another : * Mrs. Elizabeth Tutchin* continues to keep her 
School at Highgate, notwithstanding Reports to the contrary. 
Where young Gentlewomen may be soberly Educated, and 
taught all sorts of Learning fit for young Gentlewomen.' 
Observe the stress that was then laid on the sobriety in- 
culcated in these establishments. Read the plays — read the 
essays of the time — and then, if they are to be taken at all 
as a just standard of feminine conduct, you will, undoubtedly, 
come to the conclusion that sobriety of conduct was just the 
very quality that required instilling into the heads of the 
maidenhood of the time. Pert little hoydens— ogling the 
men, flirting their fans, their thoughts always running on a 
husband — the schoolmistresses of that time must have had 
hard work to keep them serious, and need of most dragon- 

* She was sister of Tutchin, of the Observaior, 


like guardianship. They were not taught much, these girls ; 
* the Needle, Dancing, and the French Tongue,' says one — * a 
little Music, on the Harpsichord, or Spinet, to read, write, and 
cast accounts in a small way ' — this was the sum of their 
education. Essentially were they to be housekeepers. Here 
is the description an exceptionally accomplished young lady 
gives of her own education : * * You know my father was a 
tradesman, and lived very well by his traffick ; and I, being 
beautiful, he thought nature had already given me part of my 
portion, and therefore he would add a liberal education, that 
I might be a complete gentlewoman ; away he sent me to the 
boarding school ; there I learned to dance and sing, to play 
on the bass viol, virginals, spinet, and guitar. I learned to 
make wax worl^, japan, paint upon glass, to raise paste, make 
sweetmeats, sauces, and everything that was genteel and 
fashionable.* Here we see the best obtainable education of 
the town-bred lady. What was a girl's education in the 
country like ? ' 

Pn'scilla. Did she not bestow good breeding upon you there ? 

Eugenia, Breeding ! what, to learn to feed Ducklings, and cram 
Chickens ? 

Clara. To see Cows milk'd, learn to Chum, and make Cheese 1 

Eugen. To make Clouted cream, and whipt Sillabubs } 

Clara, To make a Caraway Cake and raise Py Crust 1 

Eugen. And to learn the top of your skill in Syrrup, Sweetmeats, Aqua 
mirabilis^ and Snayl water. 

Clara. Or your great Cunning in Cheese cakes, several Creams and 
Almond butter. 

Prise. Ay, ay, and 'twere better for all the Gentlemen in England that 
Wives had no other breeding, but you had Musick and Dancing. 

Eugen. Yes, an ignorant, illiterate, hopping Puppy, that rides his 
Dancing Circuit thirty Miles about, lights off his tyred Steed, draws his 
Kit ' at a poor Country Creature, and gives her a Hich in her Pace, that 
she shall never recover. 

Clara. And for Musick an old hoarse singing man riding ten miles 
from his Cathedral to Quaver out the Glories of our Birth and State, or 
it may be a Scotch Song more hideous and barbarous than an Irish 

Eug. And another Musick Master from the next town to Teach one to 

* The Levellers^ a dialogue between two young ladies concerning matrimony, &c. 
' The Scowreis^ by Shad well. * A pocket violin. 

24 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

twinkle out Lilly burlero ^ upon an old pair of Virginals, that sound worse 
than a Tinker's Kettle that he cries his work on. 

We saw that even the accomplished town young lady was 
taught how to raise paste, &c. ; indeed that was a regular 
branch of a girl's education, and all housewifely gifts were 
thoroughly appreciated. 

Niece. Good madam, don't upbraid me with my Mother Bridget^ 
and an excellent housewife. 

Aunt Yes, I say, she was, and spent her time in better Learning than 
ever you did. Not in reading of Fights and Battels of Dwarfs and Giants ; 
but in writing out receipts for Broths, Possets, Caudles and Surfeit Waters, 
as became a good Country Gentlewoman.* 

But, if girls could not learn pastry-making at home, or 
wanted a higher class of education therein, there were the 
forerunners of our * Schools of Cookery ' in the shape of 
* Pastry Schools,' where the professor demonstrated. Here is 
one of them. * To all Young Ladies at Edw. Kidder's Pastr>' 
School in little Lincoln's Inn Fields, are taught all Sorts of 
Pastry and Cookery, Dutch hollow works, and Butter Works, 
on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays in the Afternoon, 
and on the same days, in the Morning, at his School in Norris 
Street in St. James's Market, and at his School in St Martin's 
Le Grand, on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday in the 
Afternoon. And at his School at St. Mary Overies Dock, 
Mondays Tuesdays and Wednesday mornings from 9 to 12.* 

But one branch of a girl's education seems never to have 
been neglected — her dancing. Steele says,-"* * When a girl is 
safely brought from her nurse, before she is capable of form- 
ing one simple notion of anything in life, she is delivered to 
the hands of her dancing master, and with a collar round her 
neck, the pretty wild thing is taught a fantastical gravity of 
behaviour, and forced to a particular way of holding her 
head, heaving her breast, and moving with her whole body ; 

* See Appendix. * Lilli burlero ' and * Bullen a lah ' are said to have been 
the watchwords used by the Irish Papists in their massacre of the Protestants in 
1641. The ballad to this tune was written in 1686, when James 1 1, made the 
Earl of Tyrconnel, a bigoted papist, Lieutenant of Ireland. The words are 
nonsensical, but the tunc is catchiiig, and became very popular. This song is 
said to have contributed greatly in bringing about the Kevolution of 1688. 

» The Tender Ilmband (Steele). * Spectator, 66. 


and all this under pain of never having a husband, if she 
steps, looks or moves awry/ 

He gives a humorous description of the dancing master : ' 
* There was Colonel Jumper's Lady, a Colonel of the Train 
Bands, that has a greal Interest in her Parish ; she recom- 
mends Mr. Trott for the prettiest Master in Town, that no 
Man teaches a Jigg like him, that she has seen him rise Six 
or Seven Capers together with the greatest Ease imaginable, 
and that his Scholars twist themselves more ways than the 
Scholars of any Master in Town ; besides there is Madam 
Prim, the Alderman's Lady, recommends a Master of her Own 
Name, but she declares he is not of their Family, yet a very 
extraordinary Man in his Way ; for, besides a very soft Air he, 
has in Dancing, he gives them a particular Behaviour at a 
Tea-Table, and in presenting their Snuff Box : to twirl, flip or 
flirt a Fan, and how to place Patches to the best advantage, 
either for Fat or Lean, Long or Oval Faces.' 

Indeed, dancing was much thought of as an accomplish- 
ment, and more will be said of it in its place among the 
social habits of the time. One book alone, * The Dancing 
Master* for 1713, iSth ed., contains 358 different figures 
and tunes for country dances. It got to be a fine art, and 
books were written on * Chorography ' and * Orchcsography,' 
illustrated with wonderful and most perplexing diagrams. 
A contemporary sketch of a dancing academy is interesting. 
It is by Budgell.^ * I am a Man in Years, and by an honest 
Industry in the World have acquired enough to give my 
Children a liberal Education, tho' I was an utter Stranger 
to it myself. My eldest Daughter, a Girl of Sixteen, has for 
some time past been under the Tuition of Monsieur Rigadoon^ 
a Dancing Master in the City ; and I was prevailed upon by 
her and her Mother to go last Night to one of his Balls. I 
must own to you. Sir, that having never been at any such 
Place before, I was very much pleased and surprized with 
that Part of his Entertainment which he called French Dancing, 
There were several young Men and Women, whose limbs 
seemed to have no other Motion but purely what the Musick 
gave them. After this Part was over, they began a Diversion 

> spectator, 376. « Ibid. 67. 

26 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

which they call Country Dancings and wherein there were 
also some things not disagreeable, and divers Emblematical 
Figures, composed, as I guess, by Wise Men for the Instruction 
of Youth. 

* Amongst the rest, I observed one, which I think they call* 
Hunt the Squirrel, in which while the Woman flies, the Man 
pursues her ; but as soon as she turns, he runs away, and she 
is obliged to follow. 

* The Moral of this Dance does, I think, very aptly recom- 
mend Modesty and Discretion to the Female Sex. 

* But as the best Institutions are liable to Corruptions, so, 
Sir, I must acquaint you, that very great Abuses are crept into 
this Entertainment. I was Amazed to see my Girl handed by, 
and handing young Fellows with so much Familiarity ; and I 
could not have thought it had been in the Child. They very 
often made use of a most impudent and lascivious Step called 
Setting, which I know not how to describe to you, but by 
telling you that it is the very reverse of Back to Back, At 
last an impudent young Dog bid the Fiddlers play a Dance 
called Mot Patley^ and after having made two or three Capers, 
ran to his Partner, locked his Arms in hers, and whisked her 
round Cleverly above Ground in such manner that I, who sat 
upon one of tl e lowest Benches, saw further above her Shoe 
than I can think fit to acquaint you with. I could no longer 
endure these Enormities ; wherefore, just as my Girl was going 
to be made a Whirligig, I ran in, seized on the Child, and 
carried her home.' 

Poor Budgell ! what would have been his feelings could 
he have but seen a galop, or a valse d deux temps } 

We may now consider the girl's education complete, and, 
as she may be * sweet seventeen ' or so, she naturally would 
be, if either pretty or witty, * a TOAST' among her male 
friends. This peculiar institution has its rise in Queen 
Anne's time, and is aptly described ^ as * a new name found 
out by the Wits, to make a lady have the same effect, as 
burridgc in the glass when a man is drinking.' Pope, even, 
could hardly make it out. 

* See Appendix. • See Appendix. ■ Tatler^ 31, 


Say why are beauties prais'd and honoured most, 
The wise man's passion, and the vain man's toast ? 
Why deck'd with all that land and sea afford, 
Why angels call'd, and angel-like adored ? 

It was an old English custom to put a toast, a roasted 
pippin or so, in a hot drink, such as a tankard of spiced ale, 
or of sack ; and this is whimsically applied as the derivation 
of the word used to express the slavish adulation and worship 
of the fair sex, as embodied in this custom. ^ * Many of the 
Wits of the last age will assert that the word, in its present 
sense, was known among them in their youth, and had its 
rise from an accident at the town of Bath, in the reign of 
Charles the Second. It happened that, on a public day, a 
celebrated beauty of those times was in the Cross Bath, and 
one of the crowd of her admirers took a glass of the water in 
which the fair one stood and drank her health to the Com- 
pany. There was in the place a gay fellow half fuddled, who 
offered to jump in, and swore, though he liked not the liquor, 
he would have the Toast. He was opposed in his resolution ; 
yet this whim gave foundation to the present honour which is 
done to the lady we mention in our liquors, who has ever 
since been called a TOAST. Though this institution had so 
trivial a beginning, it is now elevated into a formal order ; 
and that happy virgin, who is received and drunk to at their 
meetings, has no more to do in this life but to judge and 
accept of the first good offer. The manner of her inaugura- 
tion is much like that of the choice of a Doge in Venice : it is 
performed by balloting ; and when she is so chosen, she reigns 
indisputably for that ensuing year ; but must be re-elected 
anew to prolong her empire a moment beyond it. When she 
is regularly chosen, her name is written with a diamond on a 
drinking glass. The hieroglyphic of the diamond is to shew 
her that her value is imaginary ; and that of the glass to 
acquaint her, that her condition is frail, and depends on the 
hand which holds her.* Many of the members of the * Kit 
Cat Club ' — Lords Halifax, Wharton, Lansdowne, and Carbury, 
Mr. Maynwaring and others — thus immortalised their Toasts. 

» Tatler, 24. 

28 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

One, by Lord Lansdowne, will amply serve as an illus- 
tration — 

Love is enjoyn'd to make his favourite toast, 
And HARE'S the goddess that delights him most. 

There were two very famous toasts in Queen Anne's 
time ; one in particular was Lady Sunderland, a daughter of 
the Duke of Marlborough, who was known by the sobriquet 
of * The Little Whig/ She was the toast of her party, and 
her nickname was so well known that it is said the first 
stone of Sir John Vanbrugh's theatre in the Haymarket had 
' Little Whig ' cut upon it. The other was Mademoiselle 
Spanheim, the daughter of Baron Spanheim, Ambassador 
Extraordinary from the Court of Prussia. She was very 
lovely ; indeed, her good looks were proverbial, as the current 
expression, * as beautiful aj Madam Spanheim,' shows. She 
was married early in the year 1710 to the Marquis de Mont- 
andre. Her father died here in November of the same year, 
aged 81 ; and the Queen presented the Marchioness de Mont- 
andre with a thousand guineas, which was the usual present 
then given to an ambassador on taking his leave. 




Eloping with heiresses — Marriage between children — Tax on bachelors — 
Valentines — Marriage settlements — Pin money — Posies — Drummers 
— Private marriages — Irregular marriages— Fleet parsons— Marriage 
Act — Facility of marriage— Liability of husbands — Public marriages 
— Marriage customs— Bride's garters— Throwing the stocking — The 
posset — H oney moon. 

We will suppose our toast to escape the perils to which her 
position exposed her, and was not forcibly carried off by some 
bold knight, as had been known in this reign ^ — * Same 
evening Sir Alexander Gumming, Knight of the Shire for 
Aberdeen, carried off from the Ring in Hyde Park madam 
Dennis and married her ; she is said to be worth about 
;£'i6,ooo.' Probably his position stood him in good stead, for it 
fared differently with one Haagen Swendsen,' who was, in 1702, 
convicted and executed for stealing Mrs. Rawlins, an heiress. 
Nowadays, he would have been unhesitatingly acquitted, 
even if he had ever been prosecuted, as there was no real 
case against him, and Mrs. Rawlins married him of her own 
free will. 

That people could be married young enough is rendered 
sufficiently evident by the very painful case of Sir George 
Downing and Mary Forester, which excited much interest in 
the last year of Anne's reign. It is very lucidly put as a case 
for counsel's opinion.' 

*The Case. 

* I. G. D. without the Knowledge and Consent of his 
Father (then alive, but accounted not of sound Judgment) 
was at the Age of Fifteen, by the Procurement and Persuasion 

' LuttrelPs Diary, Sept. 12, 1 710. « British Museum, 515, I. 2, 196. 

• The Counseihr's Plea for the Divorce 0/ Sir G. D, an J Mrj, A., 1 7 15. 

30 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

of those in whose Keeping he was, Marry'd, according to the 
Church form, to M. F. of the Age of Thirteen. 

* 2. This young Couple was put to Bed, in the Day time, 
according to Custom, and continued there a little while, but in 
the Presence of the Company, who all testify they touched not 
one the other ; and after that, they came together no more ; 
— the young Gentleman going immediately Abroad, the young 
Woman continuing with her Parents. 

* 3. G. D., after Three or Four Years Travel, returned home 
to England, and being sollicited to live with his lawful Wife, 
refused it, and frequently and publickly declared he never 
would compleat the Marriage. 

* 4. Fourteen Years have pass'd since this Marriage Cere- 
mony was performed, each Party having (as is natural to 
think) contracted an incurable Aversion to each the other, is 
very desirous to be set at liberty ; and accordingly Applica- 
tion is made to the Legislative power to dissolve this Marriage, 
and to give each Party leave, if they think fit, to Marry 


* The Reasons against such Dissolution are : — 

* First, That each Party was Consenting to the Marriage, 

and was Old enough to give such Consent, according to 
the known Laws of the Kingdom ; the Male being 
Fifteen Years Old, the Female Thirteen ; whereas the 
Years of Consent are, by Law, Fourteen and Twelve. 

* Secondly. They were actually Marry*d according to the 

Form prescrib'd by the Church of England ; the 
Minister pronouncing those solemn Words us'd by our 
Saviour, Those whom God has joyn^d let no Man put 
asunder. They are therefore Man and Wife both by 
the Laws of God and of the Land ; and, since nothing 
but Adultery can dissolve a Marriage, and no Adultery 
is pretended here, the Marriage continues indissoluble.' 

And, in the course of some very able pleading, the author 
says, * My Lords, the Years of Consent are not fix'd to Four- 
teen or Twelve either by Nature^ Reason^ or any Law of God \ 
but purely and meerly by the positive Laws of the Land, which 


may change them to Morrow;' and if they were chang'd 
to Day, no Man in England would, I dare affirm it, be dis- 
satisfy'd ; it seems so senseless and unreasonable to give our 
Children the Power of disposing of their Persons for ever, at 
an Age when we will not let them dispose of Five Shillings 
without Direction and Advice.* 

However, no pleading could prevail against the actual 
law, and this singularly married couple remained, legally, 
man and wife. 

In 1690 there was a pamphlet issued by * A Person of 
Quality,'* advocating a tax on bachelors, and on April 22, 
1695, William III. gave his assent to an Act intituled *An 
Act for granting his Majesty certain Rates and Duties upon 
Marriages, Births, and Burials, and upon Batchelors and 
Widowers for the term of five years, for carrying on the 
War with Vigour.' 







For the Burial of every person 

of a Duke (above the 4^.) 
of a Marquess, &c. &c., in proportion, 
of every person having a real estate 
;^50 per annum or upwards, or a 
personal estate of ;^6oo or up- 
wards 100 

^ of the Wife of such person having 

such estate 0100 

For and upon the Birth of every person and Child, 

except the children of those who receive Alms .020 
For and upon the birth of the eldest son of a Duke 30 o o 

„ of a Marquess and so forth. 

Upon the Marriage of every person . . .026 

of a Duke . . . . 50 o o 
„ Marquess . . . . 40 o o 
„ Earl . . . . . 30 o o 
and so forth. 
Bachelors above 25 years old, yearly . . .010 

' But it never has been changed, and is now in force. 
• Marriage PromoUd^ &c. 

32 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN AXXE, 

£ J. d. 
Widowers above 25 years old, yearly . . .010 

A Duke being Bachelor or Widower, yearly . . 12 10 o 

A Marquess „ „ ,. . . 10 o o 

By the Act 8 & 9 Will. III., 'For making good the 
Deficiencies of Several P'unds therein mentioned/ these taxes 
were kept on, and were to be paid until Aug. i, 1706, so that 
they were in force during four years of Anne's reign. 

In a most amusing tract* this Act is alluded to as a law 
discouraging marriage, and proposes to make bachelors of 24 
and widowers of 50 pay 20s. per annum, and estimates that a 
revenue of 2\ millions sterling would accrue. 

There was every freedom of intercourse allowed between 
the young of both sexes : they visited, and we have seen 
that they mixed in the dancing academies. There was also 
the custom of valentines, now become obsolete and unmean- 
ing. Misson describes it well, as indeed he did cver>*thing he 
saw in England. * On the Eve of the 14th of Feb., St. Valen- 
tine's Day, a Time when all living Nature inclines to couple, the 
Young Folks in England, and Scotland too, by a very ancient 
Custom, celebrate a little Festival that tends to the same End. 
An equal Number of Maids and Batchelors get together, each 
writes their true or some feign'd Name upon separate Billets, 
which they Roll up, and draw by way of Lots, the Maids taking 
the Men's Billets, and the Men the Maids ; so that each of the 
Young Men lights upon a Girl that he calls his Valentine, 
and each of the Girls upon a young Man which she calls hers : 
By this means each has two Valentines ; but the Man sticks 
faster to the Valentine that is fallen to him, than to the Valen- 
tine to whom he is fallen. Fortune having thus divided the 
Company into so many Couples, the Valentines give Balls and 
Treats to their Mistresses, wear their Billets several Days upon 
their Bosoms or Sleeves, and this little Sport often ends in Love. 
There is another kind of Valentine ; which is the first young 
Man or Woman that Chance throws in your Way in the Street, 
or elsewhere, on that Day.' 

The whole of the literature of the day speaks of the ten- 

' The Levellers, 


dency of young men to avoid the trammels of matrimony. 
Most probably the wild blood engendered in Charles the 
Second's time had not yet cooled down, and the licence then 
habitual, had hardly been superseded by decorum ; but there 
were other causes, one of which was the introduction of mar- i 
riage settlements. These were comparatively new. Steele 
calls attention to it :^ * Honest Coupler, the Conveyancer, says 
" He can distinguish, upon sight of the parties before they 
have opened upon any point of their business, which of the 
two has the daughter to sell." Coupler is of our Club, artd I 
have frequently heard him declaim upon this subject, and 
assert " that the Marriage Settlements, which are now used, 
have grown fashionable even within his memory." ' 

When the theatre, in some late reigns, owed its chief 
support to those scenes which were written to put matrimony 
out of countenance, and render that state terrible, then it was 
that pin money first prevailed ; and all the other articles were 
inserted, which create a diffidence, and intimate to the young 
people that they are very soon to be in a state of war with 
each other ; though this has seldom happened, except the 
fear of it had been expressed. Coupler will tell you also 
• that jointures were never frequent until the age before his 
own ; but the women were contented with the third part of 
the estate the law allotted them, and scorn'd to engage with 
men whom they thought capable of abusing their Children.' He 
has also informed me * that those who are the oldest Benchers 
when he came to the Temple told him, the first Marriage 
Settlement of considerable length v/as the invention of an old 
Serjeant, who took the opportunity of two testy fathers, who 
were ever squabbling, to bring about an alliance between 
their Children. These fellows knew each other to be knaves, 
and the Serjeant took hold of their mutual diffidence, for the 
benefit of the Law, to extend the Settlement to three ski?is 
of parchment' This was undoubtedly the substance of a 
genuine conversation with a lawyer, and is further referred 
to in a subsequent paper. Nor did Steele like pin money : 
he not only disclaims against it in his essays, but in his 
dramatic works — in * The Tender Husband,' where two fathers 

» The Tatlcr, 199. 
VOL. I, D 

34 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

are squabbling over settlements. One, Sir Harry Gubbin, 
says — 

Look /, Mr. Tipkin, the main Article with me is that Foundation of 
Wives Rebellion — that cursed Pin Money — Five hundred Pounds per 
annum Pin Mony. 

Tipkin, The Word Pin Money, Sir Harry, is a Term 

Sir H. It is a Term, Brother, we never had in our Family, nor ever 
will. Make her Jointure in Widowhood accordingly large, but Four 
hundred Pounds a Year is enough to give no account of. 

Tipkin, Well, Sir Harry, since you can't swallow these Pins, I will 
abate to Four Hundred Pounds. 

Sir H, And to Mollifie the Article, as wpII as Specifie the Uses, we'll 
put in the Names of several Female Utensils, as Needles, Knitting 
Needles, Tape, Thread, Scissors, Bodkins, Fans, Playbooks, with other 
Toys of that Nature. 

Addison, too, must needs have a fling at it, and wrote a 
whole essay on pin money,* and, in a letter therein, gives a 
doleful case. * The education of these my Children, who, 
contrary to my expectation, are bom to me every Year, 
straightens me so much that I have begged their Mother to 
free me from the Obligation of the above mentioned Pin 
Money, that it may go towards making a Provision for her 
family. This Proposal makes her Noble Blood swell in her 
Veins, insomuch, that finding me a little tardy in her last 
Quarterns Payment, she threatens every Day to arrest me : and 
proceeds so far as to tell me, that if I do not do her Justice, I 
shall die in a Jayl. To this she adds, when her Passion will 
let her argue calmly, that she has several Play Debts on her 
Hand, which must be discharged very suddenly, and that she 
cannot lose her Money as becomes a Woman of her Fashion, 
if she makes me any Abatements in this Article.' 

Supposing the vexed question of settlements or no settle- 
ments disposed of, a thing of primary importance before 
marriage was to provide the ring, and that, according to the 
custom of the day, must have a posy on it* * He has likewise 
promised me to get the measure of his Mistress's marriage 
finger, with a design to make a posy in the fashion of a ring 
which shall exactly fit it' The posy was mostly a couplet — 
and as not much sentiment or poetry can be compressed into 

> Sp€ctcUor, 295. « 3id, 59. 


two lines, the posies, as far as we can judge, are not very 
brilliant efforts of genius. The appended examples are all 
genuine of the time, as they are taken from the newspaper 
advertisements of things lost 

Two made one God's Providence God decreed 

By God alone. Is our Inheritance. Our Unity. 

This in Love Vertuous love 

Join our Hearts Will never remove. 

To God Above. 

And now a word or two as to the Marriages of those times, 
and one is fairly surprised at the very little fuss that was 
generally made about it. On the Stage, a clergyman coupled 
the pair presently, or the young people just left the room and 
came back in a few minutes, duly married. And this really 
was somewhat like real life, and not a travesty. * Aunt, 
Aunt, run for Doctor Dromedary, and let us be Married before 
the Sun reposes,' * was a not unnatural request for a young 
lady to make. A custom had grown up to avoid the noise 
and riot of a public wedding, which, besides, was very expen- 
sive — open house being but a small part of it ; so it used to be, 
that the young people would get married with just suflRcient 
legal witness, and with the full consent of the parents. Even 
the middle class were glad to get rid of the noise of drums, 
etc (which still survives in the marrow bones and cleavers 
— the rough music of a lower-class wedding). 

Here Rows of Drummers stand in Martial File, 
And with their Vellom Thunder shake the Pile, 
To greet the new made Bride ; * 

and in one of Steele's Spectatois (364) is a letter commencing 
• I was marry 'd on Sunday last, and went peaceably to Bed ; 
but, to my Surprize, was awaken'd the next Morning by the 
Thunder of a Set of Drums/ For this noise the unfortunate 
bridegroom had to pay pretty smartly. 

These private marriages had their inconveniences, as 
the following advertisement ^ shows : ' Whereas, for several 

> Tunbridge Walks, by Thos. Baker, 1703. « Tnvia, by Gay. 

• Post Boy, May 24; 27, 171 2. 

D 2 

36 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Reasons, the Marriage of Mrs. Frances Herbert to Capt. 
James Price, Son to Brigadier Price of Ireland, was kept 
private for some time, which has occasioned some insolent 
People to censure her Virtue ; to prevent which Censures 
for the future, it is thought proper to give this Publick Notice 
that she was marry'd to the said Capt James Price on the 
1 8th Day of June last at the Parish Church of St Bennetts, 
Pauls Wharf, London, by License and before Witnesses.' 

Misson adverts to this custom of private marriage as being 
very common. * In England, a Boy may marry at fourteen 
Years old, and a Girl at twelve, in spight of Parents and 
Guardians, without any Possibility of dissolving their Mar- 
riage, tho' one be the Son of a Hog-driver, and the other a 
Duke's Daughter.^ This often produces very whimsical 
Matches. There is another thing in it odd enough ; for those 
Children by this means not only become their own Masters^ 
but obtain this Advantage at a very easy Rate. If to be 
marrj'-'d it were necessary to be proclaimed three Times in a 
full Congregation, their Friends would be inform'd of the 
Matter, and might find a Way to disswade a little Girl, that 
had taken it into her Head to have a Husband, by giving her 
fine Cloaths, pretty Babies, and every Thing else that might 
amuse her ; but the Wedding is clapp'd up so privately, that 
People are amaz'd to see Women brought to Bed of legitimate 
Children, without having heard a Word of the Father. The 
Law, indeed, requires that the Bans should be published ; but 
the strange Practice of a dispensing Power makes the Law of 
no Manner of Use. To proclaim Bans is a Thing no Body 
now cares to have done ; very few are willing to have their 
Affairs declar'd to all the World in a publick Place, when for 
a Guinea they may do it Siiug^ and without Noise ; and my 
good Friends the Clergy, who find their Accounts in it, are not 
very «ealous to prevent it. Thus, then, they buy what they 
call a Licence, and are marry'd in their Closets, in Presence of 
a couple of Friends, that serve for Witnesses ; and this ties them 
for ever : Nay, the Abuse is yet greater, for they may be marry 'd 
without a Licence in some Chappels, which have that Privi- 

* There was a law against marr>'ing the heiress of a noble family before the 
age of twenty-one years without the consent of her guardians. 


lege. . . . Hence comes the Matches between Footmen and 
young Ladies of Quah'ty, who you may be sure live no very 
easy Life together aftenvards : Hence, too, happen Poly- 
gamies, easily concealed, and too much practised.' 

Sometimes they were married at a tavern.* 'Whereas a 
Couple was marryed at the Ship Tavern without Temple Barr, 
London, in March, 1696. The Parson, or any other that was 
then Present, is desired to come or send to the Publisher of 
this Paper, and give an account of the said Marriage, and 
shall be satisfied for their charges of coming or sending, and 
loss of time.' 

The irregular marriages were a crying evil of the times — 
in spite of legislative efforts, to stop them. There was an 
Act passed, 6 and 7 Wm. HL cap. 7, sec. 52, for the better 
levying the 5.^. duty on licences, and imposing a penalty of 
100/. for marrying without one — and the 7 and 8 Wm. HI. cap. 
35 recites this Act, and says it was ineffectual, because the 
penalty of 100/. was not extended to every offence of the 
same parson — because the parsons employed poor and 
indigent ministers, without benefices, or settled habitations, 
and because many ministers, being in prison for debt or 
otherwise, married persons for lucre and gain. 

There have been certain churches and chapels '^ exempted 
from the visitation of the ordinary — and the ministers of 
such, usually married without licence or banns — and these 
were called * lawless churches.' In Anne's reign there was one 
famous one, St. James', Duke's Place, by Aldgata Another 
was Holy Trinity, Minories, which exercised the same 
privilege. The Savoy had not yet been much heard of, 
and they did a good business. In the former case, privilege 
was claimed, because the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens 
of London were lords of the manor and patrons of the 
church, and therefore set up an exemption from the juris- 
diction (in matters ecclesiastical) of the Bishop of London. 
In the latter, it was pleaded that the living was held direct 

' Postman^ August 28/31, 1 703. 

* Judging by the 8th and Qih Wm. III. cap. 26, which took away their pre- 
tended privileges, these were White Friars, the Savoy, Salisbury Court, Kam 
Alley, Mitre Court, Fuller's Rents, Baldwin's Gardens, Montague Close, the 
Minories, Mint and Clink or Dead Man's Place ; but there were many others. 

38 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

from the Crown, in whose gift it was, and that the minister 
held the same by an instrument of dotation, under the Great 
Seal of England, and that it was neither a rectory nor 
vicarage institutive. However, the arm of the ecclesiastical 
law did once reach Adam Elliott, rector of St. James', and on 
Feb. 17, 1686, he was suspended for three years, ab officio et 
beneficio, for having married, or having suffered persons to be 
married, at the said church, without banns or licence. He was, 
however, reinstituted on May 28, 1687, after having petitioned 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners ; but he began his old trade 
very shortly afterwards, in fact the next day, as appears in 
the marriage register of the church — * There were no mar- 
riages from the tenth of March till y® 29 day of May' 1687. 

People could be, and were, married without licence, both 
in the Fleet and Queen's Bench Prisons. It is probable that 
prisoners there were duly and properly married by banns in 
the prison chapel, long before 1674, which is the date of 
the earliest illicit Fleet Register in the Bishop of London's 
registry ; for, in a letter, Sept. 161 3, we read : * * Now I am to 
enform you that an ancyentt acquayntance of y" and myne 
is yesterday maryed in the Fleette, one Mr. Georg Lestor, 
and hath maryed M^** Babbington, Mr. Thomas Fanshawe 
mother-in-lawe. It is sayed she is a woman of good wealthe 
so as nowe the man wylle able to lyve and mayntayn hymself 
in prison, for hether unto he hath byne in poor estate.' But, 
at all events, the law was set at nought in Anne's reign, as it 
was for many a long year afterwards. In 1702 the chaplain 
was Robert Elborough, who married but few without banns 
or licence, * but under a colour doth allow his clerk Bartho- 
lomew Basset to do what he pleases,' and in 17 14 Mr. John 
Taylor filled the same office, but he does not seem to have 
solemnised matrimony at the Fleet. There was, however, a 
low clergyman, named John Gaynam, otherwise Doctor 
Gaynam, who did a large trade there in marriages, from 1709 
to 1740. A little anecdote of him, though not in Queen 
Anne's time, may not be amiss. He was giving evidence at 
the Old Bailey on the trial of Robert Hussey for bigamy, in 


1 Lansdowne MSS., 93-17. 


Dr, Gainham. The 9th of September, 1733, I married a couple at the 
Rainbow Coffee House, the comer of Fleet Ditch, and entered the mar- 
riage in my register, as fair a register as any church in England can pro- 
duce. I showed it last night to the foreman of the jury, and my Lord 
Mayor's Clerk, at the London Punch House. 

Counsel, Are you not ashamed to come and own a clandestine mar- 
riage in the face of a court of justice ? 

Dk Gainham (bowing). Video meliora^ deteriora sequor. 

The same practice was followed by others during this 
reign. Wm. Wyatt, who moved from the Two Sawyers, at 
the comer of Fleet Lane, to the Hand and Pen near Holborn 
Bridge, married from 171 3 to 1750. John Floud, who was 
for some years a prisoner in the Fleet, married from 1709 to 
1729. John Mottram, from 1709 to 1725. He was convicted, 
in 1 7 16, in the Consistory Court, for marrying illegally, and 
was suspended from his ministerial functions for three years. 
Jerome Alley, from, 168 1 to 1707, when he left off marrying 
* for some other preferment.' Draper, from 1689 to 1716. 
John Evans, from 1689 to 1729. Henry Gower, 1689 to 1718. 
Thos. Hodgkins, 1674 to 1728. Ed. Marston, 1713 to 1714. 
Oswald, 171 2. Nehemiah Rogers, a prisoner, but rector of 
Ashingdon, Essex, married between 1700 and 1703. He 
seems to have been a specially bright specimen of the Fleet 
parson. * He is a Prisoner, but goes at larg to his P. Living in 
Essex, and all places else ; he is a very wicked man as lives, 
for drinking, whoring, and swearing, he has struck and boxed 
y* bridegroom in y® Chappie, and damned like any com'on 
soldier, he marries both within and without y® Chappie like 
his brother Colton.* This was James Colton, who had been 
deprived of his living for evil practices, and married from 
1 68 1 to 1 72 1. Benj. Byncs, 1698 to 1 711. Walter Stanhope, 
171 1. Jo. Vice, 1689 to 171 3 ; and J. Wise, in 1709. 

The Queen's Bench was not behind its brother of the Fleet, 
but there even greater abuses existed — laymen officiating.^ 
' Tis expected that a Bill to prevent clandestine Marriages, 
under a severe Corporal Penalty, will be brought in very 
early next Session of Parliament. For which 'tis said too 
just Occasion has been given by a Discovery lately made 

• The Postboy, October 13/16, 1711. 

40 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

that Laymen have been suffered to marry at the Queen's 
Bench ; and that John Sarjeant, who now acts there again as 
Clerk, has forg'd Certificates of pretended Marriages, for which 
he keeps Register books, with large blanks almost in every 
Page, whereby very mischievous Frauds are practicable. For 
preventing whereof, the late Chaplain labour'd hard with the 
most proper Person to command the said books out of the 
Clerk's Custody, and not prevailing, resigned his Office, which 
he had discharg'd among the Prisoners, both in the House 
and in the Rules, above five years, charitably, having never 
received one Farthing of the Fees thereto annexed. — William 

This evidently refers to the Marriage Act of Queen Anne 
(lO Anne, c. 19), which received the royal assent on May 22, 
17 1 2. This was a short Act smuggled in in a long money 
bill about duties on * Sope ' and paper, linen, silks, calicoes, 
stampt vellom, etc. It renewed, from June 24, 171 2, the 
penalty of 100/. attaching to the performance of illegal 
matches, giving half the penalty to the informer, and, * if 
any gaoler or keeper of any prison shall be privy to, or 
knowingly permit, any marriage to be solemnised in his said 
prison, before publication of banns, or license obtained as 
aforesaid, he shall for every such offence forfeit the sum of 
one hundred pounds to be recovered and distributed as afore- 
said.' There, then, was an extra duty of 5^. imposed upon 
every marriage licence, or certificate of marriage. 

Marriages were made easy. You could go a country 
walk and pop in and get married. A newly built church at 
Hampstead thus * advertises : * As there are many weddings 
at Sion Chapel, Hampstead, five Shillings only is required for 
all the Church fees of any Couple that are married ther?, pro- 
vided they bring with them a license or Certificate, according 
to the Act of Parliament. Two Sermons are continued to be 
preached in the said Chapel every Sunday, and the place will 
be given to any Clergyman that is willing to accept of it, to be. 
approved of Early in George the First's time, in 17 16, they 
offered * that all persons, upon bringing a licence, and who 
shall have their wedding dinner in the gardens, may be 

* The Postboy^ April 18/20, 17 10, 


married in the said Chapel, without giving any fee or reward 

Whilst on the subject of curious marriages, the following 
may well be noticed, extracted from the Parish Register : 
' John Bridmore and Anne Sellwood, both of Chiltern All 
Saints, were married October 17, 17 14. 

* The aforesaid Anne Sellwood was married in her Smock, 
without any clothes or head gier on/ 

This is not uncommon, the object being, according to a 
vulgar error, to exempt the husband from the payment of any 
debts his wife may have contracted in her ante-nuptial con- 
dition. This error seems to have been founded on a mis- 
conception of the law, as it is laid down * that * the husband 
is liable for the wife's debts, because he acquires an absolute 
interest in the personal estate of the wife,* etc. An unlearned 
person from this might conclude, and not unreasonably, that 
if his wife had no estate whatever^ he could not incur any 

Anyhow, after marriage they were liable, as the following 
gentlemen knew : * Whereas Elizabeth Stephenson, Wife of 
George Stephenson, late of Falken Court, near the Queen's 
Bench, in Southwark, hath Eloped from her said Husband, and 
since hath contracted several Debts with a design to Ruin her 
said Husband. These are therefore to give notice to the 
Publick, That the said George Stephenson will not on any 
Account whatever Pay or allow of any Debt so Contracted 
by the said Elizabeth Stephenson, cither before or since her 
elopement' 'Whereas Isabella Goodyear, the Daughter of 
Rich. Cliffe of Brixhome in the County of Devon, and Wife 
of Aaron Goodyear of London, Merchant, about 18 months 
sinc^ abandoned and forsook the Bed and since the Board of 
Aaron her said Husband, carrying with her in Goods, Plate, 
and other Goods to the value of ^200 and upwards, and whereas 
the said Isabella hath as well been sollicitcd by the said Aaron 
her Husband, as also by several of his acquaintance, to return 
to and Cohabit with him, under all assurances of being civilly 
rcceiv'd and maintain'd according to his quality and circum- 
stances, which the said Isabella hath, and still doth obstinately 

• Bacon 5 Abridgment^ Tit. Baron and Feme. 

42 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

refuse. These are therefore to give notice to all Traders, and 
all other persons whatsoever, that, from and after this present 
Notice they do not maintain, sustain, or detain the said 
Isabella from the said Aaron her Husband, or any of his 
Goods or Plate carryed off by the said Isabella, either by 
lending her Money or Selling her Goods, or by any other 
ways whatsoever, under penalty of the law, and forfeiture of 
the credit, if any, given to the said Isabella from the Notice 

Having discussed the private hole-and-corner, and clan- 
destine marriages, it may be well to inquire the reasons why 
these were preferred to the more ceremonious ones. Mainly 
on the score of expense, and to get rid of the uproarious 
and senseless festivities which accompanied them. Let Misson 
describe what one was like : * One of the Reasons that they 
have for marrying secretly, as they generally do in England, is 
that thereby they avoid a great deal of Expence and Trouble. 
. . . Persons of Quality, and many others who imitate them, 
have lately taken up the Custom of being marry*d very late at 
Night in their Chamber, and very often at some Country 
House.^ They increase their Common Bill of Fare for some 
Days ; they dance, they play, they give themselves up for some 
small Time to Pleasure ; but all this they generally do without 
Noise, and among very near Relations. Formerly in France 
they gave Livr^es de Ndces, which was a knot of Ribbands, to be 
worn by the Guests upon their Arms ; but that is practised now 
only among Peasants. In England it is done still among the 
greatest Noblemen. These Ribbands they Call Favours,^ ancl 
give them not only to those that are at the Wedding, but 
to five hundred People besides ; they send them about, and 
distribute them at their own houses. . . . Among the Citfzens 
and plain Gentlemen (which is what they call the Gentry) they 
sometimes give these Favours ; but it is very Common to avoid 
all Manner of Expence as much as Possible. When those of 
a middling Condition have a mind to be so extravagant as to 

* Usually at the father's or guardian's of the lady. 

' This custom partially survives, and originated in a division among the guests 
of the ribbons worn by the bride and bridegroom. These favours were worn for 
some weeks in the hat, and were made of a pretty large knot of ribbons of various 
colours— gold, silver, carnation, and white. 


many in Publick (which very rarely happens) they invite a 
Number of Friends and Relations ; every one puts on new 
Cloaths,* and dresses finer than ordinary ; the Men lead the 
Women, they get into Coaches, and so go in Procession, and 
are marry'd in full Day at Church. After Feasting and 
Dancing, and having made merry that Day and the next, they 
take a Trip into the Country, and there divert themselves very 
pleasantly. These are extraordinary Weddings. The Ordinary 
ones, as I said before, are generally incognito. [The Bride- 
groom, that is to say, the Husband that is to be, and the 
Bride, who is the Wife that is to be, conducted by their Father 
and Mother, or by those that serve them in their room, and ; /: 
accompany'd by two Bride men and two Bride maids, go early 
in the Morning with a Licence^ in their Pocket and call up 
Mr. Curate and his Clerk, tell him their Business ; are marry'd 
with a low Voice, and the Doors shut ; tip the Minister a 
Guinea, and the Clerk a Crown ; steal softly out, one one way, 
and t'other another, either on Foot or in Coaches ; go different 
Ways to some Tavern at a Distance from their own Lodgings, 
or to the House of some trusty Friend, there have a good 
Dinner, and return Home at Night as quietly as Lambs. If the 
Drums and Fiddles have notice of it they will be sure to be • ^ 
with them by Day break, making a horrible Racket, till they 
have got the Pence ; and, which is worst of all, the whole 
Murder will come out. Before they go to bed they take 
t'other Glass, &c., and when Bedtime is come the Bride men 
pull off the Bride's Garters, which she had before unty'd that 
they might hang down, and so prevent a Curious Hand coming 
too near her knee. This done, and the Garters being fastened 
to the Hats of the Gallants, the Bride maids carry the Bride 
into the Bed chamber, where they undress her,^ and lay her 
in Bed. The Bridegroom, who by the Help of his Friends is un- 
dress'd in some other Room, comes in his Night-gown as soon 

• This was absolutely necessary, and mourning was also temporarily left off, 
unless for a very near relation recently deceased. 

• The licence was generally shown the clergyman the day before the wedding, 
and an appointment made for the ceremony. 

• There was then, and may be now, a curious superstition that every pin 
about the bride must be thrown away and lost. There would be no luck if one 
remained. Nor must the bridesmaid keep one, for should she do so she certainly 
would not be married before Whitsuntide, 

44 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

as possible to his Spouse, who is surrounded by Mother, Aunt, 
Sisters, and Friends, and without any farther Ceremony gets 
into Bed. Some of the Women run away, others remain, and 
the Moment afterwards they are all got together again.* The 
Bridemen Take the Bride's Stockings, and the Bridemaids the 
Bridegroom's ; both sit down at the Bed's Feet and fling the 
Stockings over their Heads, endeavouring to direct them so as 
that they may fall upon the marry'd Couple. If the Man's 
stockings, thrown by the Maids, fall upon the Bridegroom's 
Head, it is a Sign she will quickly be marry'd herself; and the 
same Prognostick holds good of the Woman's Stockings 
thrown by the Man. Oftentimes these young People engage 
with one another upon the Success of the Stockings, tho' they 
themselves look upon it to be nothing but Sport While some 
amuse themselves agreeably with these little Follies, others are . 
preparing a good Posset, which is a kind of Cawdle, a Potion 
made up of Milk, Wine, Yolk of Eggs, Sugar, Cinnamon, Nut- 
meg, etc. This they present to the young Couple, who swallow it 
down as fast as they can to get rid of so troublesome Company ; 
the Bridegroom prays, scolds, entreats them to be gone, and 
the Bride says ne'er a Word, but thinks the more. If they 
obstinately continue to retard the Accomplishment of their 
Wishes, the Bridegroom jumps up in his Shirt, which frightens 
the Women, and puts them to Flight. The Men follow them, 
and the Bridegroom returns to the Bride. 

* They never fail to bring them another Sack Posset next 
Morning, which they spend in such Amusements as you may 
easily imagine. The young Woman, more gay and more con- 
tented than ever she was in her Life, puts on her finest Cloaths 
(for she was married only in a Mob^), the dear Husband does 
the same, and so do the young Guests ; they laugh, they 
dance, they make merry ; and these Pleasures continue a 
longer or shorter time, according to the several Circumstances 
of Things.' 

* Pepys tells of a frolic Lady Castlemaine and the beautiful Frances Terese 
Stuart (the original of the Britania on the copper coinage) had : * That they two 
must be married — and married they were— with ring and all other ceremonies of 
Church service, and ribbands, and a sack posset in bed, and flinging the stocking.' 

' A mob was a dishabille dress, scarcely ever mentioned in terms of com- 


There was no going away for the honeymoon for the 
newly married couple. That trying season was spent at 
home, in a somewhat stately manner — receiving company, and 
must have been excessively irksome, as the following amusing 
account of a citizen's honeymoon shows : * * I have lately 
married a very pretty body, who being somewhat younger 
and richer than myself, I was advised to go a wooing to her in a 
finer suit of clothes than ever I wore in my life : for I love to 
dress plain, and suitable to a m^n of my rank. How ever, I 
gained her heart by it. Upon the wedding day I put myself, 
according to custom, in another suit, fire new, with silver 
buttons to it. I am so out of Countenance among my neigh- 
bours, upon being so fine, that I heartily wish my clothes well 
worn out. I fancy every body observes me as I walk the 
street, and long to be in my own plain geer again. Besides, 
forsooth, they have put me in a Silk Night gown and a gaudy 
fool's cap, and make me now and then stand in the window 
with it. I am ashamed to be dandled thus, and cannot look 
in the glass without blushing to see myself turned into such a 
pretty little master. They tell me I must appear in my wed- 
ding suit for the first month at least ; after which I am resolved 
to come again to my every day's clothes, for at present every 
day is Sunday with me. ... I forgot to tell you of my white 
gloves, which they say, too, I must wear all the first month.' 

I am afraid some of these good gentlemen beat their wives 
sometimes ; and even the gallant Sir Richard Steele says '? * I 
cannot deny but there are perverse Jades that fall to Men's 
Lots, with whom it requires more than common Proficiency in 
Philosophy to be able to live. When these are joined to Men 
of warm Spirits, without Temper or Learning, they are fre- 
quently corrected with Stripes ; but one of our famous Lawyers 
is of opinion, That this ought to be used sparingly.* On the 
other hand, we hear much of hen-pecked men — so that it is 
probable, so far as matrimonial jars were concerned, the world 
wagged then much as now — without the facility for separation 
and divorce which now exists. 

' Guardian^ No. 113. • Spectator^ 479. 

46 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 



Longevity — Undertakers' charges— Costliness of funerals — Mourning — 
Burial in woollen — Burial societies — Burial by night — A cheat — 
— Mourning rings — Funeral pomp — Monuments — Description of a 
funeral — A Roman Catholic funeral — Widows. 

That some lived to a good old age there can be no doubt ; 
but a patriarch died in this reign at Northampton, April 5, 
1706:* *This Day died John Bales of this Town, Button 
Maker Aged 1 30 and some Weeks ; he livy in the Reigns of 
Queen Elizabeth, King James the First, King Charles the First, 
Oliver, King Charles the Second, King James the Second, 
King William the Third, and Queen Anne.' 
And this brings us — 

WTiere the brass knocker, wrapt in flannel band, 
Forbids the thunder of the footman's hand ; 
Th' upholder, rueful harbinger of death, 
Waits with impatience for the dying breath ; 
As vultures o'er a camp, with hovering flight, 
Snuff up the future carnage of the fight.' 

Nay, if Steele is to be believed, they even feed heavily for 
early information of death.^ 

Sable, You don't consider the Charges I have been at already. 

Lord BrafHpton, Charges ? For what t 

Sable, First, Twenty Guineas to my Lady's Woman for notice of your 
Death (a Fee I've, before now, known the Widow herself go halfs in), but 
no matter for that. In the next place, Ten Pounds for watching you all 
your long Fit of Sickness last Winter. 

Lord B, Watching me ? Why I had none but my own Servants by 

> Daily Courant, April 9, 1706. « Trivia, 

« This and the following quotations are from The Funeral or Grief h la AfoJe, 
by Steele, ed. 1702. 

DEA TH and B URIAL, 47 

Sable. I mean attending to give notice of your Death. I had all your 
long fit of Sickness last Winter, at Half a Crown a day, a fellow waiting 
at your Gate, to bring me Intelligence, but you unfortunately recovered, 
and I Lost all my Obliging pains for your Service. 

This, of course, is exaggeration, but although, as we have 
seen, people were sparing in expense over births or marriages, 
they were absolutely lavish over funerals, and the undertaker 
could well afford to disgorge some of his gains. Was it the 
funeral of a rich man, the corpse must straightway be em- 
balmed, roughly though it may be. * Have you brought the 
Sawdust and Tar for embalming } Have you the hangings and 
the Sixpenny nails for my Lord's Coat of Arms ?' The hatch- 
ment must be put up, and mutes must be stationed at intervals 
from the hall door to the top of the stairs. * Come, you that are 
to be Mourners in the House, put on your Sad Looks, and walk 
by Me that I may sort you. Ha you ! a little more upon the 
Dismal. This Fellow has a good Mortal look, place him near 
the Corps ; That Wanscoat Face must be o' top of the Stairs ; 
That Fellow 's almost in a Fright (that looks as if he were full 
of some strange misery) at the Entrance of the Hall. So ! — but 
I'll fix you all myself. Let's have no Laughing now on any 
Provocation : Look Yonder, at that Hale, Well looking Puppy ! 
You ungrateful Scoundrel, Did not I pity you, take you out 
of a Great Man's Service, and show you the Pleasure of re- 
ceiving Wages } Did not I give you Ten, then Fifteen and 
Twenty Shillings a Week to be Sorrowful ? and the more I 
give you, I think the Glader you are ! ' 

The undertaker issued his handbills— gruesome things, 
with grinning skulls and shroud-clad corpses, thigh bones, 
mattocks and pickaxes, hearses, and what not. * These are to 
Notice, that Mr. John Elphick, Woollen Draper, over against 
St. Michael's Church in Lewes, hath a good Hearse, a Velvet 
Pall, Mourning Cloaks, and Black Hangings for Rooms to be 
Lett at Reasonable Rates. 

* He also Sells all sorts of Mourning and Half Mourning, 
all sorts of Black Cyprus for Scarfs and Hatbands, and White 
Silks for Scarfs and Hoods at Funerals ; Gloves of all sorts 
and Burying Cloaths for the Dead. 

* He sells likewise all sorts of Woollen Cloth Broad and 


SOCIAL LIFE in t/u reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Narrow, Silks and Half Silks, Worsted Stuffs of all Sorts, 
and Prices of the fewest Fashions, and all sorts of Ribbons, 
Bodies and Hose, very good Penny worths.' 

' Eleazar Malory, Joiner at the Coffin in White Chapel, 
near Red Lion Street end, makcth Coffins, Shrouds, lettcth 
Palls, Cloaks, and Furnisheth with all other things necessary 
for Funerals at Reasonable Rates,' 

The dead were then buried in woollen, which was rendered 
compulsory by the Acts 30 Car. H. c. 3 and 36 ejusdem c. i. 
The first Act was entitled ' An Act for the lessening the im- 
portation of Linncn from beyond the Seas, and the encourage- 
ment of the Woollen and Paper Manufactures of the King- 
dome.' It prescribed that the curate of every parish shall keep a 
register, to be provided at the charge of the parish, wherein to 

enter all burials and affidavits of persons being buned in 
woollen ; the affidavit to be taken by any justice of the peace, 
mayor, or such like chief officer in the parish where the body 
was interred ; and if there be no officer, then by any curate 
within the county where the corpse was buried (except him in 
whose parish the corpse was buried), who must administer the 
oath, and set his hand gratis. 

No affidavit to be necessary for a person dying of the 
plague. It imposed a fine of 5/. for every infringement, one 
half to go to the informer, and the other half to the poor of 
the parish. 

This Act was only repealed by 54Geo. III. c. 108, or in 
the year 1S15. 

The material used was flannel, and such interments are 
frequently mentioned in the literature of the time, and Luttrell 

DEA TH and BURIAL. 49 

mentions in his diary (Oct. 9, 1703) that the Irish Parliament 
had just brought in bills ' for encouraging the Unnen manu- 
facture, and to oblige all persons to bury in woollen,' 

' Odious ! in woollen ! 'twould a saint provoke,' 
Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke ; 
' No, let a charming chinti and Brussels lace 
Wrap my cold limbs and shade my lifeless face : 
One would not, sure, be frightful whenone's dead— 
And, Betty, give this cheek a little red.' ' 

Funeral invitations were sent out — ghastly things, such 
as the accompanying. 

Elegies, laudatory of the deceased, were sometimes printed 
and sent to friends : these were got up in the same charnel- 
house style. Indeed, no pains were spared to make a funeral 
utterly miserable and expensive. Hatbands were costly items. 

' Pope's .\Ur^ Ei^avs. Eplsile i. This U slid to refer tn Mr-. OLlfiuM. l!ie 
famous actress of .Alms's 'reign, «ho [:j./f GailUman'i ,l/,ii,-, !:/«.■ fur March ijji) 
■ was hurieii in \VesMniiistt.-r Aliby. in a Urussi^l:. lac- lluarl dtc.~s. .1 ll.iUaml SliiH, 
with Tucker and tiouhle kufflcs of ihesiime Lace, anJ a I'airof ncsv Kid Ulovc." 
•Itetly'was her old ami faithrul scivini, Mrs. Sauiidtrs, herself an actress, taking 
widows' and old inaiJ:,' pans. 


50 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

* For the encouragement of our English silk called Alamodes, 
His Royal Highness the Prince of Denmark, the Nobility, and 
other persons of Quality appear in Mourning Hatbands made 
of that Silk, to bring the same in fashion, in the place of Crapes, 
which are made in the Pope's Country where we send our 
Money for them/ Gloves, of course, had to be given to every 
mourner. Indeed it is refreshing among the universal spoiling 
of the deceased's survivors to find that one man advertises 
cheap mourning and funeral necessaries. * For the good of 
the Publick, I Edward Evans, at the Four Coffins in the 
Strand, over against Somerset House ; Furnish all Necessarie3 
for all sorts of Funerals, both great and small. And all sorts 
of set Mourning both Black and Gray and all other Furniture 
sutable to it, fit for any person of Quality. Which I promise 
to perform 2s. in the Pound cheaper than any of the Under- 
takers in Town or elsewhere.* 

Of course these remarks do not apply to the poor : they 
had already started burial clubs or societies, and very cheap 
they seem to have been. * This is to give Notice, that the 
Office of Society for Burials, by mutual Contribution of a Half- 
penny or Farthing towards a Burial, erected upon Wapping 
Wall, is now removed into Katherine Wheel Alley in White 
Chappel, near Justice Smiths, where subscriptions are taken 
to compleat the number, as also at the Ram in Crucifix lane 
in Bamaby Street, Southwark ; to which places notice is to be 
given of the death of any Member, and where any Person may 
have the Printed Articles after Monday next. And this Thursday 
about 7 o'clock Evening will be Buried by the Undertakers the 
Corpse of J. S., a Glover over against the Sun Brewhouse, in 
Golden Lane ; as also a Child from the Corner of Acorn Alley 
in Bishopsgate Street, and another Child from the Great Maze 
Pond, Southwark.' 

We see in the invitation to Mr. Newborough's funeral that 
it was to take place on an evening in January. This probably 
was so arranged by the Undertaker (indeed, the custom was 
general) to increase his costs, for then the mourners were 
furnished with wax tapers. These were heavy, and some- 
times Qudging from the illustrations to undertakers* handbills) 
were made of four tapers twisted at the stem and then branch- 

DEA TH and B URIAL, 5 1 

ing out That these wax candles were expensive enough to 
excite the thievish cupidity of a band of roughs the following 
advertisement will show : * Riots and Robberies. Committed in 
and about Stepney Church Yard, at a Funeral Solemnity, on 
Wednesday the 23rd day of September ; and whereas many 
Persons, who being appointed to attend the same Funeral with 
white Wax lights of a considerable Value, were assaulted in a 
most violent manner, and the said white Wax lights taken 
from them. Whoever shall discover any of the Persons, guilty 
of the said Crimes, so as they may be convicted of the same, 
shall receive of Mr. William Prince, Wax Chandler in the 
Poultry, London, Ten Shillings for each Person so discovered,* 

We get a curious glimpse of the paraphernalia of a funeral 
in the Life of a notorious cheat, * The German Princess/ who 
lived, and was hanged, in the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and the same funeral customs therein described obtained 
in Anne's time. She took a lodging at a house, in a good 
position, and told the landlady that a friend of hers, a stranger 
to London, had just died, and was lying at * a pitiful Alehouse,' 
and might she, for convenience' sake, bring his corpse there, 
ready for burial on the morrow. The landlady consented, 
and * that Evening the Corps in a very handsome Coffin was 
brought in a Coach, and plac'd in the Chamber, which was the 
Room one pair of Stairs next the street and had a Balcony. 
The Coffin being cover'd only with an ordinary black Cloth, our 
Counterfeit seems much to dislike it ; the Landlady tells her 
that for 20s, she might have the Use of a Velvet Pall, with 
which being well plcas'd, she desir'd that the Landlady would 
send for the Pall, and withal accommodate the Room with her 
best Furniture, for the next Day but one he should be bury'd ; 
thus the Landlady perform'd, getting the Velvet Pall, and 
placing on a Side-Board Table 2 Silver Candlesticks, a Silver 
F'laggon, 2 Standing gilt Bowls, and several other Pieces of 
Plate ; but the Night before the intended Burial, our counter- 
feit Lady and her Maid within the House, handed to their 
Comrades without, all the Plate, Velvet Pall, and other Furni- 
ture of the Chamber that was Portable and of Value, leaving the 

» Daily Courant, Sept. 30, 1713. 
E 2 

52 SOCIAL LIFE in the reigti of QUEEN ANNE, 

Coffin and the supposed Corps, she and her Woman descended 
from the Balcony by Help of a Ladder, which her Comrades 
had brought her.* It is needless to say that the coffin contained 
only brickbats and hay, and a sad sequel to this story is, that 
the undertaker sued the landlady for the loss of his pall, which 
had lately cost him 40/. 

Another very costly item in funerals was the giving of 
mourning rings. We see * the number of rings given at Pepys* 
funeral in 1703, and their value, 20s, and 15^., especially when 
we consider the extra value of the currency at that period, 
must have been a sore burden to the survivors. Thoresby ^ 
shows to what a prodigal extent this custom might be carried. 

* Afternoon, at the Funeral of my excellent and dear friend, 
Dr. Thomas Gale, Dean of York, who was interred with great 
solemnity : lay in state, 200 rings (besides scarfs to bearers and 
gloves to all) given in the room where I was, which yet could 
not contain the company.' 

Naturally, a great many must have come to a man in the 
course of his life, as we may see by the contents of a box lost 
out of a waggon between Stamford and London : * 3 Hair 
Rings, 6 with a Death's Head, about 2 penny weight apiece the 
Posie (Prepared be to follow me) ; 3 other mourning rings 
with W. C. ob. 18 Dec. 1702 ; i Ennamelled Ring, 3 
Pennyweight twelve grains. W. Heltey, ob. 5 July, I£x. 61.' 
And their value may be guessed from * Lost on Thursday, the 
8th Instant one of the late Lord Huntingdon's Funeral Rings. 
Whoever brings it to Mr. White's at the Chocolate House in 
St. James's shall have two Guineas reward.' 

Besides the rings, hatbands, scarves, and gloves, there was 
another tax ; for Evelyn,^ noting Pepys' death and burial, says, 

* Mr. Pepys had been for neare 40 years so much my particular 
friend that Mr. Jackson sent me compleat mourning, desiring 
me to be one to hold up the pall at his magnificent obsequies, 
but my indisposition hinder'd me from doing him this last 

The pomp of funerals was outrageous. Gay, observant as 
he always was, notes this in * Trivia,* book 3 : — 

* Appendix. * Diary of Ralph Thoresby, April 15, 1702. 

■ Diary, May 26, 1703. 

DEA TH and B URIAL. 53 

Why is the Herse with 'Scutcheons blazon'd round, 

And with the nodding Plume of Ostrich crown'd? 

No, the Dead know it not, nor profit gain : 

It only ser\'es to prove the Living vain. 

How short is Life ! how frail is human Trust ! 

Is all this Pomp for laying Dust to Dust ? 

No wonder he exclaimed against these mortuary extra- 
vagances. Take an alderman's funeral as an example : * On 
Wednesday last the Corps of Sir William Prichard, Kt, late 
Alderman, and sometime Lord Mayor of the City of London, 
(Who died Feb. 1 8) having lain some days in State, at his House 
in Highgate, was conveyed from thence in a Hearse, accom- 
panied by several Mourning Coaches with 6 Horses each, 
through Barnet and St Albans to Dunstable ; and the next 
day through Hockley (where it was met by about 20 Persons 
on Horseback) to Woburn and Newport Pagncl, and to his 
seat at Great Lynford (a Mile farther) in the county of 
Buckingham : Where, after the Body had been set out, with 
all Ceremony befitting his Degree, for near 2 hours, 'twas 
carried to the Church adjacent in this order, viz. 2 Con- 
ductors with long Staves, 6 Men in long Cloaks two and two, 
the Standard, 18 Men in Cloaks as before. Servants to the 
Deceased two and two. Divines, the Minister of the Parish and 
the Preacher, the Helm and Crest, Sword and Target, Gauntlets 
and Spurs, born by an Officer of Arms ; the Surcoat of arms 
born by another Officer of Arms, both in their rich Coats of Her 
Majesty's Arms embroidered ; the Body, between 6 Persons 
of the Arms of Christ's Hospital, St. Bartholomew's, Merchant 
Taylors' Company, City of London, empaled Coat and Single 
Coat ; the Chief Mourner and his 4 Assistants, follow'd by 
the Relations of the Defunct, &c. After Divine Service was 
perform'd and an excellent Sermon suitable to the Occasion, 
preach'd by the Reverend Lewis Atterbury, LL.D., Minister 
of Highgate aforesaid, the Corps was interred in a handsome 
large Vault, in the He on the North side of the Church, betwixt 
7 and 8 of the clock that Evening.' * 

But there was one thing they did not spend so much 
money upon as their forefathers did, i.e. on monumental 

' Daily Courantf March 5, 1705. 

54 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

statuary, &c. In this age the bust, or * busto,* was used in 
preference to the recumbent, or half-figures, of the previous 
century ; but by far the greater number of mortuary memo- 
rials took the form of mural tablets, more or less ornate, 
according to the taste and wealth of the parties concerned. 
As a rule the epitaph was in Latin — this classical age, and 
the somewhat pedantic one that followed, could brook no- 
meaner tongue in which to eulogise its dead ; and their 
virtues were pompously set forth in that language which is 
common to the whole of the civilised world. 

No account of the funerals of this age would be complete 
without seeing what Misson says on the subject : — * As soon 
as any Person is dead, they are oblig'd to give Notice thereof 
to the Minister of the Parish, and to those who are appointed 
to visit dead Bodies. This Custom of visiting dead Bodies was 
establish'd after the dreadful Plague that ravaged London in 
1665, to the Intent that it might be immediately known if 
there was any Contagious Distemper, and proper Methods 
taken to put a Stop to it. They are generally two Women 
that do this. The Clerk of the Parish receives their Certifi- 
cate, and out of these is formed an Abridgment that is pub- 
lished every Week. By this Paper you may see how many 
Persons of both Sexes dy*d within that Week, of what Dis- 
temper, or by what Accident. 

* There is an Act of Parliament which ordains. That the 
Dead shall be bury'd in a Woollen Stuff, which is a Kind of 
a thin Bays, which they call Flannel \ nor is it lawful to use the 
least Needleful of Thread or Silk. (The Intention of this Act 
is for the Encouragement of the Woollen Manufacture.) This 
Shift is always White ; but there are different Sorts of it as to 
Fineness, and consequently of different Prices. To make these 
Dresses is a particular Trade, and there are many that sell 
nothing else ; so that these Habits for the Dead are always to 
be had ready made, of what Size or Price you please, for 
People of every Age and Sex. After they have wash'd the 
Body thoroughly clean, and shav'd it, if it be a Man, and his 
Beard be grown during his Sickness, they put it on a Flannel 
Shirt, which has commonly a Sleeve purfled about the Wrists, 
and the Slit of the Shirt down the Breast done in the same 

DEA TH and BURIAL. 55 

Manner. When these Ornaments are not of Woollen Lace, they 
are at least edg^d,- and sometimes embroidered with black 
Thread. The Shirt shou'd be at least half a Foot longer than 
the Body, that the Feet of the Deceased may be wrapped in it 
as in a Bag. When they have thus folded the End of the 
Shirt close to the Feet, they tye the Part that is folded down 
with a Piece of Woollen Thread, as we do our Stockings ; so 
that the End of the Shirt is done into a Kind of Tuft. 

* Upon the Head they put a Cap, which they fasten with a 
very broad Chin Cloth, with Gloves on the Hands, and a Cravat 
round the Neck, all of Woollen. That the Body may ly the 
softer, some put a Lay of Bran, about four inches thick, at the 
Bottom of the Coffin. Instead of a Cap, the Women have a 
Kind of Head Dress, with a Forehead Cloth. The Body being 
thus equipped and laid in the Coffin (which Coffin is sometimes 
very magnificent), it is visited a second time, to see that it is 
bury'd in Flannel, and that nothing about it is sowed with 
Thi:ead. They let it lye three or four Days in this Condition ; 
which Time they allow, as well to give the dead Person an 
Opportunity of Coming to Life again, if his Soul has not quite 
left his Body, as to prepare Mourning, and the Ceremonies of 
the Funeral. 

'They send the Beadle with a List of such Friends and 
Relations as they have a Mind to invite ; and sometimes they 
have printed Tickets, which they leave at their Houses. A little 
before the Company is set in Order for the March, they lay the 
Body into the Coffin upon two Stools, in a Room where all that 
please may go and see it ; they then take off the Top of the 
Coffin, and remove from off the Face a little square Piece of 
Flannel, made on Purpose to cover it, and not fastened to any 
Thing ; Upon this Occasion the rich Equipage of the Dead does 
Honour to the Living. The Relations and chief Mourners are 
in a Chamber apart, with their more intimate Friends ; and the 
rest of the Guests are dispersed in several Rooms about the 

* When they are ready to set out, they nail up the Coffin, 
and a Servant presents the Company with Sprigs of Rosemary : 
Every one takes a Sprig and carries it in his Hand 'till the Body 
is put into the Grave, at which Time they all throw their Sprigs 

S6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

in after it. Before they set out, and after they return, it is 
usual to present the Guests with something to drink, either 

red or white Wine, boil'd with Sugar and Cinnamon, or some 

such Liquor. Butler, the Keeper of a Tavern,' told me there 

' The Crown wid Sceptre in St. Martin'* Street. 


was a Tun of Red Port drank at his Wife's Burial, besides 
muird White Wine. Note, no Men ever go to Women's Burials, 
nor the Women to the Men's ; so that there were none but 
Women at the drinking of Butler's Wine. Such Women in 
England will hold it out with the Men, when they have a 
Bottle before them, as well as upon t'other Occasion, and 
tattle infinitely better than they. 

* The Parish has always three or four Mortuary Cloths of 
different Prices,^ to furnish those who are at the Charge of the 
interment These Cloths, which they Call Palls, are some of 
black Velvet, others of Cloth with an edge of white Linnen or 
Silk, a foot broad, or thereabouts ; For a Batchcllor or Maid, 
or for a Woman that dies in Child Birth, the Pall is white. 
This is spread over the Coffin, and is so broad that the Six or 
Eight Men that carry the Body are quite hid beneath it to 
their Waste, and the Corners and Sides of it hang down low 
enough to be born by those ^ who, according to Custom, are 
invited for that purpose. They generally give Black or White 
Gloves and black Crape Hatbands to those that carry the Pall ; 
sometimes also white Silk Scarves. 

* Every Thing being ready to move (it must be remember'd 
that I always speak of middling People, among whom the 
Customs of a Nation are most truly to be learn'd), one or 
more Beadles march first, each carrying a long Staff, at the 
End of which is a great Apple or Knob of Silver. The Minister 
of the Parish, generally accompany 'd by some other Minister, 
and attended by the Clerk, walks next ; and the Body carry'd 
as I said before, comes just after him. The Relations in close 
Mourning, and all the Guests two and two, make up the rest 
of the Procession. The Common Practice is to carry the corpse 
thus into the Body of the Church, where they set it down upon 
two Tressels, while either a Funeral Sermon is preach'd, con- 
taining an Eulogium upon the deceased, or certain Prayers 
said, adapted to the Occasion. If the Body is not bury'd in 
the Church, they carry it to the Church Yard belonging to the 
same, where it is interr'd in the Presence of the Guests, who 
are round the Grave, and they do not leave it 'till the Earth is 

* The handsomest was let out on hire for twenty- five or thirty shillings. 

* Called Pall-bearers— some six friends or so — and accounted a special honour. 

58 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

thrown in upon it. Then they return Home in the same 
order that they came, and each drinks two or three Glasses 
more before he goes Home. Among Persons of Quality 'tis 
customary to embalm the Body, and to expose it for a Fort- 
night or more on a Bed of State. After which they carry it in 
a Sort of a Waggon * made for that Purpose, and cover'd with 
black Cloth, to the Place appointed by the Deceased. This 
Cart is attended by a long train of Mourning Coaches belong- 
ing to the Friends of the Dead Person.* 

A notice of a Roman Catholic funeral must conclude this 
subject. It is taken from the will of * Mr. Benjamin Dod, 
Citizen and Linnen Draper, who fell from his Horse, and dy*d 
soon after.' ^ * I desire Four and Twenty Persons to be at my 
Burial ... to every of which Four and Twenty Persons . . . 
I give a pair of white Gloves, a Ring of Ten Shillings Value, a 
Bottle of Wine at my Funeral, and Haifa Crown to be spent at 
their Return that Night, to drink my Soul's Health, then on her 
Journey for Purification in order to Eternal Rest. I appoint 
the Room, where my Corps shall lie, to be hung with Black, 
and four and twenty Wax Candles to be burning ; on my Coffin 
to be affixed a Cross, and this Inscription, Jesus^ Hominum 
Salvator, I also appoint my Corps to be carried in a Herse 
drawn with Six white Horses, with white Feathers, and followed 
by Six Coaches, with six Horses to each Coach, to carry the 
four and twenty Persons. . . . Item I give to Forty of my 
particular Acquaintance, not at my Funeral, to every one of 
them a Gold Ring of Ten Shillings Value. ... As for Mourn- 
ing I leave that to my Executors hereafter nam'd ; and I do 
not desire them to give any to whom I shall leave a legacy.' 
Here follows a long list of legacies. * I will have no Presby- 
terian, Moderate Low Churchmen, or Occasional Conformists, 
to be at or have anything to do with my Funeral. I die in 
the Faith of the True Catholic Church. I desire to have a 
Tomb stone over me, with a Latin Inscription, and a Lamp, or 
Six Wax Candles, to burn Seven Days and Nights thereon.* 

Widows wore black veils, and a somewhat peculiar cap, 
and had long trains — allusions to which are very frequent 
in the literature of the time. That they were supposed to 

* A hearse. • The Flying Post and Medley, July 27, 1714. 



seclude themselves for six weeks, and debar themselves of all 
amusement for twelve months, is shown by the two following 
extracts from Steele's ' Funeral, or Grief i la Mode.' 

' But, Tatty, to keep house 6 weeks, that's another 
barbarous Custom.' 

' Oh, how my head runs my first Year out, and jumps to 
all the joys of widowhood ! If, Thirteen Months hence, a 
Friend should haul one to a Play one has a mind to see ! ' 

6o SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 



* Queen Anne ' houses — Vanbrugh's house — Real * Queen Anne ' houses — 
Hangings and wall papers — Letting and rent — Prevention of fire — A 
fire — Insurance companies — Water supply — Thames Water Works — 
New River — Coals — Furniture — China — Bedsteads. 

Although for the purpose of this work it is necessary to 
say somewhat of the houses of the period, it is not worth 
while discussing the so-called revival of the architecture of 
Queen Anne's time. The modern houses are quaint and 
pretty, but they are innocent of any close connection with 
her reign. Artists* and archftccts' holiday rambles in Holland 
are provocative of most of them; 'sweet little bits' having 
been brought home in sketch-books from Dordrecht and 
kindred happy hunting-grounds for the picturesque. The 
style was not even adopted for mansions — vide Marlborough 
House and Blenheim ; and the exterior of the ordinary town 
houses, even of the better class, was singularly unpretentious. 
Hatton^ is struck with admiration of Queen Square (now 
Qu^en Anne's Gate), and says it is * a beautiful New (tho* 
small) Square, of very fine Buildings.' If he could thus eulogise 
its architecture, what must have been the plainness of the 
exterior of ordinary houses ! It was not that there was a 
lack of good architects, for Wren and Vanbrugh were alive, 
but the houses and furniture were in conformity with the 
spirit of the times — very dull, and plain, and solid. We must 
never forget that during nearly the whole of this queen's 
reign a cruel war exhausted the people's finances, that trade 
was circumscribed, and that there were no mushroom par- 

' A Nruj View of London t 1708. 


venus, with inflated fortunes made from shoddy or the Stock 
Exchange, to spend their wealth lavishly on architecture or 
art in any shape. 

A dull mediocrity in thought and feeling prevailed, and if 
any originality in architecture was attempted, it would cer- 
tainly have been satirised, as it was in the very little-known 
poem of * The History of Vanbrugh*s House.'* 

When Mother Clud ' had rose from Play, 
And caird to take the Cards away ; 
VAN Saw, but seem'd not to regard, 
How MISS pickt ev*ry Painted Card ; 
And Busie both with Hand and Eye, 
Soon Rear'd a House two Story high ; 
VAN'S Genius without Thought or Lecture, 
This hugely tum'd to Architecture, 
He view'd the Edifice, and smil'd, 
Vow'd it was pretty for a Child ; 
It was so perfect in its Kind, 
He kept the Model in his Mind. 

But when he found the Boys at Play, 
And Saw 'em dabling in their Clay ; 
He stood behind a Stall to lurk, 
And mark the Progress of their Work ; 
With true Delight observ'd 'em All 
Raking up Mud to build a Wall ; 
The Plan he much admir'd, and took 
The Model in his Table-Book ; 
Thought himself now exactly skill'd. 
And so resolv'd a House to build. 
A real House, with Rooms and Stairs, 
Five Times at least as big as Theirs ; 
Taller than MISS'S by two Yards ; 
Not a sham Thing of Clay, or Cards ; 
And so he did : For in a while. 
He built up such a monstrous Pile, 
That no two Chairmen cou'd be found, 
Able to lift it from the Ground ; 
Still at IVhite Hall it Stands in View, 
Just in the Place where first it grew ; 
There all the little School Boys run, 
Envying to see themselves outdone. 

' See Meditations upon a Broomstick and Somewhat Beside, Swift, ed. 171O. 
- The same lady satirised in The Reverse, 

& SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

From such deep Rudiments as these, 

VAN is become by due Degrees, 

For Building Fam*d, and justly Reckon'd 

At Court, Vitruvius the Second ; * 

No wonder, since wise Authors show. 

That Best Foundations must be Low ; 

And now the Duke has wisely ta'en him 

To be his Architect at Blenheim : 

But Railery for once apart. 

If this Rule holds in ev*ry Art ; 

Or, if his Grace was no more SkilPd in 

The Art of Batt'ring Walls, than Building, 

We might expect to find next Year 

A Mouse trap Man, Chief Engineer. 

But should any reader wish to see good specimens of real 
Queen Anne's houses, I would recommend a visit to Nos. 
10 and II Austinfriars. They are undoubtedly genuine 
(mark the date 1704 on the waterspout); and the staircase 
of No. 10, with its beautifully turned and car\'ed balusters, 
and boldly yet easily car\^ed soffits, is a real treat to see ; and 
were it to be cleansed from its many coats of paint, and 
appear in its original state, it would be an almost matchless 
specimen of the domestic building of the time. The ceiling, 
too, at the top of the staircase is very beautifully painted, 
and was most probably the work either of Laguerre or Thom- 
hiU. It is good enough for either of them. No. 1 1 is inferior 
to No. 10, but were its neighbour away it would be looked 
upon as a very good type of a house in the reign of Queen 
Anne. See also an old house, now used as a Board school, 
formerly the residence of Sir C. Wren, in a courtyard in 
Water Lane, Eastcheap. 

But a good plan is to judge of the houses by contemporary 
evidence and description. * To be Let, a New Brick House, 
Built after the Newest F'ashion, the Rooms wainscotted and 
Painted, Lofty Stories, Marble Foot paces to the Chimneys, 
Sash Windows, glaiscd with fine Crown Glass, large half Pace 
Stairs, that 2 People may go up on a Breast, in a new 
pleasant Court planted with Vines, Jesamin, and other Greens, 
next Door to the Crown near the Sarazen's Head Inn in 

' Vanbrugfa was Comptroller General of Works. 



Carter Lane, near St. Paul's Church Yard, London.' So we 
see even as late as 17 10 that a staircase capable of accom- 
modating two people abreast was a novelty, only to be found 
in * the last thing out * in houses. The windows of these 
houses were long but narrow ; the smallness of the panes 
being rendered necessary by the fact that no large size could 
be made in window-glass, it being only of late years that the 
manufacture has improved to that extent. Here is another 
house described, temp, 17 12. * To be Lett, near Cheapside, A 
large new-built House that fronts two Streets of great Trade : 
The Shop is lined with Deal all round, and is about 60 Foot 
deep one way. There is under the Shop a very good dry 
Warehouse that is brickt at Bottom. Joyce and boarded over 
it, the Sides and Top is lined with Deal, it is 9 foot between 
Floor and Top. There is above Stairs 4 Rooms on a Floor, 
almost all Wainscotted, and a large Staircase all Wainscotted. 
All the Flat is covered with very thick Lead, with Rails and 
Bannisters round the Leads and a large Cupolo on the Top. 
Inquire of Mr. Richard Wright at the Perriwig in Bread 

This must have been an extra good house, for they were 
mostly roofed with tiles, a fact which has practical demon- 
stration, for after the terrible storm of Nov. 26, 1703, which 
damaged London alone to the extent of a million sterling, and 
cost us many men-of-war, the loss of over 1,500 sailors of the 
navy, and an unnumbered quantity of merchant seamen, 
the price of tiles rose tremendously. On Dec. 7 * there is 
to be sold Plain Tiles 50^. a Thousand, and Pan Tiles for 61, 
a Thousand.' The plain tiles went still higher, for on Dec. 24 
they were 6$s, a thousand. 

As a rule the rooms were fairly lofty, and the walls of the 
better class were mostly wainscotted with oak, walnut, chest- 
nut, or cedar, and sometimes beautifully car\'ed, and in the 
lower-class houses with deal, painted. But wall papers were 
coming in.* * At the Blue Paper Warehouse in Alderman- 
bury (and nowhere else) in London, are sold the true sorts of 
figured Paper Hangings, some in pieces of 12 yards long, 
others after the manner of real Tapistry, others in imitation of 

* Postman, December 10/12, 170a. 

64 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Irish Stitch, flower'd Damasks, Sprigs and Branches ; others 
yard Wide, in imitation of Marble and other coloured Wains- 
coats ; others in yard wide, Emboss'd work, and a curious sort 
of Flock work in imitation of Caffaws, and other Hangings of 
curious figures and colours. As also Linnen Cloath, Tapestry 
Hangings, with a variety of Skreens and Chimney pieces, and 
Sashes for Windows, as transparent as Sarconet/ And another 
advertisement in next year gives * imitation of Marbles and 
other Coloured Wainscoats, which are to be put in Pannels 
and Mouldings made for that purpose, fit for the Hanging of 
Parlours, Dining Rooms, and Stair Cases ; and others in Yard 
wide Emboss'd work, in imitation of Gilded Leather.' The 
old style of hangings did not go out at once, for in 1704 was 
advertised * Three Suites of Hanging : one of Forrest Tapistry, 
one of clouded Camlet, and one of blue Printed Linsey ; the 
2 first ver}' good, scarce the worse for wearing — to be sold 
very reasonable.' 

Stained glass was not used, generally, for decorative 
purposes, save for coats of arms ; indeed, the art seems to 
have been in a bad way, judging from the following adver- 
tisement : * * Whereas the ancient Art of Painting and Staining 
Glass has been much discouraged, by reason of an Opinion 
generally received, That the Red Colour (not made in Eurbpe 
for many Years) is totally lost ; These are to give Notice, That 
the said Red, and all other Colours are made to as great a 
Degree of Curiosity and Fineness as in former Ages by William 
and Joshua Price, Glasiers and Glass Painters near Hatton 
Garden in Holborn, London, where any Gentlemen, who have 
the Curiosity, may be convinc'd by Demonstration, there being 
a large Window just now finished for his Grace the Duke of 
Leeds, which will be sent into the Country in a few days.' 

Houses were not always let by Agreement, but the leases 
were sold ; and it is by means of such advertisements that we 
arc able to get at the rents, which seem to have been very low 
— even reckoning the difference of value in money. Certainly 
they had none of our modern appliances and conveniences, 
which add so considerably to the cost of buildings, nor do 
they seem to have been saddled with exorbitant ground rents. 

» The London GazHU^ June 14, 18, 1705. 


• To be sold a lease of 33 years to come in 5 Houses standing 
together on the North side of the Pall Mall, whereon 25/. per 
Ann. Rent is reserved. The Houses are let at 200/. a year.' * A 
Gentleman has occasion for a lightsome fashionable House in 
some Genteel part of the Town, or very nigh the Town, and 
if accommodated with Coach House and Stables it will be 
better lik*d, of about 30/., 40/., or 50/. a year Rent/ 

A little way out of town rents were even cheaper than 
this. Here would be a boon for rowing men. * To be let at 
Bams adjoyning to Mortlack, fronting the River Thames, is 
a convenient little New House, 2 rooms on a floor, so well 
situated that it may be shut up, and the Furniture Safe. The 
benefit of the air may be had at pleasure, for 61, \os, per Ann.' 

* Also another House for more private Dwelling, well accom- 
modated with a Garden, River Water, etc., well situated for a 
Gentleman belonging to the Custom, East India, or African 
House, or Navy or Victualling Office, and the rent but 10/. 
per Annum. Also a Brick House in the Country, 2 Miles off, 
standing pleasantly in a good Air, and but 5/. per Annum to 
be Lett' These instances clearly prove that house rent was 
cheap in those days, which makes the price paid for apart- 
ments seem rather high. When Swift came to London in 
1 7 10, he says : * * I lodge in Bury Street, where I removed a 
week ago. I have the first floor, a dining room and bed 
chamber, at eight shillings a week ; plaguy deep, but I spend 
nothing on eating,' etc. When he removed to Chelsea he had 
to pay more. * I got here in the stage coach with Patrick 
and my portmantua for sixpence, and pay six shillings a week 
for one silly room, with confounded coarse sheets.' ^ On one 
of Ralph Thoresby's visits from Leeds to London ' he * was 
surprised with the old gentle%voman's (Mr. Atkfn's mother) 
demand of 4^. per week for my lodgings;' but then that 
could only have been a bedroom,, for the old gentleman was 
always out the whole day. 

It is needless to say that there was more danger of fire 
then than now ; and the inhabitants of London, very many 
of whom must have had a vivid remembrance of that awful 

• Journal to Stilla, letter 4. • Ibid, letter 21. 

* Diary of Ralph Thoresby, August 22, 1 7 12. 

VOL. I. F 

66 SOCIAL UFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

fire in 1666, were not altogether neglectful of their interests 
in this matter. In 1 7 10 an Act was passed amending an Act 
made in the sixth year of Anne's reign, * for the better pre- 
venting of Mischiefs that may happen by Fire.' This Act 
dealt with parochial fire-engines, rewards, rates for water 
supply and maintenance of same, the thickness of party walls,' 
etc., and contained one very useful little clause. * It is further 
enacted. That there shall be left at the House, upon which 
there is a Notice of a Fire Plug, a Key to open the Stop Cock, 
and also a Pipe for the Water to come thereout, to be made 
use of as Occasion shall require.' 

They were also fully alive to the necessity of keeping lif?- 
saving appliances in their houses. * This is to give Notice, 
That the Rope Ladders and other Ropes, so useful for pre- 
serving whole Families from the dismal Accidents of Fire, are 
to be sold,' etc. 

There were three fire insurance companies, whose leaden 
badges used to be nailed on to the houses, to show they were 
insured, and in what office ; and a reward was offered by the 
Friendly Society on July 14, 1705, for the discovery of persons 
who had stolen some of them. 

These three insurance companies were : first, the Phoenix, 
which was at the Rainbow Coffee House, Fleet Street, and 
also by the Royal Exchange, established about the year 1682, 
and the assurers in 17 10 numbered about 10,000. The 
system was to pay 30$". down, and insure 100/. for seven 
years. Second, the Friendly Society, in Palsgrave Court, 
without Temple Bar, which was the first (in 1684) that insured 
by mutual contribution, where you could insure 100/. for 
seven years by paying 6s, Sd. down, and an annual subscrip- 
tion of IS, 4^. In 17 10 the number of assured was 18,000. 
And thirdly, the Amicable Contributors, at Tom's Coffee 
House in St. Martin's Lane (commenced about 1695). Here 
a payment of 12s. would insure 100/. for seven years, at the 
expiration of which time los, would be returned to the 
assured — who in 17 10 numbered over 13,000. This society 
seems to have changed its name to the Hand-in-Hand Fire 
Office, who gave up their two establishments at Tom's Coffee 
House and the Crown Coffee House, behind the Exchange, 


for more suitable premises in Angel Court, Snow Hill, and 
■ notified the change in the Gazette of Jan. i, 1714. 

All these employed several men in Hveries, and with badges 
on their arms, to extinguish fire. The accompanying con- 
temporaiy illustration is very rude, but it gives a vivid repre- 
sentation of a fire at that time. 

Gay gives the following graphic description of a fire, 5 
that we may almost fancy we see the firemen at work. 

But hark ! Distress with Screaming Voice draws nigh'r, 

And wakes the slumb'ring Street with Cries of Fire. 

At first a glowing Red enwraps the Skies, 

And borne by Winds the scatt'ring Sparks arise ; 

From Beam to Beam, the fierce Contagion spreads ; 

The Spiry Flames now lift aloft their Heads, 

Through the burst Sash a blazing Deluge pours. 

And splitting Tiles descend in rattling -Show'rs. 

Now with thick Crouds th' enlighten'd Pavement swarms. 

The Fire-man sweats beneath his crooked Arms, 

A leathern Casque his vent'rous Head defends. 

Boldly he climbs where thickest Smoak ascends ; 

Mov'd by the Mother's streaming Eyes and Pra/rs, 

The helpless Infant through the Flame he bears ; 

With no less Virtue, than through hostile Fire, 

The Dardan Hero bore his aged Sire. 

See forceful Engines spout iheir levell'd Streams, 

To quench the Blaje Chat runs along the Beams; 

The grappling Hook plucks Rafters from the Walls, 

And Heaps on Heaps the smoaky Ruine falls. 

Blown by strong Winds the fiery Tempest roars, 

Bears down new Walls, and pours along the Floors ; 

The Heav'ns are all a blaze, the Face of Night 

Is cover'd with a sanguine dreadful Light. 

Hark ! the Drum thunders ! far, ye Crouds retire ; 
Behold the ready Match is tipt with Fire, 

68 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

The Nitrous Store is laid, the smutty Tuin 
With running Blaze awakes the barrell'd Grain ; 
Flames sudden wrap the Walls ; with sullen Sound, 
The shatter'd Pile sinks on the smoaky Ground. 

The sanitary arrangements of these houses were very 
defective, and the streets at night time must have been 
anything but pleasant walks. 

' We had not walk'd the usual distance between a Church 
and an Alehouse, but some Odoriferous Civet Box perfuni'd 
the Air, and saluted our Nostrils with so refreshing a Nose- 
gay, that I thought the whole 
City {Edenborough-like) had been 
over-flow'd with an inundation 
of Surreverence." ' 

The water supply, too, was 
not good. Old-fashioned wells 
and pumps, sunk in a crowded 
city full of cesspools and grave- 
yards, could not have furnished 
a healthy supply. Of course 
there was the water brought by 
the c I ty from H ighgate and 
Hampstead, and there was the 
New River, but it evidently was 
not sufficient for the use of the 
inhabitants, or it would not have 
been hawked about. 
More was furnished by the Thames Water Works by means 
of a huge water-wheel, which worked many force-pumps, 
and which was erected by a Dutchman named Peter Morrice, 
in 1582. This occupied a position on the old bridge, similar 
to its being placed close to the stairs by Fishmongers' Hall 
at the present time. Although the river was infinitely purer 
than at present, yet, being tidal, and the supply being taken 
from in shore, it could not have been good for drinking 
purposes. There was a new company formed to work this 
machine, and in the London Gasetie, Oct. 28/Nov. r, 1703, 
is an advertisement : ' This is to give Notice to such Persons 
' TAe Ltnden Sfy. 


as have subscribed for Shares in the Thames Water, That the 
Transfers of the said Shares will be ready to be made to the 
respective Subscribers to-morrow the 2nd Instant, being the 
last day limited in the Contract, at Mr. Nicholas Opie's in 
Bartholomew Lane, where the said Contract or Subscription 
Roll now lies.' 

Hatton says in his * New View of London ' that ' besides 
the old work erected by Mr. Morris, the New placed in 
the 4th Arch of the Bridge consists of 2 Wheels with 7 
Engines set up about the Year 1702, so there are in all 
13 Engines. 

* They are the contrivance of that great English Engineer 
Mr. Sorocoldy whereby the Tfiames Water is raised from the N. 
end of the Bridge to a very great altitude, by which means 
many parts of the City &c. are served with the Thames 
Water. The Flux and Reflux of the Water worketh the 
Engine. Here are several Proprietors who serve Houses for 
the most part at 20s, per An?i, paid quarterly, and they have 
proportionately more from Brewhouses, &c., according to what 
they Consume. To this Company also belongs the Works at 
Broken Wharf ^.nA. the City Conduit Water. 

* The Old Stock was 500 Shares, and valued at 500/. a 
Share, since which those Shares were divided into 1 500 Shares, 
each valued at about 100/. per Share, They pay the City 
700/. per Ann, for the Conduit Water, and about 10/. per 
Ann, for the Bridge ; Also 300/. to Sir Benj, Ayloff or his 
Assignees for the Broken Wharf , to which place 2 of the 
Engines at the Bridge do Work, and there are also at that 
Wharf 2 Horse Works. 

* They chiefly serve Goodman's Fields, Minories, Hounds- 
ditch, White Oiapel, and Birchin Lane, 

* Merchant's Water Works are in Harts Hor?i Lane,^ He 
serves with the Thames Water by Horse Work and Engines. 
His Rates are 20s. per Ann. 

* Mi// Bank Water is raised and laid into Houses in the 
Parish of St. Margarets, Westminster, from the Tliames, The 
Water House is situate on the E. side of Mi// Bank, for which 
the Proprietors, who are in Number S, had a Patent granted 

* Afterwards Northumberland Street* Strand. 

70 SOCIAL LIFE in the retgn of QUEEN ANNE. 

them by K. Charles 2 about the Year 1673. Their Stock and 
Income is divided into 8 Shares. Rates are at least lar. 
per Ann.y but commonly 20s,, and for Brewers and extra- 
ordinary Occasions more than so many Pounds/ 

The water was supplied in primitive pipes of wood, some 
being of the very small bore of one inch. * The Governor 
and Company of the New River, being inclined to contract 
for Wooden Pipes of i, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 Inches Diameter 
in the Bore, to be delivered at any Place within the 
Bills of Mortality, as occasion shall require, do hereby 
give notice, that they shall be ready to receive proposals 
for that purpose, any Thursday, at their Office at Puddle 
Dock.* » 

An adventurer's share in the New River Water Company 
was then worth 4500 guineas ; and Hatton, in his * New View 
of London,' says : * They now Let the Water to most Houses 
without Fine or Lease, according as they Consume Water, to 
none less than 22s, Sd. per Ann., but to some Brewers, &c., 
for 40/. per Ann., which, and all common Cocks, they Let by 
Lease and Fine.' 

The river was scoured out twice a year, and a staff was 
kept of * 12 Walkers between Ware and London (who 
daily take care that no Infectious or other thing be thrown 
into the River that might in any way prejudice it, whereby 
it is kept Sweet and Wholesome).' 

The following advertisement appears in the London 
Gazette, April 20 /May 3, 1703 : * The Governor and Company 
of the New River brought from Chadwell and Antwell to 
London, having from time to time made several Orders and 
Regulations for the Ease and Benefit of those who make use 
of their Water ; but being informed, that several Misrepresen- 
tations are Industriously spread abroad to their Prejudice, 
they have thought fit to publish the following Orders, which 
have been made from time to time since at several Courts. 

* Ordered, That no Private Family that is served with the 
Water of the New River, shall be required to take a Lease 
of the said Water ; but that what Rent shall be agreed on with 

' Lmdon Gaxette, Feb. 27/Mar. i, 17 14. 


the Collectors to be paid, shall be received by them without 
the Charge of a Lease. 

* Whereas Strict Charge hath been given to the Collectors, 
and all other Officers of the said New River, That they behave 
themselves Civilly and Respectfully to such as use the said 
Water : If any do otherwise 

* Ordered, That upon any Complaints to the Meetings of 
the Company every Thursday at Three in the Afternoon, at 
their Office at Puddle Dock, Reparation shall forthwith be 
made to the Party grieved. 

* Ordered, That any Tenant may employ their own 
Plummer to do their Work in mending, or laying any Branch, 
such Plummer first acquainting the Collector, and making use 
of the Company's Paviour of that Walk to dig the same.' 

The leaden cisterns for holding the family supply were 
often very artistically and elaborately ornamented, either with 
flowers or classical subjects, and are nearly all dated. The 
few now spared in London are of course extremely curious, 
as being exemplars of the art manufactures of the time. 

The houses were principally heated by coals, except in the 
bedrooms, and, coals being all sea-borne, prices were some- 
times very high ; thus, latter end of April 1702 — * Coals are 
at 33J. per Chaldron in the Pool, because of the great Impress. 
No Ships are to sail till the Fleet is compleatly mann'd.' Be- 
sides this, there was a tax of 2s, per chaldron, * to be applyed 
towards finishing St Paul's Cathedrall,' which was, on Nov. 26, 
1702, ordered to be continued till after the year 1708.^ This 
high price was partly fictitious, a * ring ' having been formed 
in coals ; but they managed those things better then than 
now, and held public inquiry on ' forestallers and regraters.' ^ 
* The lords ordered several persons to attend upon account of 
engrossing Coals, and among them two noted quakers ; 'tis 
said the chief reason of their being so dear is, that several 
persons in the north, and some Londoners, have farmed most 
of the Coal pits about Newcastle, with design to sell them at 
what price they please.' It was even suggested that Govern- 
ment should take the matter up. *'Tis said a proposal is 
made to the parliament, that the queen be the free importer 

» Luttnh's Diary , Nov. 26, 1702. « J bid, Nov. 13, 1703. 

72 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

of Coals, and that they shal never exceed 25J. per Chaldron, 
nor he under 20s.' ' 

Not only were they dear, but at times poor in quality. 
' The late Common Practice at Sunderland of mixing bad sorts 
of Coals with the right Lumley Coals, giving such Mixtures 
the Name of pure Lumley Coals,' &c,, was counteracted by 
certificates being given of their genuineness. In Oct. 171 1 
coals in the Pool were 25^. to 26.^, a chaldron. Scotch coals 
had, however, been introduced, for we find an advertisement : 
' At Mr. Folley's Warehouse on White Fryers Wharf, are a 
parcel of Scotch Coals to be Sold Reasonably, being the 
best that have come to London 
for many Years, and out of the 
Earl of Marrs CoUyary.' ' 

But if they were this high price, 
ex ship, and wholesale, those who 
bought in small quantities had to 
pay very heavily. Swift in his letters 
to Stella is always grumbling at 
the expense of his modicum of 
coals, and would stop longer in, 
and go earlier to, bed, in order to 
save. Then was it that the cry 
of ' Small coale ! ' was heard in the 
streets — a cry that will always be 
associated with the memory of 
Thomas Britton, the ' musical small 
coal man,' who died Sept. 14, 1714- 

The stoves used to bum coal were small and portable, 
taking the place of the old andirons, and standing unfixed 
in the somewhat wide chimney-pieces. It is needless to say 
that the modern ' Queen Anne ' stoves bear very little likeness 
to the genuine article. The back plates were frequently very 
ornamental, sometimes having the arms of the owner of the 
house upon them. The accompanying illustration, being taken 
from an ironmonger's handbill, is probably copied from one he 
had in stock — ^if not, it most certainly represented those in use. 

' Lullreirs Diary, Not. 20, 1703. ' Daily CMrant, Jan. 31, 1713. 



Of the furniture of the time — the houses were, to our 
idea, very scantily furnished. Take any of the very few 
engravings of social life in this reign, and one is astonished 
at the bare look of the apartments : a table in the centre, 
a few high-backed and clumsy chairs, a square, box-like 
settee, are all that are movable ; on the walls a picture or 
two, sometimes, not always, a looking-glass, occasionally an 
alcove with shelves for china and bric-a-brac, and window 
curtains — always curtains, — the possession of which must 
have entailed much trouble on many housekeepers. Vide 


the following advertisement : ' ' London, Nov. 24. — Having no 
longer since than last Night had the misfortune (with other 
of my Neighbours in Leicester Fields) to be robb'd by a very 
uncommon method ; I desire you would (for the Good of the 
Publick) inccrt in your Paper the underwritten Advertisement, 
that Persons may thereby be put upon their Guard, and make 
.such provision as may prevent the like Robberies. 

' 'J'he Thieves odsen-c those Houses whose Window-shutters, 
either outward or inward, reach not up to the top of the 

' DaSy Courant, Nov. a7, 1704. 

74 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

Windows ; and taking out some Quaries of the Glass ^ put tJteir 
Hands in and rob the Houses of their Window Curtains.^ 

Without doubt, the houses of the wealthy were better fur- 
nished, and more artistically. The virtuoso would bring with 
him on his return from his * grand tour' some specimens, both 
of pictures and furniture, of the lands he visited. Of the 
former, they were invariably originals or copies of the Caracci, 
Titian, Palma, Van Dyck, etc., and they were always being 
imported or changing hands ; but of good furniture we seldom 
find any to be sold, such as, for instance, * Two Cabinets, the 
one of 48 drawers, containing great variety of curious Shells, 
Agates, Corals, Mocus's ' (the Mocha or Moco Stone), * Medals, 
Minerals, and other Rarities. The other finely inlaid with 
Flowers and Birds of Stone by Baptist.' 

And the merchants and well-to-do people undoubtedly 
had furniture almost invented to show off their china : * 
* Whereas the New East India Company did lately sell all their 
China Ware, These are to Advertise, that a very large parcel 
there of (as Broken and Damaged) is now to be sold by Whole- 
sale and Retail, extreamly Cheap, at a Warehouse in Dyer's 
Yard. Note, — It's very fit to furnish Escrutores, Cabinets, 
Corner Cupboards or Sprigs, where it usually stands for 
Ornament only.' 

Naturally, almost all the ornamental ceramics came from 
China or Japan — for the state of our own ceramic art was at a 
very low ebb ; in fact, it was only in its infancy in the middle 
of the last century. Some pottery was made in Staffordshire 
and York, but it was near London that the manufacture of the 
best, such as it was, was seated. The potteries at Fulham 
were at work, as also Lambeth and Vauxhall. Thoresby tells 
us of this latter '? * We went by water to Foxhall and the Spring 
Garden : I was surprised with so many pleasant walks &c so 
near London. After dinner there, we viewed the pottery and 
various apartments there ; was most pleased with that where 
they were painting divers colours, which yet appear more 
beautiful, and of different colours when baked.' 

None of these wares were remarkable at that time for their 
beauty, and so the oriental porcelain was naturally the most 

» Harl, 5996, 147. « Thoresby s Diary^ May 24, 1 7 14. 



admired, and consequently bore away the palm, both for 
beauty of form and design. The use of tea, too, largely helped 
the consumption of oriental China. The cups and teapots 
were home articles for the Chinese to make, and it was very- 
many years before we, in England, were even nearly rivalling 

Tea necessitated a smaller and more elegant table, so we 
find the want supplied by tea and Dutch tables. Lacquer 
ware was also in much request, as well for ' Tea Tables, Bowls, 
Dressing Suites, Cabinets, and 
Bellows Boards,* as for screens 
to keep off draughts. 

But perhaps the most glo- 
rified piece of furniture in the 
house, was the bed, which could 
be had at all prices, from 
the ' ' new sacking bottom'd 
Bedsteads as lu. a piece' to 
that imperial couch which was 
a prize in a lottery ' by her 
Majesty's permission,' "'A Rich 
Bed, 7 Foot broad, 8 foot long, 
and about 14 foot high, in 
which is no less than Two 
Thousand Ounces of Gold and 
Silver wrought in it ; Containing four Curtains Embroidered 
on both sides alike, on a white Silk Tabby, Three Vallains 
with Tassels, three Basses, two Bonegraces, and four Can- 
toneers Embroider'd on Gold Tissue Cloth, cost 3,000/, put 
up at 14.00/.' This, of course, was an extraordinary bed ; but 
the price of bed Furniture really seems to have been ' from 6/. 
or 7/ per Bed 1040/ per Bed, with all sorts of fine Chain Stitch 
Work.' Velvet, both in crimson and other colours, was also 
a favourite for bed-hangings, and cost 40/ at least. One 
quilt is described, but I fairly give it up — ' Stole out of the house 
of John Barnes, &c,, a Culgee quilt' 

' Ilarl 5996, 87. 

« ibid. 5961, 316. 

76 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 



Number of servants — Footmen — Wages — Liveries — 'How d'ye' — The 
Upper Gallery — Footmen's Parliament — Accomplishments — White 
slaves from Barbary — Negro slaves — Runaways — Apprentices. 

The quantity of servants in vogue at that time, especially of 
male servants, seems to us to be excessive, but when we look 
how useful they were, apart from their menial duties, as g^uards, 
and assistants when the carriage stuck in a deep rut when 
travelling, and remember that the old feudal system of having 
retainers about one for show was then only moribund (it is 
not yet dead), their number is accounted for. First on the 
list stands my lord's page, who wore his livery, although of 
more costly material than that worn by the footman. He 
served his apprenticeship as *a little foot page,' but it was 
always understood that, after\vards, his rise in life should be 
looked to by his patron. It was very much the same relation 
that existed between knight and squire. How he accom- 
panied his lord on state occasions is shown in one of the 
illustrations of carriages. Steele speaks disparagingly of the 
lad's position.* * I know a Man of good Sense who put his 
Son to a Blacksmith, tho* an Offer was made him of hisbeing 
received a Page to a Man of Quality.* 

But it was the footman of that age, and indeed of the 
whole of the early Georgian era, who was the perpetual butt 
of the satirist — probably not without reason. * There's nothing 
we Beaus take more Pride in than a Sett of Genteel Footmen. 
I never have any but what wear their own Hair, and I allow 
,cm a Crown a Week for Gloves and Powder ; if one shouldn't, 
they'd Steal horridly to set themselves out, for now, not one in 

' Sfictatar, 214. 


ten IS without a Watch, and a nice Snuff Box with the best 
Orangerie ; and the Liberty of the Upper Gallery, has made 
'em so confounded pert, that, as they wait behind one at Table, 
they'll either put in their Word, or Mimick a body, and People 
must bear with 'em or else pay *em their Wages.' * Steele^ of 
course, could not resist such a tempting theme for his pen, 
and, consequently, devotes a whole Sfectator (No. 88) to 
footmen. He says : * They are but in a lower Degree what 
their Masters themselves are ; and usually affect an Imitation 
of their Manners ; and you have in Liveries, Beaux, Fops, and 
Coxcombs, in as high perfection, as among People that keep 
Equipages. It is a common Humour among the Retinue of 
People of Quality, when they are in their Revels, that is when 
they are out of their Master's Sight, to assume in a humourous 
Way the Names and Titles of those whose Liveries they wear.' 

Indeed, the footmen of that age must have had a good 
time of it, for the custom of feeing them, or, as it was called, 
of giving them * vails,' was very prevalent It got worse later 
on — indeed, it became such a nuisance that it was obliged to be 
stopped. Yet even now it has to be done, like feeing waiters. 
Certainly their wages were not great. *I love punctual 
Dealings, Sir ; Now my Wages comes to at Six Pound per 
Annum, Thirty two Pounds the Five Years and four Months, 
the odd Week two Shillings Sixpence, the two Hours one half- 
penny,' etc.* This, certainly, even at the then enhanced value of 
money, was not a great yearly wage, and to a certain extent 
must plead excuse for the custom of giving vails. As a rule 
they were treated like dogs by their masters, and were caned 
mercilessly for very trivial faults. They were very far from 
being. faultless, and Swift's man Patrick seems to have been a 
specimen of his kind. How humorously Swift used to describe 
his faults to Stella ! how he was always going to get rid of 
him, and never did ! 

Their liveries were, perhaps, not so gorgeous as in the later 
Georgian time, but they liked fine clothes. * Her footmen, as 
I told you before, are such Beaus, that I do not much care for 
asking them Questions ; when I do, they answer me with a 
sawcy Frown, and say that every thing, which I find fault with, 

» Tunbridge Walksy ed. 1703. * The Perplexed Lover: ^ by Mrs. Ccntlivre, ed. 1 7 12. 

78 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

was done by my Lady Mary's Order. She tells me that she 
intends they shall wear Swords with their next Liveries, having 
lately observed the Footmen of two or three Persons of Quality 
hanging behind the Coach with Swords by their Sides.'* 

One part of their duty was to call on their master's or 
mistress's acquaintances, and ask, with their compliments, 

* How do ye ? ' — equivalent to our sending in a card ; and this 
custom is frequently mentioned in contemporary literature. 

* And I'll undertake, if the How d'ye Servants of our Women 
were to make a Weekly Bill of Sickness,' &c.,* * While she 
sleeps I'm Employed in Howdee's,'' * We have so many come 
with How-dee's, I never mind 'em.' 

The upper gallery at the play was theirs by prescriptive 
right ; their verdict greatly influenced the success or failure of 
a play, and they were worth conciliating. Pinkethman, who 
played to the gallery, knew this, and in Mrs. Centlivre's comedy 
of * The Basset Table,' where he took a footman's part, spoke 
the prologue, in which he not only addressed them in preference 
to the other portion of the audience, but showed his power 
over them by making them rattle their sticks and clap their 
hands at his command. 

Therefore dear Brethren (since I am one of you) 

Whether adorn'd in Grey, Green, Brown or Blue, 

This day stand all by me, as I will fall by you ; 

And now to let — 

The poor Pit see how Pinky s Voice Commands, 

Silence — Now rattle all your Sticks and clap your grimy Hands. 

I greet your Love, and let the vainest Author show, 

Half this command on cleaner hands below, 

Nay, more to prove your Interest, let this Play live by you. 

So may you share good Claret with your Masters, 

Still free in your Amours from their Disasters ; 

Free from poor Housekeeping, where Peck is under Locks. 

Free from Cold Kitchings, and no Christmas Box : 

So may no long Debates i' th* House of Commons, 

Make you in the Lobby star\'e, when hunger summons ; 

But may your plenteous Vails come flowing in, 

Give you a lucky Hit, and make you Gentlemen ; 

And thus preferred, ne'er fear the World's Reproaches, 

But shake your Elbows with my Lord, and keep your Coaches. 

» Spectator, No. 299. « Ibid, 143. • The Basset Table, sc. i., ed. 1706. 


Whilst waiting in the House of Commons, as alluded to 
in the foregoing, the footmen used to form a parliament of 
their own. and discussed politics like their masters. As a 
joke upon the poverty of the Scotch lords, it used to be said 
that, in the footmen's House of Lords, many questions were 
lost to the court party, which were carried in the real House, 
owing to there being so few footmen belonging to them. 
Swift alludes to this practice * : * Pompey, Colonel HilFs black, 
designs to stand speaker for the footmen. I am engaged to 
use my interest for him, and have spoken to Patrick to get 
him some votes.' 

* Give you a lucky Hit ' shows that the spirit of Chawles 
Jeames Yellow Plush was then in existence, and that he some- 
times speculated ; and, if the following newspaper paragraph is 
reliable, he sometimes won : and would be in a position to 
realise the last line in the prologue: *The Ticket which 
entitled the Bearer to 10,000/. drawn in this present Lottery, 
belongs to a Brewer's Man and Maid Servant.' * 

The accomplishments of male servants seem to have been 
varied. Addison says,' * I remember the time when some of 
our well-bred Country Women kept their Valet de Chambre^ 
because, forsooth, a Man was much more handy about them 
than one of their own Sex. I myself have seen one of these 
Male Abigails tripping about the Room with a looking glass 
in his Hand, and combing his Lady's Hair a whole Morning 
together.' And another of the fraternity advertises thus : * A 
likely sober Person, who can give a very good Account of 
himself, by several Gentlemen and others : He has a Mind to 
serve a Gentleman as a Valet de Chanibre or Buttler; or to 
wait on a single Gentleman in Town or Country; he is known to 
shave well, and can make Wigs ; he well understands the Prac- 
tice of Surgery, which maybe of great Use to a Family in the 
Country or elsewhere ; he is a Sportsman ; he understands 
shooting flying. Hunting and Fishing, and all other Sports 
relating thereunto ; he well understands a Horse.' 

But (and it is a curious little revelation of social life) men 
did not monopolise the position of body servants to their 

> Journal to Stdla^ letter 10. « Postboy , Jan. 21/23, '7J4» 

• Spectator^ No. 45. 

8o SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

masters. Steele, writing as Isaac Bickerstaff, about his club, 
says* : * This may suffice to give the world a taste of our 
innocent conversation, which we spun out until about ten 
of the clock, when my maid came with a lantern to light 
me home/ 

There was, however, another class of servants — black 
slaves ; for the children of Ham were still in their cruel 
bondage here — and many are the advertisements respecting 
them, from * a parcel of beads for the Guinea trade ' to a 
* Mulatto Maid missing.' It seems curious to us, now, to think 
of the somewhat inconsequent behaviour of those times, 
keeping black slaves with one hand, and redeeming white ones 
from Barbary with the other. One thing is, the poor whites 
only changed their method of slavery, for they were draughted 
into the navy, and in the long war that followed, there was very 
little hope of their release. The papers of March lo, 1702, 
tell of 143 out of 190 of these poor wretches going to St 
Paul's, where the Bishop of London gave them 70/. between 
them, and the dean. Dr. Sherlock, * admonished them to return 
thanks to the Government for their Deliverance, and to the 
People for their Charity, and that they should not pursue the 
Practices to which Sailers, &c., are too much addicted, viz. 
Swearing and Cursing. There are about 42 left behind, as 
'tis said because some of the Powder, which was carried thither, 
happened not to be Proof.* And the London Post, March 
1 1 / 13, tells a touching little romance of this event : 'This day 
the Slaves lately arrived from Barbary, went in a Body to the 
Admiralty Office, in order to enter themselves on Board the 
Queen's Ships ; And 'twas observable, that when they came 
Yesterday out of Paul's, one of them was spy'd out by 2 of 
his Daughters who came thither only out of Curiosity, and so 
soon as they saw their Father, run with open Arms, imbraced 
and kissed him.' 

It is needless to say that the negro slaves were always 
running away, and being advertised for ; but, as the rewards 
given were not high, it is probable that recapture was almost 
certain. One or two instances will suffice : * A Slender middle 
sized India Black, in a dark grey Livery with Brass Buttons, 

» The Tatier, No. 132. 


went from Mrs. Thwaits, in Stepney, the 4th of June, and is 
supposed to be gone on board some Ship in the Downs ; who- 
soever secures and gives notice of him to Mrs. Thwaits or 
Mr. Tresham, two doors within Aldgate, shall have \os, reward 
and reasonable Charges.' * Went away from his Master's House 
in Drury Lane, upon Monday the 6th Instant, and has since 
been seen at Hampstead, Highgate and Tottenham Court, an 
Indian Black boy, with long Hair, about 15 Years of Age, 
speaks very good English ; he went away in a brown Fustian 
Frock, a blew Wastecoate, and scarlet Shag Breeches, and is 
called by the name of Morat ; Whoever brings him to, or gives 
Notice of him, so as he may be brought to Mr. Pain's House in 
Prince's Court, Westminster, shall have a Guinea Reward, and 
the Boy shall be kindly received.' Judging by his * long Hair,* 
this boy was not a negro — indeed it would seem that it only 
needed a dark skin to constitute a slave ; for * an East India 
young man, named Caesar,' ran away. * A Negro Maid, aged 
about 16 Years, much pitted with the Small Pox, speaks 
English well, having a piece of her left Ear bit off by a Dog ; 
She hath on a strip'd Stuff Wastcoat and Petticoat . . . they 
shall have a Guinea Reward and reasonable Charges.' Some- 
times (indeed it was rather fashionable) the poor wretches 
had collars round their necks. * A Tall Negro young fellow 
commonly known as Jack Chelsea, having a Collar about his 
Neck (unless it be lately filed off), with these Words ; Mr. 
Moses Goodycare of Chelsea his Negros ran aAvay from his 
Master last Tuesday evening.' This habit of wearing collars 
is noticed by Steele,* who inserts a letter from *'a blackamoor 
boy — Porhpey.' * Besides this, the shock dbg has a collar 
that cost almost as much as mine.' Sometimes these collars 
were of silver. * Run away from his Master about a Fortnight 
since, a lusty Negroe Boy about 18 years of Age, full of pock 
holes, had a Silver Collar about his Neck engrav'd Capt. Tho. 
Mitchel's Negroe, living in Griffith Street in Shadwel.' 

They were rarely advertised to be sold — indeed, I have 
only found one instance in all the newspapers of the twelve 
years of Anne's reign, and that is very simple. * A Negro 
boy about 1 2 years of age, that speaks English, is to be sold. 

* Toiler, No. 245. 
VOL. I. G 

82 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Enquire of Mr. Step Rayner, a Watchmaker, at the sign of 
the Dial, without Bishopsgate.' 

Another kind of servant must not be forgotten, although 
his servitude was but a limited one — and that is the ap- 
prentice, of whom Misson says : * An Apprentice is a sort of a 
Slave ; he wears neither Hat nor Cap in his Master's presence ; 
he can't marry, nor have any Dealings on his own Account. 
All he earns is his Masters.* Misson is slightly in error in 
one part of this description, but it is a piece of delicate etiquette, 
which probably escaped a foreigner's eye: the apprentice 
might wear his cap in his master's presence during the last 
year of his time. A branch of industry then existed — 
although probably it was practised by very few : — * Attendance 
will be given at the Sun Coffee House in Queen Street, very 
near Cheapside, on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, where 
Youth may be furnished with Masters to go Apprentices to 
Merchants, Wholesale or Retale Trades, or Handicraft Trades.' 

DAIL Y LIFE. ' 83 



Out-of-door amusements — A holiday — Hatred of French fashions — Beaus' 
oaths — Kissing — Fops : their daily life. 

Passing to the social habits of the people, it is difficult where 
to commence the description. The men of the time were 
humdrum and prosaic — they went nowhere, at least accord- 
ing to our ideas — a journey to York, or so, was really fraught 
with peril and hardship, consequently no one ever moved 
about unless they were compelled. The suburbs were sparsely 
inhabited, and there was nothing much to see when one got 
there, except at Hampstead or Highgate. * Your Glass 
Coach will go to Hide Park for Air. The Suburb fools trudge 
to Lambs Conduit or Totnam ; your sprucer sort of citizen 
gallop to Epsonty your Meckanick gross Fellows, showing 
much conjugal affection, strut before their wives, each with a 
Child in his Arms, to Islington or Hogsdon.' * What a 
suburban holiday was like we may see in the following descrip- 
tion, which, however, is somewhat condensed and revised : * 
* Fearing Time should be Elaps'd and cut short our intended 
Pastime, we Smoak'd our Pipes with greater Expedition, in 
order to proceed 'on our Journey, which we began about 
Eleven a Clock ; and marching thro' Cheapside, found half 
the People we either met, or overtook, equip'd for Hunting ; 
walking backwards and forwards, as I suppose, to shew one 
another their Accoutrements. The City Beaus in Boots as 
black as Jet, which shin'd, by much rubbing, like a stick of 
Ebony ; their Heels arm'd with Spurs, the travelling weapons 
to defend the Rider from the Laziness of his Horse, carefully 

» The Vlrtuosor ed. 1704. « Tht Ijondm Spy, 

G 2 

84 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

preserved bright in a Box of Cotton, and dazzled in the eyes 
of each beholder like a piece of Looking glass ; their Wastes 
hoop'd round with Turkey Leather Belts, at which hung a 
Bagonet, or short Scymitar, in order to cut their Mistresses 
Names upon the trees of the Forest : In the right Hand a 
Whip, mounted against the Breast like the Scepter of a King's 
Statue upon the Change, adom'd with twisted Wiggs and 
crown'd with edg'd Casters ; being all over in such Prim and 
Order, that you could scarce distinguish them from Gentle- 
men. Amongst 'em were many Ladies of the same Quality, 
ty'd up in Safeguards so be-knotted with their two penny 
Taffaty, that a Man might guess by their Finery, their Fathers 
to be Ribbond Weavers. We crowded along, mix'd among 
the Herd, and could not but fancy the major part of the 
Citizens were Scampering out of town to avoid the Horse 
Plague. We mov'd forward, without any discontinuance of 
our Perambulation, till we came to the Globe at Mile End^ 
where a Pretious Mortal made us a Short hand complement, 
and gave us an Invitation to a Sir-Loine of Roast Beef, out 
of which Corroborating Food we renew'd our Lives ; and 
strengthening our Spirits with a Flask of rare Claret, took 
leave of my Friend's Acquaintance and so proceeded. 

* By this time the Road was full of Passengers, every one 
furnish 'd with no small Appetite to Veal and Bacon. Citizens 
in Crowds, upon Pads, Hackneys, and Hunters ; all upon the 
Tittup, as if he who Rid not a Gallop was to forfeit his Horse. 
Some Spurring on with that speed and chearfulness, as if they 
intended never to come back again : Some Double, and some 
Single. Every now and then drop'd a Lady from her Pillion, 
another from her Side Saddle ; Sometimes a Beau would 
tumble and dawb his Boots, which, to shew his Neatness, he 
would clean With his Handkerchief. In this order did we 
March, like Aaron's Proselites, to Worship the Calf, till we 
came to the New rais'd Fabrick call'd Mob's ffole, where the 
Beast was to be Eaten. We press'd hard to get into the 
House, which we found so full, that when I was in, what >vith 
the smell of Sweat, Stinking Breaths and Tobacco, I thought 
there was but a few Gasps between the Place and Eternity. 
Some were Dancing to a Bag pipe ; others Whistling to a Base 


Violin, two Fidlers scraping Lilla burlero,' my Lord Mayor's' 
Delight.upon aCoupleofCrack'dCrfji'</f,'andanoldOtiverian 
trooper tootling upon a Trumpet' After a rest and some 
liquid refreshment, they chatted and bantered with the holiday 
folk, until ' from thence went into the Kitchin, Built up of 
Furzes, in the Open Air, to behold their Cookery ; where the 
Major part of the Calf was Roasting upon a Wooden Spit : Two 
or three great Slivers he had lost off his Buttocks, his Ribs 
par'd to the very Bone, with holes in his Shoulders, each large 
enough to bury a Sevil Orange, that he look'd as if a Kennel 
of Hounds had eveiy one had 
a Snap at him. Under him lay 
the Flitch of Bacon of such an 
Ethiopian Complection, that I 
should rather have guess'd it the 
side of a Blackamore : It looking 
more like a Cannibal's Feast 
than a Christian Entertainment 
Being soon glutted with the view 
of this unusual piece of Cookery, 
we departed from thence, and 
hearing a great bustle in the 
Upper Room of an Outhouse, 
we went up Stairs to see what 
was the matter, where we found 
a poor Fidler, scraping over the 
tune of Now Ponder Well you Parents Dear;* and a 
parcel of Country People Dancing and crying to 't The 
Remembrance of the Uncles Cruelty to the poor Innocent 
liatjes, and the Robtn Red Breasts Kindness, had fix'd in 
their vcr>' Looks such Signs of Sorrow and Compassion, 
that their Dancing sccm'd rather a Religious Worship, than 
a Merry Recreation. Having thus given ourselves a Pros- 
pect of all that the place afforded, we return'd to Stratford, 
where we got a Coach, and from thence to London.' 

This stay-at-home lot naturally disliked all who differed 
from them ; and their especial hatred, on whom all their vials 

86 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

of wrath was poured out, and who provoked their most 
pungent satire, was the travelled fop who had brought back 
with him Continental ideas and fashions. In this matter 
John Bull, until he began to move about a bit, has always 
been most conservative. Anything * un-English * was certain 
of condemnation, and of course, during the war, the French, 
and all belonging to them, were especially hated. 

Our Native Speech we must forget, ere long, 

To learn the French^ that much more Modish Tongue. 

Their Language smoother is, hath pretty Aires ; 

But ours is Gothick^ if compared with theirs. 

The French by Arts of smoother Insinuation, 

Are now become the Darlings of the Nation ; 

His Lordship's Valet must be bred in France^ 

Or else he is a Clown without Pretence : 

The English Blockheads are in Dress so coarse, 

They're fit for nothmg, but to rub a Horse, 

Her Ladyship's ill-manner'd or ill-bred, 

Whose Woman, Confident, or Chamber Maid, 

Did not in France suck in her first breath 'd Air, 

Or did not gain hir Education there ; 

Our Cooks in dressing have no Skill at alL 

They're only fit to serve an Hospital, 

Or to prepare a Dinner for a Camp ; 

French Cooks are only of the Modish Stamp.' 

These affectations offended our insularity, and, probably, 

the following sketch was not at all ungenerous or uncalled 

for : — 

And he who to his Fancy puts no Stop, 

Goes out a Fool, and may return a Fop ; 

And after he Six Months in France has been. 

Comes home a most Accomplish'd Harlequin, 

Drest in a tawdry Suit at Paris riiade, 

For which he more than thrice the Value paid. 

French his Attendants, French alone his Mouth 

Can speak, his native Language is uncouth. 

If to the Ladies he does make Advance, 

His very Looks must have the Air of France, 

The English are so heavy and so dul), 

As if with Lead, not Brains, their Heads were fuU. 

But the brisk Frenchman^ by his subtil Art, 

Soon finds Access to any Lady's Heart. 

■ The Baboon A-lamode, A Satyr against the French^ cd. 1704. 


And again,' ' Then before they can Conster and Pearse,' they 
are sent into France with sordid illiterate Creatures, call'd 
Dry'd Nurses, or Govemours ; Engines of as little use as 
Pacing Saddles, and as unfit to Govern 'em as the Post 
Horses they ride to Paris on ; From whence they return 
with a little smattering of that mighty Universal Language^ 
without being ever able to write true English.' 

If these descriptions be true, and they are so numerousi 
and widely scattered as to leave little doubt of it, the young 
fellow came back a fribble, an emasculated nothing, except 
as regards his periwig, his clothes, and his snuff-box, 

' But Art surpasses Nature \ and we find 
Men may be transform'd inio Womankind 

— a creature who ' can Sing, and Dance, and play upon the 

Guitar ; make Wax Work, and Fillagree, and 

Paint upon Glass'* — who swore pretty little 

oaths — odsbodikinsl* oh mel and never stir 

alive! or blister me!* impair my vigour! 

enfeeble me ! or could say to a lady,^ Madam, 

split me, you are very impertinent 1 who 

painted himself 'purely to oblige the ladies,' 

— and who, when he met a friend, must needs 

fall a-kissing him, described in one old play as 'the Embracing' 

and the fulsome Trick you Men have got of Kissing one 

another.' Or, as in another play, one of those travelled pretty 

dears says,'" ' Sir — You Kiss Pleasingly — I love to Kiss a 

Man, in Paris we kiss nothing else.' 

What was their life composed of, and how did they spend 
it .' Naturally they got up late, breakfasted en desltabUle, 
held a sort of lev^, till it was time to go to White's or the 
Cocoa Tree, or else lounged in the Mall, where Ward de- 
scribes the scene as 'It seem'd to me as if the World was 
turn'd Top-Side turvy ; for the ladies look'd like undaunted 

' Till Virtuose. ' Constnie and parse. 

■ Almonds fcr Parrols, ed. 1708. ' TuHMJge IValJa. 

» TalliT, Ho. 13, • ThtBiatis Diut. 

' TaiUr, No. 2. • Si. Jama's Park, a Satyr, 1709. 

• Tunbriilgi Wjiks. '• Lovt Mains a Man, 

88 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

Heroes, fit for Government or Battle, and the Gentlemen like a 
parcel of Fawning, Flattering Fops, that could bear Cuckoldom 
with Patience, make a Jest of an Affront, and swear them- 
selves very faithful and humble Servants to the Petticoat ; 
Creeping and Cringing in dishonour to themselves, to what was 
decreed by Heaven their Inferiours ; as if their Education had 
been amongst Monkeys, who (as it is said) in all cases give the 
Pre-eminence to their Females/ Or perhaps he would lounge 
down to the Exchange to buy a pair of gloves or a sword knot, 
and, under any circumstances, to ogle the shop girls. Ward's 
language may be a little rough, but it is sound, and it touches 
one of the social cankers of the day. Then dinner at Pontac's, 
or some ordinary ; then a little more coffee-house, and a wind 
up at some side box — favourite haunt of beaus — at the play, 
where probably other of the jetmesse dort^e — this time those 
who had received a home education — would arrive ; would-be 
men-about-town,things of sixteen years old or so — whose future 
development would be first Mohock, then sot : ^ * Such as 
come Drunk and Screaming into a Play House, and stand upon 
the Benches, and toss their full Perriwigs and empty Heads, 
and with their shrill unbroken Pipes, cry Dam me, this is a 
Damn'd Play' A little Tunbridge or Bath in the season, 
and this was the sum of their existence, which, if the money 
held out, lasted until they either physically rotted, or settled 
down to married life ! sated and blasd ; or, if it was soon 
spent, and the brilliant meteor had flashed its course across 
the heavens, there was nothing but the living death of the 
debtors* gaol, from which release was next to impossible. 

* Tk€ Virtuoso, 





Receiving in bed — A lady's life — A fine lady's diary — Walking — Visiting 
— Tea-table scandal — Shopping — Daily church — Pets — Dancing — 
Books on ditto — A dancing master. 

And how did the women fare ? We have seen that among 
the middle classes the domestic virtues were encouraged 
and highly extolled, and to be a * notable housewife ' was a 
legitimate and proper ambition ; but how did the fine-lady 
class spend their time ? Were their lives more usefully em- 
ployed than those of the beaus ? Addison says that he re- 
members the time when ladies received visits in bed, and thus 
graphically descijbes the custom ;* * It was then looked upon 
as a piece of 111 breeding for a Woman to refuse to see a Man, 
because she was not stirring ; and a Porter would have been 
thought unfit for his Place, that could have made so awkward 
an Excuse. As I love to see everything that is new, I once 
prevailed upon my Friend Will Honeycomb to carry me along 
with him to one of these Travelled Ladies, desiring him at the 
same time, to present me as a Foreigner who could not speak 
English, so that I might not be obliged to bear a Part in the 
Discourse. The Lady, tho' willing to appear undrest, had put 
on her best Looks, and painted herself for our Reception. Her 
Hair appeared in a very nice Disorder, as the Night Gown 
which was thrown upon her Shoulders was ruffled with great 

There is an amusing little pamphlet — not a chap book 
proper* — which, though undated, bears internal evidence 

* Spectator^ No. 45. 

' 7 he English Lady^s Catechism. I have seen the original edition, dated 
1 703- —J- A. 

90 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

of the time of its birth, which gives an account of a fine 
lady's life. 

* How do you employ your time now ?' 

* I He in Bed till Noon, dress all the Afternoon, Dine in 
the Evening, and play at Cards till Midnight' 

* How do you spend the Sabbath ?' 
' In Chit Chat' 

'What do you talk of?' 

* New Fashions and New Plays/ 

* How often do you go to Church ?' 

* Twice a year or oftener, according as my Husband gives 
me new Cloaths.' 

* Why do you go to Church when you have new Cloaths ?* 

* To see other Peoples Finery, and to show my own, and 
to laugh at those scurvy, out of fashion Creatures that come 
there for Devotion.' 

* Pray, Madam, what Books do you read V 

* I read lewd Plays and winning Romances.' 

* Who is it you love ?' 

* Myself.' 

* What ! nobody else ?' 

* My Page, my Monkey, and my Lap Dog.' 

* Why do you love them ?' 

* Why, because I am an English Lady, and they are Foreign 
Creatures ; my Page from Genoa, my Monkey from the East 
Indies, and my Lap Dog from Vigo.'* 

* Would not they have pleased you as well if they had been 

* No, for I hate everything that Old England brings forth, 
except it be the temper of an English Husband, and the liberty 
of an English wife ; I love the French Bread, French Wines, 
French Sauces, and a French Cook ; in short, I have all about 
me French or Foreign, from my Waiting Woman to my Parrot* 

And Addison tells much the sam^ story when he gives a 
portion of the diary of a lady of quality.* 

* Wednesday. From Eight 'till Ten. Drank two Dishes of 
Chocolate in Bed, and fell asleep after 'em. 

* This settles the date as being early in Anne's reign, as the galleons were 
captured at Vigo in 1702, and everything from Vigo was fashionable. 
« SpectaUfry No. 323. 


* From Te7i to Eleven, Eat a Slice of Bread and Butter, 
drank a Dish of Bohea, read the Spectator, 

* From Eleven to One. At my Toilet, try'd a new Head. 
Gave orders for Veney to be combed and washed. Mem, I 
look best in Blue. 

* Fro7n One till Half an Hour after Two. Drove to the 
Change. Cheapned a couple of Fans. 

* Till Four, At Dinner. Mem, Mr. Froth passed by in 
his new Liveries. 

^ From Four to Six. Dressed, paid a Visit to old lady 
Blithe and her Sister, having heard they were gone out of 
Town that Day. 

* From Six to Eleven. At Basset Mem, Never set again 
upon the Ace of Diamonds. 

'Thursday. From Eleven at Night to Eight in tlie 
Morning. Dream'd that I punted to Mr. Froth. 

^ From Eight to Ten. Chocolate. Read two Acts in 
Aurenzebe^ abed. 

* From Ten to Eleven. Tea Table. Sent to borrow Lady 
Faddle's Cupid for Veney. Read the Play- Bills. Received a 
Letter from Mr. Froth. Mem. Locked it up in my strong box. 

* Rest of the Morning. Fontange the Tire woman, her 
Account of my Lady Bhttie's Wash. Broke a Tooth in 
my little Tortoiseshell Comb. Sent Frank to know how 
my Lady Hectick rested after her Monky's leaping out at 
Window. Looked pale. Fontange tells me my Glass is 
not true. Dressed by Three. 

* From Three to Four. Dinner cold before I sat down. 

* From Four to Eleven. Saw Company. Mr. Froth's opinion 
oi Milton. His Account of the Moliocks. His Fancy for a 
Pin-cushion. Picture in the Lid of his Snuff-box. Old Lady 
Faddle promises me her Woman to cut my Hair. Lost five 
Guineas at Crimp. 

* Twelve a Clock at Night. Went to Bed. 

* Friday. Eight in t/ie Morning, Abed. Read over all 
Mr. /^n7///'j Letters. Cupid ^,r\A Veney. 

* Ten a Clock, Stay'd within all day — not at home. 

^ From Ten to Twelve. In Conference with my Mantua 

' ^By Diyden. 

92 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

Maker. Sorted a Suit of Ribbands. Broke my. Blue China 

* From Twelve to One. Shut myself up in my Chamber, 
practised Lady Betty Modely's Skuttle. 

* One in tlie Afternoon. Called for my flowered Handker- 
chief. Worked half a Violet Leaf in it Eyes aked and Head 
out of Order. Threw by my Work, and read over the remain- 
ing Part oi Aurenzebe. 

* From Three to Four, Dined. 

* From Four to Twelve, Changed my Mind, dressed, went 
abroad, and play'd at Crimp till Midnight Found Mrs. Spitely 
at home. Conversation : ^rs. Brilliants Necklace false Stones. 
Old Lady Loveday going to be married to a young Fellow that 
is not worth a Groat Miss Prue gone into the Country. Tom 
Townley has red Hair. Meipi, Mrs. Spitely whispered in my 
Ear that she had something to tell me about Mr. Frothy I am 
sure it is not true. 

* Between Twelve and One, Dreamed that Mr. Froth lay 
at my Feet and called me Indamora,^ 

* Saturday. Rose at Eight a Clock in the Morning. Sate 
down to my Toilet. 

* From Eight to Nine. Shifted a Patch for Half an Hour 
before I could determine it Fixed it above my left Eye- 

* From Nine to Twelve. Drank my Tea and Dressed. 

* From Twelve to Two, At Chappel. A great deal of 
good Company. Mem, The third Air in the new Opera. 
Lady Blit/ie dressed frightfully. 

' From Three to Four. Dined. Miss Kitty called upon 
me to go to the Opera before I was risen from Table. 

* From Dinner to Six. Drank Tea. Turned off" a Footman 
for being rude to Veney, 

* Six a Clock, Went to the Opera. I did not see Mr. Froth 
till the beginning of the second Act Mr. Froth talked to a 
Gentleman in a black Wig. Bowed to a Lady in the Front Box. 
Mr. Froth and his Friend clapp'd Nicolini in the third Act. 
Mr. Froth cried out Ancora, Mr. Froth led me to my Chair. 
I think he squeezed my Hand. 

' The heroine in Aurmube. 


* Elei^en at Night Went to Bed. Melancholy Dreams. 
Methought Nicolini said he was Mr. Froth, 

* Sunday. Indisposed. 

* Monday. Eight a Clock, Waked by Miss A^V/;/. Auren- 
zebe lay upon the Chair by me. Kitty repeated without 
Book the Eight best Lines in the Play. Went in our Mobbs 
to the dumb Man,^ according to Appointment. Told me that 
my Lover's Name began with a G. Mem. The Conjurer was 
within a Letter of Mr. Froth's Name/ &c. 

Virtually, these two different versions of how an idle 
woman passed her time agree remarkably well, and they let 
a whole flood of daylight into the inner life of the time— on 
what they breakfasted, when they dined, what time the opera 
began, etc. Apart from opera, the play, and cards, how were 
the females of the middle class to amuse themselves of an 
evening? Say they had been busy all day, the evenings 
had to be passed somehow. There was very little of that 
domesticity and home life of which we are so proud, for the 
men spent their evenings at their club, their coffee-house, the 
tavern, or the play, so they had to amuse themselves with 
such innocent games as hot cockles, questions and commands, 
mottoes, similes, cross purposes, blindman's buff, and a game 
called * Parson has lost his Cloak,' or else * Bouts rim^s,' 
which consisted of giving four terminal words of any kind 
so that they rhymed, and then some one else filling up 
the blank lines, and making four lines of sensible poetry.* / 
In fact, just the same amusements that are now com- 
pelled to be resorted to as pastimes in a village home. The 
better class had musical evenings, for chamber music was 
popular, but the spinets and harpsichords were of moderate 
compass, and very slight in sound. They danced country 
dances too, any quantity of them ; and there was the curse 
of the age — cards — as a never-failing resource. 

The women did not walk much. Swift seems to think 
they did ; but then a little walking went a long way with him. 
He quite boasts of his walk from and to Chelsea of a day, a 
good two-mile walk each way, as somewhat of a feat, and he 

* Duncan Campbell, who pretended to tell fortunes by second sight 

* See Speetalor^ No. 6a 

94 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

repeatedly grumbles at Stella for not walking more — tells her 
to knock off her claret and buy a pair of good strong boots 
and use them.^ * When I pass the Mall in the evening it is 
prodigious to see the number of ladies walking there ; and I 
always cry shame at the ladies of Ireland, who never walk at 
all, as if their legs were of no use, but to be laid aside. ... I 
tell you what, if I was with you, when we went to Stoyte, at 
Donnybrook, we would only take a coach to the hither end 
of Stephen's Green, and from thence go every step on foot ; 
yes, faith, every step.' 

The Mall was the fashionable lounge, or the Parade, 
where smoking was not allowed.* * From thence we walk'd 
into the Parade, which my Friend told me us'd, in a Morning, 
to be cover'd with the Bones of Red Herrings, and smelt as 
strong about Breakfast Times as a Wet Salter's Shop at Mid- 
summer. But now, says he, its perfum'd again with English 
Breath ; and the scent of Oroonoko Tobacco no more offends 
the Nostrils of our squeamish Ladies.* And there were the 
ducks to feed on the canal. But the Mall was the place. 
Ward goes into ecstasies over it: never was there such a 
sight. * From thence we went thro' the Pallace into the Park 
about the time when the Court Ladies raise their extended 
Limbs from their downy Couches, and Walk into the Mall to 
refresh their charming Bodies with the Cooling and Salubrious 
Breezes of the Gilded Evening. We could not possibly have 
chose a Luckier Minute to have seen the delightful Park in its 
greatest Glory and Perfection ; for the brightest Stars of the 
Creation sure (that shine by no other Power than humane 
Excellence) were moving here with such awful State and 
Majesty that their Graceful Deportments bespoke *em God- 
desses,' etc. 

Of course they paid visits — how could women live without 
a little gossip ? The invaluable Misson takes a note of the prac- 
tice. * Persons of the first Quality visit one another in England 
as much as we do in France^ generally about Evening ; but the 
ordinary Sort of People have not that Custom. Among us all 
the little Shopkeepers, particularly the Women, go with their 
Gowns about their Heels to visit one another by Turns, either 

> Journal to Stella, letter 23. « 7'he London Spy, 


to crack and bounce to one another, or else to sit with their 
Arms a cross, and say nothing. What can be more tedious, 
impertinent, and ridiculous than such Visits ? Here, Persons 
of that Condition go to see one another with their Work in 
their Hands and Chearfulness in their Countenance, without 
Rule or Constraint. Upon certain Occasions, as upon Mourning 
or Marriage, they pay one another Visits of Ceremony.' Brown 
gives a most amusing description ' of ' the City Ladies Visiting 
Day, which is a familiar Assembly, or a general Council, of the 
fair and charming Sex, where all the important affairs of their 
Neighbours are lai^ely discuss'd, but judg'd in an arbitrary 


manner, without hearing the Parties speak for themselves. 
Nothing comes amiss to these Tribunals ; matters of high and 
no consequence, as Religion and Cuckoldom, Commodes and 
Sermons, Politicks and Gallantry, Receipts of Cookery and 
Scandal, Coquetry and Preserving, Jilting and Laundry ; in 
short, every thing is subject to the Jurisdiction of this Court, 
and no Appeal lies from it. The Coach stops at the Gold- 
smith's or Mercer's Door, and off leaps Mr. Skip Kennel frofti 
behind it, and makes his Address to the Book Keeper or 
Prentice, and asks if his Lady (for that is always the name of 

> Tht Wtrks of Thomas Brvum, ed. 1708, vol. iii p. 86. 

96 SOCIAL LIFE tit the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

the Mistress) receives any Visits that day or No ; some stay 
must be made till the Woman above stairs sends down her 
Answer, and then the Pink of Courtesie is receiv'd at the top 
of the Stairs, like King James by the French King, and handed 
to her stool of discourse. . . . Thus they take a sip of Tea, 
then for a draught or two of Scandal to digest it, next let it 
be Ratafia, or any other Favourite Liquor, Scandal must be 
the after draught to make it sit easie on their Stomach, till the 
half hour's past, and they have disburthen'd themselves of 
their Secrets, and take Coach for some other place to collect 
new matter for Defamation,' 

Tea was then in its infancy, but it was an extremely 
fashionable beverage, in spite of its expense, and the tea- 
table was the very centre of scandal and gossip. 

How see we Scandal (for our sex loo base), J 

Seat in dread Empire in the Female Race, r 

'Mong Beaus and Women, Fans and Mechlin Lace, ' 
Cliief scat of Slander, Ever there we sec 
Thick Scanda] circulate with right Bohea. 
There, source of black'ning Falshood's Mint of Lies, \ 
Each Uame ih' Improvement of her Talent tries, r 

And at each Sip a Lady's Honour dies ; i 

Truth rare as Silence, or a Negro Swan, 
Appears among those Daughters of the Fan. 

Naturally, when out walking they did a little shopping, 
or what passed as such ; 
for then, as now, many 
a fine lady would go 
into a shop and look at 
the goods simply to pass 
away the time, regard- 
less of the loss and in- 
convenience to the shop- 
keeper. Steele notices 
. this — indeed, what little 
social blot ever went 
undetected by the om- 
niscient Spectator 1 — in the following amusing strain : ' ' I am, 


' Sptelattr, No. 337. 



dear Sir, one of the top China Women about Town ; and 
though I say it, keep as good Things and receive as fine 
Company as any o' this End of the Town, let the other 
be who she will. In short I am in a fair Way to be 
easy, were it not for a Club of Female Rakes who, under 
pretence of taking their innocent rambles, forsooth, and 
diverting the Spleen, seldom fail to plague me twice or 
thrice *a -day to cheapen Tea, or buy a Skreen. What 
else should they mean ? as they often repeat it. These Rakes 
are your idle Ladies of Fashion, who having nothing to do 
employ themselves in tumbling over my Ware. One of these 
No Customers (for, by the way, they seldom or never buy any- 
thing) calls for a set of Tea Dishes, another for a Bason, a third 
for my best Green Tea, and even to the Punch bowl ; there's 
scarce a piece in my Shop but must be displaced, and the 
whole agreeable Architecture disordered, so that I can compare 
'em to nothing but to the Night Goblins that take a Pleasure 
to overturn the Disposition of Plates and Dishes in the kitchens 
of your housewifely Maids. Well, after all this Racket and 
Clutter, this is too dear, that is their Aversion ; another thing 
is Charming, but not wanted. The Ladies are cured of the 
Spleen, but I am not a Shilling the better for it.* 

One famous place for shopping was the New Exchange, 
in the Strand, which must have been something like our 
arcades ; and many are the allusions, in contemporary litera- 
ture, to the dangerous allurements of the Exchange shop- 
girls. * Did you buy anything } Some Bawblcs. But my 
choice was so distracted among the Pretty Merchants and 
their Dealers, I knew not where to run first. One little lisping 
Rogue, Ribbandths, Gloveths, Tippeths. Sir, cries another, 
will you buy a fine Sword Knot ; then a third, pretty voice 
and f^urtsic, Does not your Lady want Hoods, Scarfs, fine 
green silk Stockings. I went by as if I had been in a Seraglio, 
a living Gallery of Beauties — staring from side to side, I 
bowing, they laughing ; so made my escape.' ^ 

This was the universal description of the New Exchange, 
and the character of their wares has been immortalised in a 
song by Ward : — 

* The Lying Lover. 
VOL. I. n 


SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Fine Lace or Linnen, Sir, 
Good Gloves or Ribbons here ; 

What is't you please to Buy, 
Pray what d'ye ask for this ? 
Ten Shillings is the Price ; 
It cost me, sir, no less, 

I Scorn to tell a Lye, Sir. 

Madam, what is't you want. 
Rich Fans of India paint? 

Fine Hoods or Scarfs, my Lady? 
Silk Stockings will you buy, 
In Grain or other Dye ? 
Pray, Madam, please your Eye ; 

I've good as e'er was made yc. 

My Lady, feel the Weight, 
They're Fine, and yet not Slight ; 

I'd with my Mother trust 'em. 
For Goodness and for Wear, 
Madam, I Vow and Swear. 
I show'd you this same Pair 

In hopes to gain your Custom. 

Pray tell me in a Word, 
At what you can afford, 

With Living Gain to sell 'em : 
The price is one Pound five, 
And as I hope to Live, 
I do my Profit give, 

Your Honour's very welcome. 

Knives, Penknives, Combs or Scis- 

Tooth Pickers, Sirs, or Tweesers ; 
Or Walking Canes to Ease ye. 

Ladies, d'ye want fine Toys, 

For Misses or for Boys ? 

Of all sorts I have Choice, 
And pretty things to please ye. 

I want a little Babye, 

As pretty a one as may be, 

With Head dress made of Feather: 
And now I think again, 
I want a Toy from Spain, 
You know what 'tis I mean : 

Pray send 'em home together. 

Another female practice, then, was to go to daily service 
at church especially — and St. Paul's, Covent Garden, was a 
very fashionable church at which to worship, or ogle the 
beaus.* *This Market and that Church,' says my friend, 
* hides more faults of kind Wives and Daughters among the 
Neighbouring Inhabitants than the pretended Visits either to 
my Cousin at t'other end of the Town, or some other distant 
Acquaintance ; for if the Husband asks. Where have you been. 
Wife ? or the Parent, Where have you been, Daughter ? the 
Answer, if it be after Eleven in the forenoon, or between Three 
and Four in the Afternoon, is, At Prayers. But, if early in the 
Morning, then their excuse is, I took a walk to Covent Garden 
Market, not being very well, to refresh myself with the scent 
of the Herbs and Flowers ; Bringing a Flower, or a Sprig of 
Sweet Bryar, home in her Hand, and it confirms the matter.* 

When not walking, ladies used either a coach or a sedan 
chair, and but seldom rode on horseback ; but, when they did 
so, they generally preferred the pillion to the side-saddle, as 

* The London Spy, 


In the accompanying illustration, and held on by the belt 
either of her cavalier or groom. 

In the country, horse exercise was much more in vogue, 
and Swift repeatedly alludes to, and reminds Stella of, her 
riding. When riding, ladies very frequently wore masks to 
protect the countenance from the rays of the sun. s 

Frequent allusions are made to a lady's pets, her lap-dog 
or her parrot ; but very few people know the very wide range 
of choice she hid in the selection of those pets Needless to 
say there were monkeys, both Marmoset and other kinds ; 
there were paroquets, paroquets of Guinea, cockatoos and 
macaws, scarlet nightingales from the West Indies, lorries 
or lurries, canaries, both ash and lemon colour, white and 
grey turtle doves from Barbary, white turtle doves, and the 
turtle doves from Moco, no bigger than a lark, spotted very 
fine. There were milk-white peacocks, 
white and pyed pheasants, bantams, and 
furbelow fowls from the East Indies, and 
top-knot hens from Hamburg, She would 
hardly want the ' Parcel of living Vipers, 
fresh taken, fat and good, are to be sold 
by the dozen.' nor would she care about 
the ' fine Tyger from the East Indies, who 
was brought over together with some fine 
geese from the same part of the world,' and biding piluon. 
some ' Amedawarcs.' In fact there were 
'Jamrachs' then as now, and many of the bird shops were 
in St. Martin's Lane, near which locality they still abound. 
There is a curious advertisement in the Postman, January 
12/15, 1706. which settles the date of bird-seed glasses 
' The so much approved and most convenient new fashion 
Crystal Bird Glasses, which effectually prevent the Littering / 
of the Seeds into the Rooms,' 

An innocent amusement, of which they were very fond,"^ 
was dancing. And of dances there were a considerable 
quantity : country dances and jigs, of which there was an 
infinite variety, and minuets, rigadoons, and other more 
stately and stagey dances, as the ' Louvre and the French 
Brittagne.' These latter were elaborate, and absolutely in- 

loo SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

auguratcd a fresh literature devoted to their cult This seems 
to have been started by one Thoinet Arbeau, in a book pub- 
lished by him in 1 588, and he may be called the originator 
of the ballet. Both Beauchamp and Feuillet wrote on this 
subject in French. Feuillet's book was translated and im- 
proved upon by Siris, in 1706. John Weaver wrote on this 
subject (in his * Orchesography *) about 1708, and John Essex 
(in the * Treatise of Chorography ') in 17 10. The object was 
to teach the different steps and dances, by means of diagrams. 
Thus coupees, bourses, fleurets, bounds or tacs, contretemps, 
chasses, sissones, pirouettes, capers, entrechats, etc., all had 
their distinguishing marks. 

> The effect of learning by this method is whimsically given 
by Addison.^ * I was this morning awakened by a sudden 



shake of the house, and as soon as I had got a little out of 
my consternation I felt another, which was followed by two 
or three repetitions of the same convulsion. I got up as fast 
as possible, girt on my rapier, and snatched up my hat, when 
my landlady came up to me and told me " that the gentle- 
woman of the next house begged me to step thither, for that 
a lodger she had taken in was run mad, and she desired my 
advice," as indeed everybody in the whole lane does upon 
important occasions. I am not like some artists, saucy, be- 
cause I can be beneficial, but went immediately. Our neigh- 
bour told us " she had the day before let her second floor to a 
very genteel youngish man, who told her he kept extra- 
ordinary good hours, and was generally home most part of 

» The TatUr, No. 88. 


the morning and evening at study ; but that this morning he 
had for an hour together made this extravagant noise which 
we then heard." I went up stairs with my hand upon the hilt 
of my rapier, and approached this new lodger's door. 

* I looked in at the keyhole, and there I saw a well made 
man look with great attention on a book, and on a sudden 
jump into the air so high, that his head almost touched the 
ceiling. He came down safe on his right foot, and again 
flew up, alighting on his left ; then looked again at his book, 
and holding out his right leg, put it into such a quivering 
motion, that I thought he would have shaked it off. He then 
used the left after the same manner, when on a sudden, to my 
great surprise, he stooped himself incredibly low, and turned 
gently on his toes. After this circular motion, he continued 
bent in that humble posture for some time, looking on his 
book. After this, he recovered himself with a sudden spring, 
and flew round the room in all the violence and disorder 
imaginable, until he made a full pause for want of breath. 

* In this />//t'r/;;/, my women asked " what I thought." I 
whispered, " that I thought this learned person an enthusiast, 
who possibly had his first education in the Peripatetic way, 
which was a sect of Philosophers, who always studied when 
walking." But observing him much out of breath, I thought 
it the best time to master him if he were disordered, and 
knocked at his door. I was surprized to find him open it, 
and say with great civility and good mien, " that he hoped he 
had not disturbed us." I believed him in a lucid interval, anc 
desired " he would please to let me see his book." He did so, 
smiling. I could not make anything of it, and therefore 
asked ** in what language it was writ.*' He said, " it was one 
he studied with great application ; that it was his profession 
to teach it, and he could not communicate his knowledge 
without a consideration." I answered '* that I hoped he would 
hereafter keep his thoughts to himself, for his meditation this 
morning had cost me three coffee dishes, and a clean pipe.' 
He seemed concerned at that, and told me " he was a dancing 
master, and had been reading a dance or two before he went 
out, which had been written by one who had been taught at 
an Academy in France." He observed me at a stand, and 

I02 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

went on to inform me, "that now Artiadate MOTIONS as 
well as SOUNDS were expressed hy Proper CHARACTERS, 
and that there is nothing so common as to communicate a 
Dance by a letter." I besought him hereafter to meditate in 
a ground room.* 

The public dancers were utilised in rather a curious way, 
if we may credit Mrs. Centlivre — who certainly ought to 
know. She says, in * Love at a Venture,' * Sir Paul Cautious^ 
Go to the Play House, and desire some of the Singers and 
Dancers to come hither,' and the servant, later on in the 
play, announces * The Singers and Dancers are come, Sir. 
\ (Here is songs and dances.) ' 




Games at cards — Curious cards — Price — Tax on cards — Female passion 
for gambling — The Groom Porter's — Gaming houses — Gamesters — 
Noted gamesters — Debts of honour — Speculation — Life insurances — 
Marine and other insurances — Shopkeepers' lotteries — Government 
lotteries — Prizes and winners. 

But primcst and chief delight of men and women in this 
age was CARDS. Never, perhaps, was such a card-playing 
time — certainly not in England. Ombre, which is so vividly 
described in the third canto of the * Rape of the Lock,' was a 
game which could be played by two, three, or five persons — 
generally by three ; to each of whom nine cards were dealt. 
It takes its name from the Spanish, the person who under- 
took to stand the game making use of the words * Yo soy 
I'hombre,' * I am the man/ It was an improvement on Primero^ 
which disappeared after its introduction. L'hombre is still 
played in Spain under the name of Tresillo^ and in Spanish 
America it is called Rocambor. Piquet is now played. Basset 
was a very gambling game, closely resembling the modem 
Faro \ Whisk or Whist, Brag, Laiiterloo, or Lanctre loo, in which 
pam, or the knave of clubs, is the highest card : ^ * Were 
she at her Parish Church, in the Height of her Devotion, 
should any Body in the Interim but stand at the Church 
Door and hold up the Knave of Clubs, she would take it to 
be a Challenge at Lanctre Loo ;-and starting from her prayers, 
would follow her beloved Pam, as a deluded Traveller does 
an Ignis Fatuus ' ; and One and Thirty, which does not seem 
a very extravagant game, judging by Swift's account of it.* 

* Ward's Adam and Eve siript of their Furbelows. 
« Journal to iitella, letter 53. 

104 SOCIAL LIFE in tke reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

' Lord Treasurer has had an ugly fit of the rheumatism, 
but is now near quite well. I was playing at one and thirty 
with him and his family the other night He gave us all 
twelvepence apiece to begin with.' These were some of the 
games ' they delighted in ; and the accompanying illustra- 
tion very vividly brings before us a quiet and pleasant game 
at cards. 

The implements of gaming, the cards themselves, were 
much smaller and thinner than those we are accustomed to 
play with. They ivere not always confined to the prosaic 
display of the pips and Court cards, as ours are, but took a 
far more fanciful flight. ' Geographical, Geometrical, Astro- 
nomical and Carving 
Cards, each Pack price 
\s.' ' Orange Cards, 
Representing the late 
King James's Reign 
and Expedition of the 
Prince of Orange, 
Plots of the Papists, 
Bishops in the Tower 
and Trial, Consecrated 
mock Prince of Wales, 
Popish Midwife, Fight 
at Reading, Pope's 
Nuncio, Captain Tom, 
Essex's Murder, burning Mass Houses, Army going 
over to the Prince of Orange, etc' ; cards delineating the vic- 
tories of Marlborough and other events in Anne's reign ; 
Sachevercl cards; and anything for fashion — cards from 
Vigo — in i;o2— after the great victory there ; proverb cards ; 
all kinds of cards. The ordinary playing cards were cheap 
enough in all conscience, 'the best Principal superfine Picket 
Cards at 2s, 6d. a Dozen ; the best Principal superfine Ombro 
Cards at 2s. gd. a dozen ; the best Principal superfine Basset 
Cards at 3J 6d. a dozen ' (packs understood). The price to 

' Olhcr games were ctibbage, all fours, lulT and honours, French ruff, five 
cards, costly colours, bon ace, puit, plain dealing. Queen Naiarecn, pennech, 
post and pail, bankafalat, beaat. 


retailers averaged \\d. per pack, and it is marvellous how 
they could, at that time, be made for the money. 

By an Act of 10 Anne, c. ,18, s. 176, etc., a duty of six- 
pence per pack for cards, and five shillings a pair for dice, 
was imposed ; and all cards made and unsold before June 12, 
171 1, were to be brought in to be stamped, and pay a duty 
of one halfpenny per pack, and dice 6d. a pair. 

The passion of women for gambling was a fruitful theme 
for satire in those days. * She's a profuse Lady, tho' of a 
Miserly Temper, whose Covetous Disposition is the ver^" Cause 
of her Extravagancy ; for the Desire of Success wheedles 
her Ladyship to play, and the incident Charges and Dis- 
appointments that attend it, make her as expensive to her 
Husband, as his Coach and six Horses. When an unfortunate 
Night has happen'd to empty her Cabinet, she has many 
Shifts to replenish her Pockets. Her Jewels are carry'd 
privately into Lombard Street, and Fortune is to be tempted 
the next Night with another Sum, borrowed of my Lady's 
Goldsmith at the Extortion of a Pawnbroker ; and if that 
fails, then she sells off her Wardrobe, to the great grief of her 
Maids ; stretches her Credit amongst those she deals with, or 
makes her Waiting Woman dive into the Bottom of her 
Trunk, and lug out her green Net Purse full of old Jacobuses, 
in Hopes to recover her losses by a Turn of Fortune, that 
she may conceal her bad Luck from the Knowledge of her 
Husband.' * 

Nay, worse subterfuges than these are more than openly 

hinted at in divers authors. One or two examples will 


This Itch for play has likewise fatal been, 
And more than Cupid draws the Ladies in, 
A Thousand Guineas for Basset prevails, 
A Bait when Cash runs low, that seldom fails ; 
And when the Fair One can't the Debt defray 
In Sterling Coin, does Sterling Beauty pay.'^ 

No wonder that Steele bursts out,' * Oh, the damned Vice ! 

* * The Gaming Lady, or Bad Luck to him that has her,* in Adam and Eve 
stript of tfuir Furbelows. 

^ Epilogue to The GamesUr^ ed. 1705. » The Tender Husband, 

io6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

That Women can imagine all Household Care, regard to 
Posterity, and fear of Poverty, must be sacrificed to a game 
at Cards.* 

But we must not think that the fair ones monopolised the 
enjoyment of this passion — the sterner sex were equally 
culpable. Gaming houses were plentiful. The * Groom 
Porter's * was still in full swing, vide this advertisement : ' 
* Whereas Her Majesty, by her Letters Patent to Thomas 
Archer Esq. constituting him Her Groom Porter, hath given 
full Power to him and such Deputies as he shall appoint, to 
supervise, regulate, and authorize (by and under the Rules, 
Conditions and Restrictions by the Law prescribed) all 
manner of Gaming within this Kingdom. And, whereas 
several of Her Majesty's Subjects, keeping Plays or Games in 
their Houses, have been lately abused, and had Moneys 
extorted from them by several ill disposed Persons, contrary 
to Law. These are therefore to give Notice, That no Person 
whatsoever, not producing his Authority from the said Groom 
Porter, under the Seal of his Office, hath any Power to act 
anything under the said Patent. And to the end that all 
such Persons offending as aforesaid may be proceeded against 
according to Law, it is hereby desired, that Notice be given 
of all such Abuses to the said Groom Porter, or his Deputies, 
at his Office at Mr. Stephenson's, a Scrivener's House, over 
against Old Man's Coffee House near Whitehall.* 

The Groom Porter's own Gaming House must have been 
the scene of brawls.^ 

Sir Geo, Airy, Oh, I honour Men of the Sword ) and I presume this 
Gentleman is lately come from Spain or Portugal — by his Scars. 

Marplot, Mo, really, Sir George, mine sprung from civil Fury : 
Happening last night into the Groom Porter's — I had a strong Inclina- 
tion to go ten Guineas with a sort of a — sort of a — kind of a Milk Sop, 
as I thought ; A Pox of the Dice, he flung out, and my Pockets being 
empty, as Charles knows they sometimes are, he proved a Surly North 
Briton, and broke my face for my Deficiency. 

If scenes like this were enacted at the Groom Porter's, 
what must have taken place at the other gaming houses.^ 

> TTie London Gazette^ Dec. 6/10, 1705. "^ The Busy Body. 


Let two contemporary writers, whose language, though rough, 
is trustworthy, answer the question. ' Gaming is an Estate 
to which all the World has a Pretence, tho' few espouse it 

that arc willing to keep either their Estates, or Reputations. 
I knew two Middlesex Sharpers not long ago, that inherited 
a West Country Gentleman's Estate, who I believe, wou'd 

io8 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

have never made them his Heirs in his last Will and 

^ Lantrillou is a kind of a Republick very ill ordered, 
where all the World are Hail Fellow well met ; no distinction 
of Ranks, no Subordination observed. The greatest Scoundrel 
of the Town, with Money in his Pockets, shall take his Turn 
before the best Duke ox Peer in the Land, if the Cards are on 
his side. From these Privileged Places not only all Respect 
and Inferiority is Banish'd ; but every thing that looks like 
Good Manners, Compassion, or Humanity : Their Hearts are 
so Hard and Obdurate, that what occasions the Grief of one 
Man, gives Joy and Satisfaction to his next Neighbour. . . . 

* In some Places they call Gaming Houses Academies ; 
but I know not why they should inherit that Honourable 
Name, since there's nothing to be learn'd there, unless it be 
Slight of Hand ^ which is sometimes at the Expcnce of all our 
Money, to get that of other Men's by Fraud and Cunning. 
The Persons that meet are generally Men of an Infamous 
Character, and are in various Shapes, Habits and Employ- 
ments. Sometimes they are Squires of the Pad^ and now 
and then borrow a little Money upon the King's High Way^ 
to recruit their losses at the Gaming House, and when a Hue 
and Cry is out, to apprehend them, they are as safe in one of 
these Houses as a Priest at the Altar, and practise the old 
trade of Cross biting Cullies, assisting the Frail Square Dye 
with high and low Fullums, and other Napping Tricks, in 
comparison of whom the common Bulkers, and Pickpockets, 
arc a very honest Society. How unaccountable is this way 
to Beggary, that when a Man has but a little Money, and 
knows not where in the World to compass any more, unless 
by hazarding his Neck for 't, will try an Experiment to leave 
himself none at all : Or, he that has Money of his own,.should 
play the Fool, and try whether it shall not be another Man's. 
Was ever any thing so Nonsensically Pleasant ? 

* One idle day I ventur'd into one of these Gaming Houses, 
where I found an Oglio of Rakes of several Humours, and 
Conditions met together. Some that had left them never a 
Penny to bless their Heads with. One that had play'd away 
even his Shirt and Cravat, and all his Clothes but his 


Breeches, stood shivering in a Corner of the Room, and 
another comforting him, and saying, Damme Jack, who ever 
thought to see thee in a State of Innocency : Cheer up, 
Nakedness is the best Receipt in the World against a Fever ; 
and then fell a Ranting, as if Hell had broke loose that very 
Moment. ... I told my friend, instead of Academies these 
places should be call'd Cheating Houses : Whereupon a Bully 
of the Blade came strutting up to my very Nose, in such a 
Fury, that I would willingly have given half the Teeth in my 
Head for a Composition, crying out. Split my Wind Pipe, 
Sir, you are a Fool, and don't understand Trap^ the whole 
World's a Cheat.' » 

Ward,* also, writing of gaming, says : * Pray, said I, what 
do you take those Knot of Gentlemen to be, who are so 
Merry with one another } They, reply'd my Friend, are 
Gamesters, waiting to pick up some young Bubble or other as 
he comes from his Chamber ; they are Men whose Conditions 
are subject to more Revolutions than a Weather Cock, or the 
Uncertain Mind of a Fantastical Woman. They are seldom 
two Days in one and the same Stations, they arc one day 
very richly drest, and perhaps out at Elbows the next ; they 
have often a great deal of Money, and are as often without a 
Penny in their Pockets ; they are as much Fortunes Bubbles, 
as young Gentlemen are theirs ; for whatever benefits she 
bestows upon 'em with one Hand, she snatches away with 
t'other ; their whole Lives are a Lottery, they read no books 
but Cards, and all their Mathematicks is to truly understand 
the Odds of a Bet ; they very often fall out, but very seldom 
Fight, and the way to make 'em your Friends is to Quarrel 
with them. . . . They generally begin every Year with the 
same Riches ; for the Issue of their Annual Labours is chiefly 
to inrich the Pawnbrokers. They are seldom in Debt, be- 
cause nb Body will Trust 'em ; and they never care to Lend 
Money, because they Know not where to Borrow it. A Pair 
of False Dice, and a Pack of mark'd Cards sets 'em up ; and 
an Hours Unfortunate Play commonly breaks 'em.' 

These professional swindlers belonged to all classes of 
society, and some who died in this reign have left names 

» The Works of Mr, Thomas Brown, t^, 1 705. ' The Londort Spy, 

no SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

behind them : St. Evremont, Beau Fielding, Macartney, who 
was Lord Mahun's second in his celebrated duel with the 
Duke of Hamilton, and the Marquis de Guiscard, who stabbed 
Harley, the Earl of Oxford. Their Lives, and many others, 
are given by Lucas,* from whom I shall only borrow one 
example, to show the equality that play made between the 
different social grades. Bourchier died in 1702, so that he 
just comes within this reign. * Being at the Groom Porter^Sy 
he flung one Main with the Earl of Mulgrave for 500 Pounds, 
which he won ; and his Honour looking wistly at him, quoth 
he, / believe I sJiou'd know you. Yes (reply'd the Winner) 
your Lordship must have some Knowledge of me, for my Natne 
is Dick Bourchier, who was once your Footman, Whereupon 
his Lordship supposing he was not in a Capacity of paying 
500 Pounds in case he had lost, cry'd out, A Bite, A Bite. 
But the Groom Porter assuring his Lordship that Mr. Bour- 
chier was able to have paid 1,000 Pounds provided his Lord- 
ship had won such a Summ, he paid him what he plaid for, 
without any farther Scruple.* 

* Once Mr. Bourchier going over to Flanders, with a great 
Train of Servants, set off" in such a fine Equipage, that they 
drew the Eyes of all upon them wherever they went, to 
admire the Splendor and Gaiety of their Master, whom they 
•took for no less than a Nobleman of the first Rank. In this 
Pomp, making his Tour at K. William's Tent, he happened 
into Play with that great Monarch, and won of him above 
;^2,500. The Duke of Bavaria being also there, he took up 
the cudgels, and losing ;^i 5,000 the Loss put him into a great 
Chafe, and doubting some foul Play was put upon him, be- 
cause Luck went so much against him, quoth Mr. Bourchier: 
Sir, if you have aJty suspicio7t of tlu least Sinister Trick ptit 
7ipon your Highness, if yo7i please Pll give you a CJiance for all 
your Money at once, tossifig up at Cross and Pile, and you shall 
have the Advantage too of throwing up tlu Guinea yourself , 
The Elector admir'd at his bold Challenge, which never the 
less accepting, he tost up for ;^ 15,000, and lost the Money 

* Menwirs of the Ln>es, Intrigues and Comical Adventures of the most famous 
Gamesters and Celebrated Sharpers in the Reigns of Charles 2, James 2, William 3, 
and Queen Anne, ete, ByTheophilus Lucas. London, 1 714. 


upon Reputation, with which Bourchier was very well satis- 
fied, as not doubting in the least ; and so taking his leave of 
the King, and those Noblemen that were with him, he de- 
parted. Then the Elector of Bavaria enquiring of his Majesty, 
who that Person was, that could run the Hazard of playing 
for so much Money at a time, he told him it was a subject of 
his in England, that though he had no real Estate of his own, 
yet was he able to play with any Sovereign Prince in Ger- 
vzany. Shortly after Bourchier returning into England, he 
bought f most rich Coach and Curious Sett of Six Horses to 
it, whicb cost him above £^3,000, for a present to the Elector 
of Bavaria, who had not as yet paid him any thing of the 
;^ 30,000 which .he had won of him. Notice hereof being sent 
to his Highness, the generous Action incited him to send 
over his Gentleman of Horse into England, to take care of 
this Present, which he receiv'd Kindly at Bourchier's Hands, 
to whom he returned Bills of Exchange also, drawn upon 
several eminent Merchants in London^ for paying what Money 
he had lost with him at Play.' 

Bourchier became very rich, ^nd purchased an estate near 
Pershore, in Worcestershire, where he was buried— although 
he died in London. 

The lower classes followed the example of their social 
superiors, and gambled ; but once only can I find such an 
instance of gaming fever as the following : * * An Inditement is 
presented against a Person in Westminster, for playing away his 
Wife to another Man, which was done with her own consent' 

Losses at cards, or debts of honour, as they were then 
and are now called, were supposed to be punctually paid. See 
* The Gamester.' 

Hector. Then, Sir, here is two Hundred Guineas lost to my Lord 
Lovegame, upon Honour. 

Sir Thos. Valere. That's another Debt I shall not pay. 

Hector. How, not pay it, Sir. * Why, Sir, among Gentlemen, that 
Debt is look'd upon the most just of any : you may Cheat Widows, 
Orphans, Tradesmen without a Blush ; but a Debt of Honour, Sir, must 
be paid. I cou'd name you some Noblemen that pays no Body — ^yet 
a Debt of Honour, Sir, is as sure as their Ready Money. 

Sir Thos. He that makes no Conscience of Wronging the Man 

> The English Post, October 12/14, 1702. 

112 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

whose Goods have been deliver'd for his use can have no pretence to 
Honour, whatever Title he may wear. 

There was a speculating mania arising, which boded ill 
for the future. In this reign was born the * South Sea Bubble,' 
which burst so disastrously in the next, and involved thou- 
sands in ruin. Perhaps the mildest form it took was in 
insurances. We have already glanced at the fire insurances 
in Queen Anne*s time ; they now began to think of life 
insurance, and the first advertisement on this subject that I 
have noticed is in 1709. *The Office of Assurance of Money 
upon Lives is at the Rainbow Coffee House in Cornhill, where 
Men or Women may Subscribe on their own Lives for the 
benefit of their Children, or other Person's Lives for the bene- 
fit of themselves, and have them approv'd without their 
Knowledge, paying \os. Entrance, and loj. towards the first 
Claim for each Life, and shall have a Policy for ;^ 1,000 for 
each Life subscribed upon in the said Society. This Office 
may be proper for such Persons as have Annuities, Estates, or 
Places for Life ; and for such Persons to make Assurance 
upon Lives where Debts ar^ dubious if the Person die. This 
Office will assure Money much Cheaper per cent, than private 
Persons.' This looks very much as if it were the first life 
insurance company that was started, in lieu of private enter- 
prise ; and as this is the only company that is advertised in 
Queen Anne's reign, it was probably the sole forerunner of 
the numerous similar enterprises now in existence. 

Hatton says, * Offices that Insure Ships or their Cargo are 
many about the Royal Exchange, as Mr. Hall's, Mr. Bevis's, 
etc., who for a Premium paid down procure those that will 
subscribe Policies for Insuring Ships (with their Cargo) bound 
to or from any part of the World, the Premium being pro- 
portioned to the Distance, Danger of Seas, Enemies, etc. But 
in these Offices 'tis Customary upon paying the Money on a 
Loss to discount 16 per cent' 

A curious marine insurance was in existence early in 
171 1, of which the following is the advertisement ; but it seems 
a sporting insurance, and only meant to cover the war risk. 
* For the Encouragement of Navigation for Masters, Mates 
^nd other Seafaring Men that are Burnt, Sunk or Taken. 


That 4,000 Persons by paying 2s. 6d. for a Policy, and $s, to 
the 1st Quarter, which will be paid 21 days after Midsummer 
for the Lady Day Quarter, to the Sufferer or Sufferers ;^ 1,000 
in full, or in proportion to what is paid in, and continuing to 
pay $s, every Quarter or 14 days after ; likewise if 4,000 per- 
sons by paying 2s. 6d. for a Policy, and 2s. for the ist if full, 
;^400 or in proportion to be paid 21 days after Midsummer 
for this Lady Day Quarter, and likewise 4,000 by paying 
2s. 6d. for Policies and \s. per Quarter, the Sufferer or 
Sufferers to receive the benefit of £200 if full, or else in pro- 
portion, to be paid in 21 days after Midsummer ; the Office 
was opened on Saturday last, the 27th past, by Hen Willson, 
Gent, in Jacob Street Southwark. Note. When 1,000 Policies 
are taken out, Trustees will be Chosen and Land Security 
given. Any Person may Insure in all 3 Offices. Proposals 
at large may be had at the Office. Note, that £6 per cent, 
will be deducted out of the Money paid for the trouble and 

There were besides — and they sprang up as if by magic 
— insurances for everything : for marriages, for births, for 
baptisms — rank swindles all. And lotteries ! why, every 
thing, unsaleable otherwise, was tried to be got rid of by 
lottery. The papers teemed with advertisements. Take one 
newspaper haphazard ; for example, the Tatler^ Sept 14/16, 
1 7 10: *Mr. Stockton's Sale of Jewels, Plate, &c., will be 
drawn on Michaelmas Day.' * The Lottery in Colson's Court 
is to be drawn the 21st Inst' * The Sale of Goods to be seen 
at Mrs. Butler's, &c., will certainly be drawn on Tuesday the 
19th Inst' * Mrs. Povy's Sale of Goods is put off to Saturday 
23rd Inst' *Mrs. Symond's Sale of Goods will begin, &c., 
on Wednesday the 20th of this Instant' * Mrs. Guthridge's 
Sixpenny Sale of Goods, &c., continues to be drawn every 
Day.' ' 

The financial atmosphere was getting unwholesome. 
Government had to step in, and an Act was passed which 
duly appeared in XhQ London Gase/te, June 28/July i, 1712, 
which enacted * That every Person who, after the 24 June 
171 2, shall erect, set up, or keep any Office or Place for 
making Insurance on Marriages, Births, Christnings, or 

VOL. I. I 

114 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

Service, or any other Office or Place, under the Denomina- 
tion of Sales of Gloves, of Fans, of Cards, of Numbers, of the 
Queen's Picture, for the improving of small sums of Mony,* 
or the like Offices or Places under pretence of improving 
small sums of Money, shall Forfeit for every such Offence 
the sum of 500/., to be recovered with full Costs of Suit, and 
to be divided as aforesaid/ This had the desired effect, and 
both in the British Mercury, June 27/30, 17 12, and the 
Postboy, Aug. 21/23, 171 2, we hear of prosecutions of illicit 
lotteries — and they soon ceased. 

Of course, morally speaking, the Government had no right 
to complain, for they had begun the system — by legalising a 
lottery for ;£"!, 500,000 in 1709 — from which time until 1824 
no year passed without Parliament sanctioning a Lottery 
Bill. It is not worth while going into the scfiemes of the 
various lotteries in Queen Anne's reign, but it may be in- 
teresting to note the constitution of the one which inaugurated 
an indefensible system of immoral finance, which lasted over 
a century. There were 150,000 tickets at ;£'io each, making 
;^ 1, 500, 000, the principal of which was to be sunk, and 
9 per cent, to be allowed on it for 32 years. Three thousand 
seven hundred and fifty tickets were prizes from £\QOO to 
£^ per annum ; the rest were blanks — a proportion of thirty- 
nine to one prize, but, as a consolation, each blank was entitled 
to fourteen shillings per annum during the thirty-two years. 

People rushed after the tickets, and they were taken up 
at once. *2i Jan. 17 10. — Yesterday books were opened at 
Mercer's Chappel for receiving subscriptions for the lottery, 
and, 'tis said, above a Million is already subscribed ; so that, 
'tis believed, 'twill be full by Monday 7 night.' ^ 

And the same authority tells us ' that * Mr. Thomas 
Bamaby, who lately belonged to the 6 clerk's office, has got 
the ;£'iooo per ann. ticket in the lottery.' 

Among the prize-holders of the next lottery (at least, so 

* Here is a sample of one of these traps to catch gulls : ' At Nixon's Cofiee 
House, at Fetter Lane End in Fleet S , is opened an Office call*d the Golden 
Office, where by putting in Monys, not exceeding 5 Guineas, may receive Cent 
per Cent in three Weeks time. Proposals may be had at the Place aforesaid.' — 
Postboy, April 26/29, '712. 

' LuttrelL ' Ibid, August 15, 1710. 


Swift writes Stella, Aug. 29, 171 1) was a son of Lord 
Abercom's. ' His second son has t'other day got a prize in 

the lottery of four Thousand pounds, beside two small ones 
of two hundred pounds each ; nay, the family was so fortu- 

ii6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

nate, that my lord bestowing one ticket, which is a hundred 
pounds, to one of his servants, who had been his page, the 
young fellow got a prize, which has made it another 

In some of the lotteries the prizes were very valuable, for 
we read in the Post Boy^ Jan. 6/8, 171 3, that * Yesterday was 
drawn No. 22858, which entitles the Bearer to ;^36,ooo.' 

The accompanying engraving shows us exactly how the 
lotteries were drawn ; and, as it is taken from a book pub- 
lished in 1 7 10, in all probability it is a correct representation 
of the famous first State lottery of 1709. Bluecoat boys, 
then, as in 1824, drew out the tickets. 

As in all lotteries, superstition attaches a peculiar value 
to some number, or combination of numbers, in the ticket : so 
it was in Anne's time, and the ii^^r/^/t?r( 191) comments on an 
advertisement in the Post Boy of Sept. 27, 171 1 — * This is to 
give notice, That Ten Shillings over and above the Market 
Price will be given for the Ticket in the ;^l, 500,000 Lottery 
No. 132, by Nath. Cliff, at the Bible and Three Crowns in 




Astrologers — Their advertisements — Their tricks — Witchcraft — Cases 

of witchcraft. 

It is not for us to decry the superstition of that age — we 
should look to ourselves in this matter. Perhaps they were 
more open in their expression of belief in the supernatural, 
and perhaps that belief was wider spread than at present. 
The seventh Spectator gives a very good account of the minor 
superstitions, but does not touch on the grosser ones, such 
as the consulting of astrologers, and the belief in witches. 
These two things still exist in England, though nothing like 
to the extent they did in the early part of the last century. 
In spite of Hudibras and Sidrophel, an astrologer was a very 
important entity. He published his almanacs — he drew 
horoscopes ; and, as to witches, why, of course there were 
plenty of them. An old, ugly, soured, and malevolent 
woman earned a right to be considered such. 

As for the astrologers, it is needless to say they were un- 
scrupulous, needy sharpers, who lived * in all the By-AIIies in 
Moorfields, White Chappel, Salisbury Court, Water Lane, 
Fleet Street, and Westminster.' Their advertisements have 
come down to us, and a selection of two or three of them will 
furnish both amusement and information. 

* bi Cripplegate Parish, in Whitecross Street, almost at the 
farther End near Old Street {turning in by tlie sign of the 
Black Croc /;/ Goat Alley, straight forward down three steps, 
at the sign of the Globe) liveth one of above Thirty Years 
Experience, and /lath been Counsellor to Counsellors of several 
Kingdoms, ivho resolveth these Questions following — 

ii8 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

* Life Happy or Unhappy ? If Rich, by what means 
attain it. What manner of Person one shall Marry ? If 
Marry the Party desired. What part of the City or Country 
is best to live in ? A Ship at Sea, if safe or not. If a 
Woman be with Child, with Mail or Female, and whether 
Delivered by Night or by Day } Sickness, the Duration, and 
whether end in life or death } Suits at Law, who shall over- 
come, With all lawful Questions, that depend on that most 

* Likewise, he telleth the Meaning of all Magical Panticles^ 
SigilSy C/iarms, and Lamens^ and hath a Glass, and helpeth to 
further Marriages. 

* He hath attained to the Signet Star of the Philosopher. 
'He likewise hath attained to the Green^ Goldetty and 

Black Dragon^ known to none but Magicians, and Hermetick 
Philosophers ; and will prove he hath the true and perfect 
Seed and Blossom of the Female Fern, all for Physician's 
uses. And can tell concerning every serious Person, what 
their Business is on every Radical figure, before they speak 
one Word ; secondly. What is past in most of their Life» 
What is present, and what is to come ; where that they have 
Moles, what colour they are, and what is the meaning of 
them, &c. 

* He hath a Secret in Art, far beyond the reach or Know- 
ledge of common Pretenders.' * 

In this case we see the astrologer using the jargon of 
the alchemists, to enhance his value in the eyes of his dupes. 
It was still familiar to the ears of the people, and Jonson's 
* Alchemist ' was a popular play. The succeeding examples 
are more commonplace : — 

* To be spoken with every day in the Week except Satur- 
day at the Golden Ball (being the Third House on the Left 
Hand) in Gulstone Square, next Turning beyond Whitechappel 
Bars : And for the convenience of those who live in West- 
minster, Southward, &c.. He is to be spoken with every 
Sattirday at the Golden Ball and 2 Green Posts, (There being 
a Hatch with Iron spikes at the door) near the Watch House 
in Lambeth Marsh. 

> HarU MSS. 5931, 231. 


* A Person who by his Travels in many Remote parts of 
the World, has obtained the Art of Presaging or Foretelling 
all Remarkable Things, that ever shall happen to Men or 
Women in the whole course of their Lives, to the great Ad- 
miration of all that ever came to him ; and this he does by 
a Method never yet practised in England: He might give 
Multitudes of Examples, but will give but one of a Sort 

* A Young Woman, who had a Person pretended Love to 
her for many Years ; I told her, she would find him False and 
Deceitful to her, and that he never designed to Marry her, 
which was a great Trouble to her to hear, by reason she had 
plac'd her Affection on him, but she found it True, for 
shortly after he Marryed another : Soon after she had several 
Sweethearts at a Time, and came to me again for Advice ; I 
told her, there was but one of those she could be happy with, 
and describ'd him to her ; she took my Advice and Marryed 
him, and they prove a very Happy Couple. 

* I have prevented the Ruin of Hundreds of Young Men 
and Women, by advising them to whom to dispose of them- 
selves in Marriage. 

* Another who had been many Years Plagued with a Bad 
Husband, I told her in a very few Months she'd Bury him and 
Marry again very happily, which she found True,* &c., &c. * 

The next is much shorter : * Noble, or Ignoble, you may 
be foretold any thing that may happen to your Elementary 
Life : as at what time you may expect prosperity : or, if in 
Adversity, the end thereof : Or when you may be so happy 
as to enjoy the Thing desired. Also young Men may foresee 
their fortunes, as in a Glass, and pretty Maids their Husbands, 
in this Noble, yea, Heavenly Art of ASTROLOGIE. At 
the Sign of the Parrot opposite to Lndgate Church within 
Black Fryars Gateway.* ^ 

Ward,^ with his keen observation, naturally attacked these 
gentry, lashed them unmercifully, and at great length. A 
short extract must suffice for our purpose, and will sufficiently 
show the estimation in which these astrologers were held by 
persons of common sense. 

' Harl. MSS, 5931, 233. « Ihid, 5931, 236. 

• The Lotidon Spy. 

ISO SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

' No common Errours, Frauds, or Fallacies, in the World, 
have so far subdued the Weaker, and Consequently the 
Greater part of Mankind, as the Juggles and Deceits prac- 
ticable in a parcel of pretending Astrologers ; who under- 
take to resolve all manner of Lawful Questions, by Jumbling 
together those distant Bodies, in whose Nature or Influence 
they have just as much Knowledge, as a Country Ale Woman 
has of Wiickcraft, or a German Juggler oi Necromancy. In the 
first place, I have had an opportunity of examining several 
Nativities Calculated by those who have had the Repu- 

tation of being the best Artists of this Age ; wherein I have 
observ'd Sickness, Length of Days, and all other Fortunate 
and Unfortunate Contingencies assign'd the Natives, have 
been as directly opposite to what has happen'd thro' the 
whole Course of their Lives, as if the Fumbling Star Groper 
had rather, thro' an Aversion to Truth, study'd the Rule of 
Contraries, that he might always be found in the Wrong 

' In the next place, their method in deceiving people who 
come to enquire after Stolen Goods, is such a bare fac'd ridi- 
culous piece of Banter, that I wonder any Creature that bears 


Humane Shape, can be so stupidly Ignorant, as not to plainly 
discern the Impositions that are put upon them by their 
canting Albumazer ; Who, in the first place, enquires about 
what time, and in what manner the things were lost ; and 
what strangers they had in the House? From whence he 
reasonably infers, whether the Spoon, Cup, Tankard, or what- 
soever it be, was taken away by the Common Thief, or stolen 
by a Servant, or Person that uses the House, or whether 
Conceal'd by the Master or Mistress on purpose to make the 
Servants more diligent. If his Conjecture be, that it was 
taken by a Common Thief, he describes a Swarthy Black 111 
looking Fellow, with a down look, or the like ; most wisely 
considering, That such sort of Rogues are seldom without a 
Gallows in their Countenances : Telling withall. That the 
Goods are Pawn'd, and will scarcely be recoverable, without 
they take the Thief speedily, in order to effect which, he 
will give them his best Directions ; which the credulous 
Ignoramus d^sixQS in Writing, for fear he should forget ; which 
the Sower looked Conjurer gives him accordingly, after the 
following manner : — Go a quarter of a Mile from your own 
Dwellings aftd tlien turn Easterly, and walk forward till you 
come to tlie Sign of a large Four Footed Beast, and Search 
within three or four Doors of that Sign, and you will go near 
to take him, if you go soon enough, or hear of him, w/to is of a 
middle Stature and in poor Habit. Away goes the Fool, as 
well satisfied with the Note, as if he had the Rog^e by the 
Elbow, and if by any Accident they do hear of the Thief, all 
is ascribed to the wonderful Cunning of their Wissard : But if 
on the contrary, he believes it to be taken by a Servant, or 
any Body that uses the House, he bids *em, hab nab at a 
venture, Go home satisfied, for they shall certainly find the 
Spoon, &c, in three or four days' time, hid in a private Hole, in 
such a part of the Kitchen, or lie' II make the Devil to do with those 
that have it ; and force t/iem to bring it in open sliame attd dis- 
grace at Dinner time, a7id lay it down upon tlie Table in the 
Sight of the whole Family, Away goes the Person well satis- 
fied with what their Ptolomist had told *em : and declares to 
every one in the House how the Thief was Threaten'd, and 
after what manner the Spoon should be found within the time 

122 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

appointed, or else woe be to them that have it This Frightful 
Story coming to the Ears of the Guilty, brings 'em under 
such dreadful Apprehensions of the Conjuror's Indignation, if 
they do not lay what they've taken within the time, according 
to the Direction ; that the first opportunity they have, they 
will place it to the utmost exactness in whatever Hole or 
Corner he has appointed for the finding of it' 

The belief in witchcraft was still firmly rooted in the 
country in spite of the more enlightened feeling on the subject 
which prevailed in the metropolis. Addison* tells us of the 
Covprley Witch, Moll White, how he and Sir Roger went and 
visited her hovel, and found a broomstick behind the door, 
and the tabby cat, which had as evil a reputation as its 
mistress, and how * In our return home. Sir Roger told me 
that Old Moll had been often brought before him for making 
Children spit Pins, and giving Maids the Night Mare ; and 
that the Country People would be tossing her into a Pond 
and trying Experiments with her every Day, if it was not for 
him and his Chaplain.' 

A little before this was written, two women had been 
executed at Northampton for witchcraft, and at that very 
time an old woman named Jane Wenham, living at a little 
village in Hertfordshire called Walkeme, was charged with, 
and next year tried for, witchcraft She was condemned, 
reprieved, and pardoned. But in 1716 Mrs. Hicks and her 
daughter were executed at Huntingdon, and their crime was 
that of selling their souls to the devil, etc. Indeed, the 
capital sentence against witchcraft was only abolished by 
an Act 9 Geo. II. cap. 5. 

There are two other published cases of witchcraft in 
Queen Anne's time. One ^ is the * Full and True Account of 
the Apprehending and Taking of Mrs. Sarah Mordike, Whp is 
accused for a Witch. Being taken near Paul's Wharf on 
Thursday the 24th of this Instant, for having Bewitch'd one 
Richard Hetheway, near the Faulken Stairs in Southwark. 
With her Examination before the Right Worshipful Sir 
Thomas Lane, Sir Owen Buckingham, and Dr. Hambleton in 

» Spectator, No. 117. » British Museum, il^'JiJ- 


Bow Lane.' It was an ordinary case : the bewitched person 
lost his appetite, voided pins, etc., and got better when he 
had scratched and brought blood from Moll Dyke, as she was 
familiarly called. The other, if at all credible, is a much 
worse case : * * A Full and True Account of the Discovering, 
Apprehending and taking of a Notorious Witch, who was 
carried before Justice Bateman in Well Close^ on Sunday July 
the 23. Together with her Examination and Commitment to 
Bridewel ClerkenweL 

* Sarah Griffith who Lived in a Garret in Rosemary lane 
was a long time suspected for a bad Woman, but nothing 
could be prov'd against her that the Law might take hold 
of her. Tho' some of the Neighbours' Children would be 
strangely effected with unknown Distempers, as Vomiting of 
Pins, their Bodies tum'd into strange Postures and such like, 
many were frighted with strange Apperitions of Cats, which 
of a sudden would vanish away, these and such like made 
those who lived in the Neighbourhood, both suspicious and 
fearful of her : Till at last the Devil (who always betrays 
those that deal with him) thus brought the Truth to Light. 

One Mr. John at the Sugar loafh^d a good jolly fellow 

for his Apprentice : This Old Jade came into his Shop to buy 
a quartern of Sope, the young fellow happened to Laugh, and 
the Scales not hanging right, cryed out he thought that they 
were be Witch'd ; The Old Woman hearing him say so, fell 
into a great Passion, judging he said so to Ridicule her, ran 
out of the Shop and threatned Revenge. In the Night was 
heard a lumbring noise in the Shop, and the Man coming 
down to see, found a strange Confusion, every thing tum'd 
topsy turvy, all the goods out of order ; but what was worse, 
the next day the poor fellow was troubled with a strange 
Disease, but (by) the good Prayers of some Neighbouring 
Divines the power of the Devil was restrained. 

* Two or three days after it happened, that the Young Man 
with two or three more walking up to the New River Head> 
who should they see but Mother Griffith walking that way. 
They consulted together to try her» and one of them said let 

» British Museum, li5'_Li- 


124 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

us toss her into the River, for I have heard that if she Swims 
'tis a certain sign of a Witch ; in short they put their design 
in Execution, for coming up to her, they tossed her in ; but 
like a Bladder when forc'd under Water pops up again, so 
this Witch was no sooner in but Swam like a Corke ; they 
kept her in some time, and at last let her come out again ; 
she was no sooner out but she smote that Young Man 
on the Arm, and told him he should pay dear for what 
he had done. Immediately he found a strange pain on his 
Arm, and looking on it found the exact mark of her Hand 
and Fingers as black as a Cole ; he went home where he lay 
much Lamented and wonderfully affrighted with the Old 
Woman coming to afflict him, and at last died with the pain, 
and (was) Buried in St. Pulchers Church Yard. 

* Mr. John fearing some further mischief, takes a 

Constable and goes to her Lodging, where he finds the Old 
Woman, and charges the Constable with her. She made 
many attempts to escape, but the Devil who owed her a 
shame had now left her, and she was apprehended. As she 
was conducted towards the Justices* House she tried to leap 
over the Wall, and had done it, had not the Constable 
knocked her down. In this manner she was carried before 
the Justice, there was Evidence that was with him in his Sick- 
ness could Witness that he had unaccountable Fits, Vomitted 
up Old Nails, Pins and such like, his body being turned into 
strange postures, and all the while nothing but crying out of 
Mother Griffith that she was come to torment him, his Arm 
rotted almost off, Gangreen'd, and Kiird him. When she 
came before the Justice she pleaded innocence, but the Cir- 
cumstances appeared so plainly that she was committed to 
Bridewel, where she now remains. 

* Witness my Hand, 

* July 24, 1704. *Thos. Greenwel.' 

And Thoresby, in his semi-pious way, mentions (Feb. 
18, 17 1 2), 'With Mrs. Neville, Cousin Cookson, and others of 
the Grand Jury to see a reputed witch, who, though aged, 
could not repeat the Lord's Prayer ; a fit instrument for Satan.' 

COSMETICS, etc, 125 



Habit of snuff-taking — Perfumes — Charles Lillie — List of scents — 
Soaps — Wash balls — * Complections ' — Tooth powder — Hair dye — 

There was one social habit that the two sexes had in 
common, and that was in taking snuff: nay, it was more 
than hinted that some of the fair sex smoked — not nice little 
fairy * Paquitas ' or dainty little cigarettes, but nasty, heavy, 
clumsy clay pipes. The subject will be discussed in another 
part, but now we merely glance at the prevalence of the 
habit — not so much with the ladies, as it was later on in the 
century, but with the gentlemen ; and the quantity taken, in 
the latter part of the reign, was excessive. 

It is a marvel how the ladies at first allowed it, for it was 
the custom in society for a gentleman to kiss all the ladies 
in a room — a custom frequently mentioned in contemporary 
literature, and therefore only requiring one quotation * to 
illustrate it : * The other Day entering a Room adorned with 
the Fair Sex, I offered, after the usual Manner, to each of 
them a Kiss ; but one, more scornful than the rest, turned 
her Cheek. I did not think it proper to take any Notice of 
it till I had asked your Advice.* 

Besides, the ladies were undoubtedly fond of sweet smells, 
perfumes, and scents ; and one, in particular, seems to have 
possessed remarkable properties. *The Princely Perfume. 
Being a most delightful Powder, which incomparably scents 
Handkerchiefs, Gloves, and all Sorts of Linnen, making them 
smell most deliciously oderiferous, fine and charming ; it 
perfumes the Hands, the Hair of the Head, and Periwigs 

> Spectator^ No. 272. 

126 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

most delicately, als(j all Manner of Cloaths, Beds, Rooms, 
Scrutores, Presses, Drawers, Boxes, and all other Things, 
giving them a most admirable, pleasant and durable Scent, 
which is so curiously fragrant, so delectably sweet, reviving 
and enlivening, that no Perfume or Aromatick in the World, 
can possibly come near it ; it never raises the vapours in 
Ladies, but, by its delicious Odour. Fragrancy and charming 
Perfume (which is really Superior to all other Scents upon 
Earth) it refreshes the Memory, cures the Head Ach, takes 
away Dulness and Melancholy, makes the Heart glad, and 
encreases all the Spirits, Natural, Vital, and Animal, to a 
Wonder.' * And there was a much bepuffed scent called the 
* Royal Essence,' which, besides being a paragon of perfume, 
had the useful quality of curling the Periwig. 

But the prince of perfumers and puffers was Charles 
Lillie, whose connection with the Tatler is so well known, 
and who was so belauded, that Addison, or Steele, in No. 96, 
had to issue a disclaimer. * Whereas several have industri- 
ously spread abroad, that I am in partnership with CHARLES 
Lillie the perfumer, at the corner of Beaufort Buildings ; I 
must say with my friend PARTRIDGE, that they are Knaves 
who reported it. However, since the said CHARLES has 
promised that all his customers shall be mine, I must desire 
all mine to be his ; and dare answer for him, that if you ask 
in my name for Snuff, Hungary or orange water, you shall 
have the best the town affords at the cheapest rate.' 

When Lillie died, he left his MS. receipts behind him, 
made into a book, but it was never published till 1822 ; and 
he gives a long list of the scents in use. ^ 

Spirit of ambergris 

„ „ musk 

„ „ benjamin (benzoin) 

„ „ orange 

„ „ lemons and citrons 

„ „ bergamot 

„ „ lavender 
Red spirit of lavender 

Otto of roses and sandal 

Perfumed catchui 
Essence of jessamine 

„ „ orange flowers 
Lavender water 
Hungary water 
Aqua Mellis, or King's honey 


> Daily OMratU, Feb. 14, 1708. 




Portugal and Angel water 

1 of Rhodium 
„ roses 
„ lavender 
„ rosemary 
„ cloves 


„ marjoram 
„ coriander 

Eau Sans Parcil 
Eau dfe Carm 
Jessamine water 
Bergamot water 
Orange flower water 
Myrtle water 
Rose water 
Cordova water 

This reads like a very sufficient list of scents ; that it 
was not greater was undoubtedly owing to the disturbed 
state of trade, and the absence of geographical discovery — 
which of late years has greatly increased the perfumer's 

There were soaps enough, in all conscience — Joppa, 
Smyrna, Jerusalem, Genoa, Venice, Castille, Marseilles, 
Alicant, French, Gallipoly, Curd, Irish, Bristol, Windsor, 
Black, and Liquid Soaps — and yet the ladies would use 
abominations called * Wash balls.' These must have been a 
profitable manufacture, for the makers advertised freely in 
the papers. Let us look into a * Composition for best Wash 
balls. Take forty pounds of rice in fine powder, twenty-eight 
pounds of fine flour, twenty-eight pounds of Starch powder, 
twelve pounds of white lead, and four pounds of Oris root in 
fine powder ; but no whitening. Mix the whole well together, 
and pass it twice through a fine hair seive ; then place it in a 
dry place, and keep it for use. Great care must be taken 
that the flour be not Musty, in which case the balls will in 
time crack, and fall to pieces. To this composition may be 
added Dutch pink, or brown fine damask powder, &c., accord- 
ing to the Colour required when the wash balls are quite dry.' 
These wash balls were in some variety — common, best cam- 
phor, ambergris, Bologna, marbled, figured, Greek, Mar- 
seilles, Venice, and chemical. 

This making up of complexions was an art, and would 
not bear trifling with. * Madam, who dress'd you } Here's 
this Tooth set in the wrong way, and your Face so besmear'd ! 
What Corhplection do you use ? This is worse than they 

128 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

daub Sign posts with ; I never saw any thing so frightful.' * 
Naturally, with sudi an ingredient as white lead in their 
composition, these wash balls were injurious to the skin — 
vide a letter in Spectator ^ No. 41. * Her skin is so tarnished 
with this Practice, that when she first wakes in a Morning, 
she scarce seems young enough to be the Mother of her whom 
I carried to bed the Night before/ No wonder, for they used 
carmine, French red, Portuguese dishes, Spanish wool and 
papers, Chinese wool, and they had, also, pretty little lacquered 
boxes of paints for the toilette sent over from China, There 
was a wonderful * bloom ' advertised, * The famous Bavarian 
Red Liquor, which gives such a blushing Colour to the 
Cheeks of those that are white or pale, that it is not to be 
distinguished from a natural fine Complection, nor perceived 
to be Artificial by the nearest Friend, is nothing of Paint, 
or in the least hurtful, but good in many Cases to be taken 
inwardly ; it renders the Face delightfully handsome and 
beautiful, is not subject to be rub'd off like Painty therefore 
cannot be discovered by any one.' There were also pearl and 
bismuth powders for the face. 

Rose and white lip salves were used as now, but their 
dentifrices were peculiar, to say the least, if this is a fair 
sample : * Take four ounces of Coral, reduced to an unpalpable 
powder, eight ounces of very light Armenian bole, one ounce 
of Portugal Snuff, one ounce of Havanah Snuff, one ounce of 
the ashes of good tobacco, which has been burnt, and one 
ounce of gum myrrh, which has been well pulverised. Mix 
all these well together, and sift them twice.' An inferior 
tooth powder was made by leaving out the coral and substi- 
tuting old broken pmis (brown stone ware) reduced to a very 
fine powder. These mixtures were either rubbed on the 
teeth with the finger, or else used with a vegetable tooth 
brush or * Dentissick Root,' which seems to have been made 
out of the roots of the marsh mallow, partially dried, and then 
fried in a mixture of rectified spirits, dragon's blood, and 
conserve of roses, until they were hard ; when one end was 
bruised with a hammer, in order to open the fibres and form 
a rudimentary brush. There were dentists, both male and 

* The Gentleman Cully^ ed. 1702. 

COSMETICS, etc, 129 

female, and they seem to have been so far successful that 
some of them guarantee their patients being able to eat with 
the false teeth after they were fixed. * 5o firm and exact as 
to be eat on, and not to be discovered by any Person from 
Natural Ones/ 

The usual way of darkening the hair was by the mecha- 
nical means of a leaden comb.* * Jenny Trapes ! What that 
Carrot pated Jade that Lodges at the Corner of White Horse 

Alley ! The Same indeed, only She has black'd her Hair 

with a Leaden Comb.' But there were also * Hair Restorers ' 
in those days, as we find by an advertisement, that * All Per- 
sons who, for themselves or Friend, having red or grey Hairs, 
and would have them dy'd, or turn'd black or dark brown, 
will find entire Satisfaction, as a great many have already, by 
the use of a Cleat Water,' etc. 

Should the sight fail, it could be aided by spectacles, as 
now — but they were awsome things — with heavy horn, tor- 
toiseshell, or silver rims, and were certainly no adjuncts to 
personal appearance. They varied in price from 4</. to 25 J. 
per pair. 

> Tunbridge fVa/Jb, ed. 1703. 

VOL. I. K 

I30 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign oj QUEEN ANNE. 



The penny post — Dockwra's vindication of himself — Abolition of penny 
post — Post days and rates — Halfpenny post— Method of doing busi- 
ness — The Exchange — Description of frequenters — Bankers — Curious 
advertisement of Sir Richard Hoare's. 

Among the social institutions then in existence, was the 
penny post, which cannot be better, or more tersely, de- 
scribed than in Misson's own words : * Every two Hours you 
may write * to any Part of the City or Suburbs, he that re- 
ceives it pays a Penny, and you give nothing when you put 
it into the Post ; but when you write into the Country, both 
he that writes and he that receives pay each a Penny. It 
costs no more for any Bundle weighing but a Pound, than for 
a small Letter, provided the Bundle is not worth more than 
ten Shillings. You may safely send Money, or any other 
thing of Value, by this Conveyance, if you do but take care 
to give the Office an Account of it. It was one Mr. William 
Dockwra that set up this New Post, about the beginning of 
the Reign of King Charles 2, and at first enjoyed the Profits 
himself ; but the Duke of York who had then the Revenue 
of the General Post, commenced a Suit against him, and 
united the Penny Post to the other.' 

Misson makes a slight error here. The penny post was 
started in 1683 by Rob. Murray, an upholsterer, but next 
year, several charges being brought against him, he was 
removed, and the concern was handed over to Dockwra, 
who was dispossessed as above, by an action in which he was 
cast both in damages and costs ; but, about a year after, he 

' Besides the six great offices for taking in letters, there were 600 smaller 
ones in different parts of London, for the convenience of correspondents. 

TRADE, etc. 131 

was appointed Controller of the District Post. He was 
allowed a pension in the time of William and Mary (variously 
stated of from ;^200 to ;^500 a year), but he only enjoyed it 
four years, when he was discharged on account of some charges 
of malversation, etc., which were brought against him. 

In January 1703, when Dockwra tried for the Chamber- 
lainship of the City of London — which candidature, however, 
he soon abandoned — he found it necessary to issue disclaimers, 
and tell his version of the history of the penny post* 

* Whereas a malicious false Report has been industriously 
spread, that one Robert Murray was the first Inventor of the 
Penfiy Post, and that he has been in Articles with me William 
Dockwra, and wrong'd and hardly used ; the World is desired 
to take notice. That as to the first Pretence, it is utterly false, 
for Dr. Cliamberlefi, one Henry Neville, Payne, and others 
pretended themselves the first Inventors ; And after I had 
actually set up the Office, one Mr. Foxley canie and shewed 
me a Scheme of his concerning a Penny Post, which he had 
offer'd to Sir Jolm Bennet, Post Master General, eight Years 
before I ever Knew Murray, but that was rejected as im- 
practicable, as indeed were all the rest of their Notions ; nor 
was it by any of them, or any other Person whatsoever, put 
into any Method to make it practicable, till at my sole Charge 
and Hazard I begun it in the Year 1680. 

* As to the Articles, they were sacredly Kept on my part, 
but never performed by Murray, to my great Loss and 
Damage, as by the very Articles themselves will evidently 
appear ; and I am ready at any time to demonstrate, it is so 
far from having One Shilling due to him, or using him any 
way hardly, That on the Contrary, in Compassion to his dis- 
tressed Condition, I have often bayl'd him to keep him out 
of Prison, and redecm'd him from thence, lent him several 
Sums of Money, which he never took care to pay again ; and 
to this day I have Notes and Bonds to Produce, that he owes 
me more than One hundred and Fifty Pounds : So that these 
most unjust and ungrateful Allegations in Murray, are at this 
time reviv'd to be made use of, as malicious Reflections to 
lessen my Service to this City, and to stain my Reputation 

' Daily Courattt^ January 11, 1703. 

K 2 

132 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

and Integrity thereby, to hinder my Fellow Citizens Kindness 
upon the Election for Chamberlain, which I hope will make 
no Impression, since I do affirm myself to be the first that 
ever put the Penny Post into Practice at a vast Expence and 
great Loss to me and my Family. 

'William Dockwra.' 

And in the next day's Courant he was obliged to defend 
himself from other allegations. 

* Whereas some Malicious Persons, designing to lessen me 
in the good Opinion of my Fellow Citizens, have spread a 
False and Scandalous Report, that I, William Dockwra^ was 
remov'd from being Comptroller of the Penny Post, because 
of Injuries done to the Subject ; and that I sunk the Revenue 
at least one fourth part to the Crown. I do hereby declare, 
That on the Contrary, I rectified many Abuses in the Manage- 
ment of that Office, and never wrong'd either Crown or Sub- 
ject of the Value of a Shilling : And I do positively affirm. 
That I prov'd undeniably before the Post Master General 
by the Accounts then made up, that I advanced that small 
Revenue above Four Hundred Pounds : Yet neither my 
Right to the whole (being the only Person that ever brought 
the Penny Post to Perfection) nor the faithful Discharge of 
my Trust while Comptroller thereof, were sufficient to protect 
me against those Artifices too often made use of to remove 
useful and honest Men from publick Imployment : Nor have 
I received any of the Pension formerly granted me these tw© 
Years and half past So that I hope the Impartial World 
will consider the great Loss I and my Family have sustained, 
by being deprived of the Penny Post, whilst the Publick daily 
reaps the Benefit and Advantage thereof and will do so to 

Posterity. 'WILLIAM DOCKWRA.' 

In 17 II an act was passed abolishing the penny post, and 
on June 23 of that year a proclamation was issued putting it 
in force. A notice had previously appeared in the London 
Gazette of June 12/14, assimilating all rates to those of the 
General Post, although for * the Accommodation of the In- 
habitants of such Places, their Letters will be conveyed with 

TRADE, etc, 133 

the same Regularity and Dispatch as formerly, being first 
Tax'd with the Rates, and Stamped with the Mark of the 
General Post Office, and that all Parcels will likewise be 
Tax'd at the Rate of One Shilling per Ounce as the said Act 

In 1709 the Foreign and Inland Post Letter days were : — 

* Monday, To Spain, Italy, Germany, Flanders, Denmark, 

Sweedland, Downs and Kent. 

* Tuesday. Germany, Holland, Sweedland, Denmark, 

North Britain, Ireland and Wales. 

* Wednesday. Kent and the Downs. 

* Thursday. Spain, Italy, and all parts of North Britain 

and England. 

* Friday, Italy, Germany, Flanders, Kent, Holland, 

Sweedland, Denmark and Downs. 

* Saturday. All parts of Wales, North Britain, England, 

and Ireland. 

* Letters return from all parts of England and North 
Britain, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays ; from Wales, 
Mondays and Fridays, from Kent and the Downs every day ; 
but from beyond Sea uncertain. 

* The Carriage is 2d, a Sheet 80 Miles, double 4^. and 8rf. 
an Ounce for more than Letters. All Letters more than 80 
Miles is 3^. Single and 6d, Double Pacquet \2d, an Ounce. 
A Letter to Dublin 6d, Single, Double 1/ and 1/6 an 

Foreign postage was not so very dear. In 1705, for in- 
stance, a letter of a single sheet could be carried to the West 
Indies for is.J^d, and 2 sheets for 2/6; whilst frofn thence 
to England it was respectively 1/6 and 3/, or by weight 
6/ per oz. 

In 1708 Mr. Povcy established a foot post — carrying 
letters, in the London district only, for one halfpenny. How 
long he kept it up does not seem clear; the Post Office 
authorities stopped him ; but there is an advertisement re- 
ferring to it in the Daily Con rant of July 4, 1710 : * Whereas 
a Person in some Distress sent a letter by the Halfpenny 

134 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

Carriage on Monday night last,' etc., and this clearly shows 
it was in existence at that date. 

The Gazette Nov. 29/ Dec. i, 1709, has the following 
Advertisement : * Whereas Charles Povey and divers Traders 
and Shop Keepers in and about the Cities of London and 
Westminster, Borough of Southwark and Parts adjacent, and 
several Persons ringing Bells about the Streets of the said 
Cities and Borough, have set up, imploy'd, and for sometime 
continued a Foot Post for Collecting and Delivering Letters 
within the said Cities and Borough, and Parts adjoining, for 
Hire under the Name of the Halfpenny Carriage. Contrary 
to the Known Laws of this Kingdom, and to the g^eat Pre- 
judice of her Majesty's Revenues arising by Posts ; her 
Majesty's Postmaster General has therefore directed Informa- 
tions in her Majesty's Court of Exchequer, to be exhibited 
against the said Charles Povey, and several Shop Keepers 
and Ringers of Bells, for Recovery against every of them of 
;^ioo for such setting up, and for every week's continuance 
thereof; and also £^ for every Offence in Collecting and 
Delivering of Letters for Hire as aforesaid, contrary to the 
Statute for erecting and establishing a Post Office.' 

These additions to the rate of postage, of course, induced 
people to look after franks — the granting of which, however, 
had not assumed anything like the proportions it did later on. 

But there was not the hurrying and driving in business 
then as now. Men lived over their shops or counting houses, 
and, being easily accessible, did their work in a deliberate, 
leisurely manner, and began their business very early in the 
day. For instance, when Sir William Withers, iLord Mayor in 
1707, was putting up for a seat in Parliament, he adduced, 
as showing he would have time for his parliamentary duties, 
that * There is not above one Cause in a Day through- 
out the whole Year, to be Heard after Ten a Clock in the 
Morning.'* 'Change was earlier than now; 'Crowds of 
People gather at the Change by One, disperse by Three.* ^ 
It is thus humorously described:^ * The Exchange is the 
Land's Epitome, or you might call it the little Isle of Great 

* Daily Courant^ October 30, 1707. 

' A Comical View of London ami Westminster^ ed. 1705, p. 100. 

» Hickelty Picket ty. 

TRADE, etc, 135 

Britain did the Waters encompass it. It is more, 'tis the 
whole World's Map which you may here discern in its per- 
fectest Motion, justling and turning. Tis a vast heap of 
Stones, and the confusion of Languages makes it resemble 
BabeL The Noise in it is like that of Bees ; a strange 
Humming or Buzzing, of walking tongues and feet ; it is a 
kind of a still Roaring, or loud Whisper. It is the great 
Exchange of all Discourses, and no Business whatsoever but 
is here on Foot. All things are sold here, and Honesty by 
Inch of Candle ; but woe be to the Purchaser, for it will never 
thrive with him.' 

In the centre of the Exchange was a statue of Charles 
II., and here the stock jobbers hovered about — when they 
were not at Robin's or Jonathan's in Exchange Alley ; and 
all about, each under his own nationality, stood the trim 
Italian, the Hollanders and Germans, with their slovenly 
mien, and uncouth, unkempt beards and moustachios. The 
Dons, in flat crowned hats and short cloaks, took snuff 
prodigiously, and smelt terribly of garlic ; there were the 
lively Gauls, animated and chattering, * ready to wound 
every Pillar with their Canes, as they pass'd by, either in 
Ters, Cart, or Saccoon.' Jews of course, amber necklace 
sellers from the Baltic in fur caps and long gowns, a 
sprinkling of seedy military men, and the merchants. These 
were the constituent parts of 'Change in those days, and it 
must have been a sight worth seeing. Round about were 
shops as now, where the spruce young Cits ogled the pretty 
glove sellers, or bought a Steinkirk, or a sword knot. Con- 
temporary accounts of these fair damsels are not very good, 
but it was rather a libellous or scurrilous age as regards 
women, and they might not be true, or at all events be taken 
with much salt. 

Ward * gives an amusing account of the exterior. * The 
Pillars at the Entrance of the Front Porticum were adorn'd 
with sundry' Memorandums of old Age and Infirmity, under 
which stood here and there a Jack in a BoXy like a Parson in 
a Pulpit, selling Cures for your Corns, Glass Eyes for the 
Blind, Ivory Teeth for Broken Mouths, and Spectacles for the 

' London Spy, 

136 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

weak sighted ; the Passage to the Gate being h'n'd with 
Hawkers, Gardeners, Mandrake Sellers, and Porters ; after we 
had Crowded a little way amongst the Miscellaneous Multi- 
tude, we came to a Pippin Monger* s Stall, surmounted with a 
Chyniisfs Shop ; where Drops, Elixirs, Cordials, and Balsafns 
had justly the Pre-eminence of Apples, Cliesnuts, Pears, and 
Onangcs^ etc., showing a view of the motley group of costeiw 
mongers without. The pillars of the Exchange were hung 
round with advertisements, as indeed they were until very 

Some well-known names of bankers were then in exist- 
ence — Child's, Hoare's, Stone's, and Martin's. In Harl. MSB. 
5,996, 153 is a somewhat curious advertisement of Sir Richard 
Hoare's. * Whereas there hath been several false and 
Malicious Reports industriously spread abroad reflecting on 
Sir Richard Hoare, Goldsmith, for occasioning and promoting 
a Run for Money on the Bank of England \ and in particular, 
several of the Directors of the said Bank reporting. That the 
said Sir Richard sent to the Bank for Ten of their Notes of 
^10 each, with a design to send several Persons with the said 
Notes to receive the Money thereon, so as to effect his ill 
Designs, and to bring a Disreputation on the Bank, and 
occasion a Disturbance in the City of London : 

* This is to satisfie all Persons, That the Right Honourable 
the Lord Ashburnham, Father of the Honourable Major 
Ashbnmham, Major of the First Troop of Her Majesty's Life 
Guards, who was ordered to march for Scotland, sending to 
the said Sir Richard Hoare for a large Quantity of Gold, and 
for Ten Bank Notes of ;£"io each, for the said Major to take 
with him to bear his Expenses. The Gold was sent to his 
Lordship accordingly, and Sir Richards Servant went to the 
Bank for ten Notes of ;£'io each, which the Cashier of the 
Bank refus'd to give : But if Sir Richard had intended to 
promote a Run for Mony on the Bank, he could have done it 
in a more effectual manner, having by him, all the time that 
the great demand for Mony was on the Bank, several Thousand 
Pounds in Notes payable by the Bank ; and also there was 
brought to Sir Richard by several Gentlemen, in the time of 
the Run on the Bank, Notes payable by the said Bank, 

TRADE, etc, . 137 

amounting to a great many Thousands of Pounds, which he 
was desir'd to take and receive the Mony presently from the 
Bank, which he refus'd to do until the great Demand on the 
Bank for Money was over. 

* N.B. That the Reports against Sir Ricliard have been 
more Malicious than herein is mentioned, which he forbears 
to insert for brevity's sake.' 

Ward, for some reason, disliked bankers : he says, * What 
methods do they take now to improve their Cash ? The 
chief advantage they now. make is by supplying the Necessi- 
ties of straitened Merchants and great Dealers, to pay (for) 
the Goods imported, rather than they should fall under the 
Discredit as well as Disadvantage of being run into the 
King's Ware House, or by assisting of 'em in the purchase 
of great Bargains, or the like ; for which they make 'em pay 
such unreasonable extortion, that they devour more of the 
Merchants Profit than Snails, Worms or Magpies, do of the 
Farmers Crop, or the Gardiner's Industry.* If this was all 
the fault he could find, their iniquities were not very glaring. 

138 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 


men's dress. 

A beau — An inventory of him — Hats — Wigs : their price : varieties — 
Hair powder — Robbery of wigs — Natural hair — Neck cloths — Shirts 
— Open waistcoats — Colonel Edgworth — Coats — Cheap clothiers — 
Stockings — Boots and shoes — Shoeblacks and blacking — Handker- 
chiefs — Muffs — Swords — Walking sticks — Watches — Over coats — 
Night caps — Night gowns. 

We have seen the birth, marriage, and funeral of these good 
people, and have noted some of their social habits. Next is, 
how did they dress ? Far plainer than in Charles the Second's 
time, rather richer than under solemn and austere Dutch 
William, yet not nearly as finely as during the Georgian era. 
That, of course, is speaking of ordinary mortals — neither the 
titled ones of the land, who showed their rank by their 
dress, nor the beaus, who formed no inconsiderable portion 
of metropolitan life, and at whom were levelled stinging little 
shafts of satire from all sides, mostly good-humoured. The 
macaroni, the dandy, the buck, the blood, the swell — all are 
fine, but the beau of Anne's time was superfine^ and modelled 
on the messieurs of the time of Louis XIV. He cannot be 
dismissed in a few words, for he was an institution of the 
time. There were travelled fops, and they were hated — 
there were those of home manufacture, and they were laughed 
at. Misson notes that * A Beau is so much the more re- 
markable in England^ because generally speaking, the English 
Men dress in a plain uniform manner,' and he describes them 
as * Creatures compounded of a Perriwig and a Coat laden 
with Powder as white as a Miller's, a Face besmear'd with 
Snuff, and a few affected airs ; they are exactly like Moli^re's 
Marquesses, and want nothing but that Title, which they 
would infallibly assume in any other Country but England/ 


Gibber* describes him as one 'that's just come to a small 
Estate, and a great Perriwig — he that Sings himself among 
the Women — He won't speak to a Gentleman when a Lord's 
in Company. You always see him with a Cane dangling at 
his Button, his Breast open, no Gloves, one Eye tuck'd under 
his Hat, and a Toothpick.' Verily, there is little new under 
the sun, and we, in these our latter days, have been familiar 
with the Toothpick, 

Ward naturally loves him — impales him on his entomo- 
logical pin — and enjoys his wriggles. He puts him under 
his microscope and minutely observes him, and then gives us 
the benefit of his description : * A Beau is a Narcissus that is 
fallen in Love with himself and his own Shadow, Within 
Doors he is a great Friend to a great Glass, before which 
he admires the Works of his Taylor more than the whole 
Creation. His Body's but a Poor Stuffing of a Rich Case, 
like Bran to a Lady's Pincushion ; that when the outside 
is stript off, there remains nothing that's Valuable. His 
Head is a Fool's Egg, which lies hid in a Nest of Hair ; 
His Brains are the Yolk, which Conceit has Addled. He's a 
stroling Assistant to Drapers and Taylors, showing every 
other Day a New Pattern, and a New Fashion. He's a 
Walking Argument against Immortality ; For no Man by 
his Actions, or his Talk can find he has more Soul than a 
Goose. He's a very Troublesome Guest in a Tavern ; and 
must have good Wine chang'd three or four Times till they 
bring him the worst in the Cellar, before he'll like it His 
Conversation is as intolerable as a young Councel's in Term 
Time, Talking as much of his Mistresses, as the other does of 
his Motions ; and will have the most Words, tho' all he says 
is nothing. He's a Bubble to all he deals with, even to his 
Periwig Maker ; and hates the sordid Rascal that won't 
Flatter him. He scorns to condescend so low, as to speak of 
any Person beneath the dignity of a Noble man ; the Duke 
of such a Place, and my Lord such one, are his common 
Cronies, from whom he knows all the Secrets of the Court, 
but dares not impart 'em to his best Friends, because the 
Duke cnjoyn'd him to Secrecie. He is always furnish'd with 

* 7'//r Careless Husband^ 2nd ed., 1705. 

I40 SOCIAL LIFE in tJu reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

new Jests from the last New Play, which he most commonly 
spoiles with repeating. His Watch he compares with every 
Sun Dial, Swears it corrects the Sun ; and plucks it out 
so frequently in Company, that his Fingers go oftener in a 
Day to his Fob, than they do to his Mouth, spending more 
time every Week in showing the Rarity of the Work, than 
the Man did in making on't ; being as forward to tell the 
Price without desiring, as he is to tell you the Hour without 
asking ; he is a constant Visitor of a Coffee house, where he 
Cons over the News Papers with much indifference ; Reading 
only for Fashion's sake and not for Information. He's com- 
monly of a small standing at one of the Universities, tho* all 
he has learnt there, is to Know how many Taverns there are 
in the Town, and what Vintner has the handsom'st Wife. . . . 
He's a Coward amongst Brave men^ and a Brave fellow among 
Cowards ; a Fool amongst Wise inen, and a Wit in Fool's 

Pretty hard hitting ; but it is borne out on all hands. 
Try another description : * * His first Care is his Dress, the 
next his Body ; and in the uniting these Two lies his Soul 
and Faculties. His business is in the Side Box, the Stage, 
and the Drawing Room ; his Discourse consists of Dress, 
Equipage, and the Ladies, and his extream Politeness in 
writing Billet deux ; which he never fails to shew in all Com- 
panies. The nice Management of his Italian Snuff box, and 
the affected Screw of his Body, makes up a great Part of his 
Conversation, and the Pains he takes to recommend himself, 
wou'd set Heraclit7is a Laughing. He's perpetually Laughing 
to shew his white Teeth, and is never serious but with his 
Taylor. His whole Design is bent upon a Fortune, which if 
he gets, the Coach and Equipage is still supported ; if not 
his fine Cloaths and he prove stale together, and he is com- 
monly buried ere he dies in a Gaol, or the Country, two 
places equally disagreeable to a Man of his Complexion.* 

And, not to be wearisome, we will conclude with John 
Hughes' * Inventory of a Beau' :'^ * A very rich tweezer case, 
containing twelve instruments for the use of each hour in the 

> Hickelty PUkelty, « Taller, No. 113. 


* Four pounds of scented snuff, with three gilt snuff boxes ; 
one of them with an invisible hinge, and a looking glass in 
the lid. 

* Two more of ivory, with the portraitures on their lids of 
two ladies of the town ; the originals to be seen every night 
in the side boxes of the play house. 

* A sword with a steel diamond hilt, never drawn but once 
at May fair. 

* Six clean packs of cards, a quart of orange flower water, 
a pair of French scissors, a toothpick case, and an eye brow 

* A large glass case, containing the linen and cloaths of 
the deceased ; among which are two embroidered suits, a 
pocket perspective, a dozen pairs of red heeled s/ioeSy three 
pairs of red silk stockings^ and an amber headed cane. 

* The strong box of the deceased^ wherein were found five 
billet doux, a Bath shilling, a crooked sixpence, a silk garter, 
a lock of hair, and three broken fans. 

* A press for books ; containing on the upper shelf Three 
bottles of diet drink — Two boxes of pills. 

* On the second shelf are several miscellaneous works ; as 
Lampoons, Plays, Taylor's Bills, And an Almanack for the 
year 1700. 

' On the third shelf, a bundle of letters unopened, indorsed, 
in the hand of the deceased " Letters from the old Gentleman," 
Lessons for the flute, Toland's " Christianity not mysterious," 
and a paper filled with patterns of several fashionable stuffs. 

* On the lower shelf, one shoe, a pair of snuffers, a French 
Grammar, a mourning hatband ; and half a bottle of usque- 

* There will be added to these goods, to make a complete 
auction, a collection of gold snuffljoxes and clouded canes, 
which arc to continue in fashion for three months after the 

In a description of men's dress, we will begin at his hat, 
and descend gradually to his boots. The hats were rather 
low crowned, made of felt, with very broad flapping brims — 
which were looped up, or cocked — very much at the fancy of 
the wearer — and the absence of this cocking denoted a sloven. 

142 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

*Take out your Snuff Box, Cock, and look smart, hah!'* 
says Clodio to his bookworm brother Carlos ; and their 
numerous shapes are alluded to by Budgell,^ * I observed 
afterwards, that the Variety of Cocks into which he moulded 
his Hat, had not a little contributed to his Impositions upon 

They were universally of black hue ; at least I have never 
met with mention of any other colour, except in sport : * I 
shall very speedily appear at White's in a Clurry coloured 
Hat, I took this Hint from the Ladies Hoods, which I look 
upon as the boldest Stroke that Sex has struck for these 
three hundred Years last past.'^ They had a gold or silver 
lace hat band, but ordinary people seldom had their hats 
edged. A hatband was considered de rigiieur for servants, 
and Swift's man, Peter, even bought a silver one for himself, 
rather than be without one. Feathers were only worn by 
military men. ' The Person wearing the Feather, though our 
Friend took him for an Officer in the Guards, has proved to 
be an arrant Linnen Draper,'* i.e, only in the train bands. 

But it was in the periwig, the Falbala, or Furbelow, the 
dress wig of the age, that all care was centred, and in 
which all the art of dress culminated. Originally invented 
by a French courtier to conceal a deformity in the shoulders, 
cither of the Dauphin, or the Duke of Burgundy, its use spread 
all over Europe ; but, perhaps, the fashion never was so pre- 
posterous at any time, as it was in Anne's reign, if we except 
the wonderful wig of the spendthrift Sir Edward Hunger- 
ford (whose bust used to be in a niche in Hungerford Market) 
i;i the middle of the previous century, who is said to have 
given five hundred guineas for a wig ! They were made from 
women's hair — or, at least, were so presumably. Of this we 
have many examples ; take one : * A noisie Temple Beaux 
with a Peruke of his Sister's Hair ill made * ; * 

They made our Sparks cut off their Nat'ral Hair, ^ 
A d — d long W 's Hair Periwig to wear.^ 

* Love Makes a Man^ C. Gibber, ed. 170 1. 

2 Spectator, 319. • Ibid, « Ibid, 

* The Roving Husband Reclaimed , ed. 1 706. 

* The Baboon h la Mode^ A Satyr against the French, 


Women's hair was a valuable commodity, judging by the 
following: 'An Oxfordshire Lass was lately courted by a 
young man of that County, who was not willing to marry her 
unless her friends could advance ;^5o for her portion ; which 
they being incapable of doing, the lass came to this City to try 
her fortune, when she met with a good Chapman in the Strand, 
who made a purchase of her Hair (which was delicately long 
and light), and gave her sixty potuids for it, being 20 ounces at 
£'i an oiince ; with which money she joyfully returned into the 
Country and bought her a husband.** Indeed, it was an 
article of general purchase and sale : * We came up to the 
comer of a narrow Lane, where Money for old Books was 
writ upon some part or other of every Shop, as surely as 
Money for Live Hairy upon a Barber^ s Window.' * 

Men used to travel the country on horseback and collect 
it, and it was not unfrequent for suspected highwaymen, when 
stopped and brought before the authorities, to declare they 
were dealers in hair, roaming about, following their avoca- 
tion — although it could not have been a very remunerative 
one, if we can believe the advertisements for the apprehension 
of deserters from the army : * said he was a dealer in hair ' 
being frequently mentioned. Here is an advertisement which 
gives a graphic picture of one of these gentry : * Lost on 
Tuesday Night last the 14th Instant, about 6 in the Evening, 
from behind a Gentleman in Piccadilly, a Pair of Bags, in which 
were three Bladders with Hair in, two Holland Shirts, Neck- 
cloaths, and other Linnen, A Leather Bag with an Iron 
Instrument and Hair in it, a pair of small Perriwig Cards, 
with Read the Maker's Name in Flower de Luce Court in 
Fleet Street, and other small matters beside,'^ etc. ; and we 
may note that * At the Sugar Loaf in Bishopsgate Street 
near Comhil, is the House of Call, where Perriwig Makers 
can have Men, and Men may have Masters.'* 

* Did you ever see a Creature more ridiculous than that 
stake of human nature which dined the other day at our 
house, with his great long wig to cover his head and face ; 

' Protestant Mercury y July 10, 1700. ' London Spy ^ 

' Daily Courant, Oct, 17, 1 712. 

* Postman^ Nov. 13/16, 1708 (? misprint for 1707). 

144 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

which was no bigger than a Hackney Tumep^ and much of 
the same form and shape ? Bless me, how it looked ! just 
like a great platter of French Soup, with a little bit of flesh 
in the middle. Did you mark the beau tiff of his wig, what 
a deal of pains he took to toss it back, when the very weight 
thereof was like to draw him from his seat ?'^ And they must 
have been heavy. * His Wigg I belieye had a pound of Hair 
and two pounds of powder in't.'^ And again, * One Impudent 
Correcter of Jade's Flesh, had run his Poles against the back 
Leather of a foregoing Coach, to the great dammage of a 
Beau's Reins, who peeping out of the Coach door, with at 
least ^ fifty Ounce Wig on, etc' 

The furbelow, or dress wig, was sometimes called a 

* long Duvillier ' (see Tatler 29), from a famous French per- 
ruquier of that name ; and these wigs were not only long, but 
tall: vide the humorous advertisement in the Tatler (180): 

* N.B. Dancing Shoes, not exceeding four inches in height in 
the heels, and periwigs not exceeding three feet in length, 
are carried in the coach box gratis* Not to have it in per- 
fect curl was unendurable. * I think standing in the Pillory 
cannot be a more sensible Ignominy to a Gentleman that 
wears tolerable Cloaths, than appearing in Publick with a 
rumpled Periwig.'* Pretty dears ! they used to carry ivory or 
tortoiseshell combs, curiously ornamented, with them, and 
comb their precious wigs in public — ay, the most public 
places — walking in the Park, or sitting in the Beau's Para- 
disc> the side box of the theatre, and when paying visits. 
But it seems to have been in anybody's power, by the 
exercise of a little trouble, to keep his wig in proper curl. 

* The Secret White Water to Curl Gentlemen's Hair, Chil- 
dren's Hair, or fine Wigs withal, that are out of Curl ; 
being used over Night, according to Directions, it performs 
a Curl by next Morning as substantial and durable as that 
of a new Wig, without damaging the Beauty of the Hair one 
jot ; by it old Wigs that look almost scandalous, may be 
made to shew inconceivably fine and neat, and if any single 

» The Letfellers, a Dialogue, * The Gamesters. • London Spy. 

< The Gentleman Cully, ed. 1702. » Postman, Sept. 23/26, 1710. 


Lock or part of a Wig be out of Curl, by the pressing of the 
Hat or riding in windy or rainy Weather, in one Night's 
time it may be repaired hereby to Satisfaction. The Direc- 
tions are so ample and large that Gentlemen's Men may 
perform the work with all the ease imaginable, the like thing 
never done before. Invented by an able Artist, and sold 
only at the Glover's Shop under the Castle Tavern, Fleet 
Street Price u. a Bottle.' 

These wigs were expensive — that is, if Steele and Addison 
do not exaggerate. Take this example from the Tatler, 
No. 54. * He answered Phillis a little abruptly at supper the 
same evening, upon which she threw his perriwig into the 
fire. " Well," said he, " thou art a brave termagant jade ; do 
you know, hussy, that fair wig cost forty guineas?^* * And 
in the Guardian (No. 97), * This gave me some encourage- 
ment ; so that to mend the matter, I bought a fine flaxen 
long wig that cost me thirty guineas.' But there were wigs 
and wigs, and probably these highly priced ones were some- 
what abnormal ; at all events, ordinary people could not 
have afforded them, for we find Swift loud in his laments 
about paying three guineas for one.^ * It has cost me three 
guineas to day for a periwig. I am undone ! It was made by 
a Leicester lad, who married Mrs. Worrall's daughter, where 
my mother lodged ; so I thought it would be cheap, and 
especially since he lives in the city.* 

It must not be imagined that the periwig was the only 
variety. On the contrary, there were several kinds of wig. 
* I had an humble Servant last Summer, who the first time 
he declared himself, was in a Full Bottom'd Wigg ; but the 
Day after, to my no small Surprize, he accosted me in a thin 
Natural one. I received him, at this our second Interview, 
as a perfect Stranger, but was extreamly confounded, when 
his speech discovered who he was. I resolved, therefore, to 
fix his Face in my Memory for the future ; but as I was 
walking in the Park the same Evening, he appeared to me in 
one of those Wiggs that I think you call a Night Cap, which 
had altered him more effectually than before. He afterwards 

• Jmnial to Stella^ let. 13. 
VOL. I. L 

146 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

played a Couple of Black Riding Wiggs upon me, with the 
same Success/ * etc. The * Night Cap ' wig was a sort of 
periwig, with a short tie and a small round head. Then there 
was a * Campaign * wig, which was imported from France ; 
and this was made very full, was curled, and eighteen inches 
in length in the front, with drop locks. In the contemporary 
prints of Marlborough's victories, the back part of the wig 
is sometimes shown as being put in a black silk bag. We 
get an approximate idea of their value from the following 
advertisement : * Lost &c. a Campaign Perriwig, fair Hair 
with a large Curl, value about 7 guineas,' etc. 

I have come across one mention of a * Spanish Wigg/ 
but as this was worn by a runaway ship's apprentice, it was 
probably of foreign manufacture, and the species had no 
place here. Lastly, there was the * Bob ' wig, or attempt to 
imitate the natural head of hair. This wig was mostly in use 
among the lower orders ; and many are the descriptions of 
it, and its various colours, in the advertisements for army 
deserters. But the better class also used it We have seen, 
in the Spectator ^ No. 319, how a man wore *a thin Natural' 
wig ; so also we read in Steele's * Lying Lover,' * What shall I 
do for powder for this smart Bob V 

The proper quality, and quantity, of his powder, must have 
been a serious weight upon the mind of a beau. Its ground- 
work, or basis, was starch, very finely ground and sifted ; but 
this was adulterated with burnt alabaster, plaster of Paris 
(which was called in the trade Old Doctor), whitening, fine 
flour, flour from pearl barley, and other things ; and it was 
scented — well, we should think to a sickening degree — with 
ambergris, musk and civet, violets, orris root, rose, bergamot, 
orange flowers, and jessamine. And there were different 
coloured hair powders. The black was made with starch, 
Japan ink, and ivory black ; a cheaper sort was made of 
pounded coal-dust Brown was made with starch and umber 
— according to the shade required. Grey was produced by 
mixing some of the black powder with more starch, and 
adding a little smalts. 

> Spectator, No. 319 (Budgell). 


Gay presents us with a curious little piece of economy : — 

When suffocating Mists obscure the Mom 
Let thy worst Wig^ long u^d to Stonns^ be worn ; 
This knows the powder'd Footman, and with Care, 
Beneath his flapping Hat, secures his Hair.' 

We are indebted also to Gay* for the following vivid 
description of the manner in which the beaus were robbed 
of their cherished chevelure : — 

Nor is thy Flaxen Wigg with Safety worn ; 
High on the Shoulder, in the Basket bom, 
Lurks the sly Boy ; whose Hand to Rapine bred, 
Plucks off the curling Honours of the Head. 

This was an ingenious plan, but it was almost equalled in 
the very early years of George I. by a practice which sprung 
up, of cutting a hole in the leather backs of the carriages, 
boldly clutching the occupant's wig, and dragging it through 
the hole. 

Some few had the courage to wear their own hair, and 
here is a hairdresser's advertisement on the subject : ^ * Next 
door to t/ie Golden Bell in St, Bride's Lane Fleet Street, 
Liveth Lydia Beecrofty who Cutteth and Curleth Ladies, 
Gentlemen's, and Childrens Hair ; and selleth a fine 
Pomatum, which is mixt with Ingredients of her own making, 
that if the Hair be never so Thin, it makes it grow Thick ; 
if Short, it makes it grow Long: If any Gentlemens or 
Childrens Hair be never so Lank, she makes it Curie in a 
little time like a Periwig. She waits on Ladies, if desir'd, on 
Tuesdays and Fridays ; the other Days of the Week, she is 
t5 be spoken with at Home.' So that we see the * Professors * 
of those days were very similar to their congeners of ours, 
and had invaluable nostrums — * prepared only by,* etc. 
Bear's grease used to be imported from Russia; but a 
spurious kind was also sold, made out of dog's, or goat's, fat, 
or rancid hog's lard. There were common, hard, black, and 
brown pomatums, to say nothing of powders and liquids for 
thickening the hair, principally made of burdock root and 
small beer, and a powder for cleansing the hair, made with 
cassia wood and white vitriol. 

» Trivia^ book I. « Ibid, book 3. « Ilarl, AfSS, 5931, 242. 

L 2 

148 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

We next come to the neckcloth, as no collar or band of 
the shirt was shown ; and the one most in fashion was the 
* Steinkirk/ so called from the battle of that name, which was 
fought on Aug 3, 1692, when the English under William III. 
were defeated, and the campaign broken up. This style of 
neckcloth was introduced from Paris, and it was highly 
fashionable there, because its negligent style was popularly 
supposed to imitate the disordered dress of the victorious 
French generals, who were so eager to rush into the fight that 
they did not stop to finish dressing — or, at all events, to tie 
their neckcloths. It was a very graceful fashion, and the ends, 
which were laced or fringed, were sometimes tucked in the 
waistcoat or shirt. They are frequently alluded to as ' snuff 
grimed.' Ladies also wore them, as in *The Careless 
Husband ' Lady Easy * takes her Steinkirk from her Neck 
and lays it gently over his Head.' 

And there was the * Berdash.* * I have prepared a treatise 
against the Cravat and berdash, which I am told is not ill 
done.' * Some have imagined that the word haberdasher is 
derived from this neckcloth, but it is too ridiculous to think 
of for a moment, as there were haberdashers as early as 
Edward the Third's reign, and at the time of which we write 
there were * haberdashers of hats.' In the epilogue to 
Mrs. Centlivre's *Platonick Lady,' * design 'd to be spoken by 
Mrs. Bracegirdle but came too late,* it is mentioned — 

Yet, tell me, Sirs, don't you as nice appear 

With your false Calves, Bardash, and Favorites here ? * 

[pointing to her forehead.] 

The Daily Conrant, Nov. 4, 1708, says: 'Also very fine 
Muslin Neckcloths to be sold at 55*. a Piece.' 

A gentleman's shirt was of fine holland, and was some- 
what dear — the fronts were worn very open, and the ruffles were 
not laced, at least for ordinary wear : this piece of extrava- 
gance was reserved for a later time. Showing so much of the 
shirt necessitated clean linen, but it is hardly likely that 
many followed the example of Tom Modely, ' whose * busi- 
ness in this world is to be well dressed ; and the greatest* 

* Guardian^ No. lo. * Small curls on the forehead. • TatUr^ No. 166. 


circumstance that is to be recorded in his annals is that he 
wears twenty shirts a zveek! That they were costly, we may 
judge from the fact that Swift was not extravagant in his 
dress, and that he bought them first-hand in Holland, by 
means of his friend Harrison, who was under great obliga- 
tions to him. *28 Feb. 17 18. I have sent to Holland for a 
dozen shirts,' * etc. — and again he writes: *Jan. 31, 1713. I 
paid him (Harrison) while he was with me seven guineas, in 
part of a dozen of shirts he bought me in Holland.' 

This having the waistcoat unbuttoned to show the shirt 
is very frequently mentioned, but it was eminently a young 
man's practice. A lady, speaking of her husband, says : 
' You must know, he tells me that he finds London is a much 
more healthy place than the Country ; for he sees several of 
his old acquaintance and schoolfellows are here young fellows 
with fair full-bottomed perriwigs, I could scarce keep him 
this morning from going out opeyi breasted^ ^ Again ^ : * There 
is a fat fellow whom I have long remarked, wearing his 
breast open in the midst of winter, out of an affectation of 
youth. I have therefore sent him just now the following 
letter in my physical capacity : — 

* " Sir, 

* " From the twentieth instant to the first of May 
next, both days inclusive, I beg of you to button your waist- 
coat from your collar to your waistband." ' 

It was supposed to have a most killing effect on the fair 
sex. * A sincere heart has not made half so many con- 
quests as an open waistcoat'^ The waistcoats, otherwise, 
were seldom mentioned ; they were long, but not so long as 
they afterwards became ; and, with the exception of very fine 
suits, seem to have been quite plain. One or two advertise- 
ments of fine clothes will tell us a great deal about them 
' Lost &c.— a Red Waistcoat Wove in with Gold, 2 Cravats, 
and 2 pair of Ruffles, i being grounded Lace very fine, the 
other Colebatteen.' * Stolen &c. — a new Cinnamon Colour 
Cloth Coat, Wastcoat and Breeches, Embroider'd with Silver 

' Journal to Stella, ' Tatkr, Na 95. 

» Ibid, 246. '' Ibid, 151. 

ISO SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

4 or 5 inches deep down before, and on the Sleeves, and 
round the Pocket Holes and the Pockets and Knees of the 
Breeches. They are Hn'd with a Sky Blue Silk.' * Left in a 
Hackney Coach &c. a light brown coloured Hanging Coat, 
with long Sleeves, upper Cape Black Velvet, with Gold 
Buttons and Button Holes.' * Taken from a Gentleman's 
House &c. a Dove Coloured Cloth Suit embroider'd with 
Silver, and a pair of Silk Stockings of the same Colour ; a 
Grey Cloth Suit with Gold Buttons and Holes ; a Silk 
Drugget Salmon Coloured Suit lin'd with white Silk ; a Silver 
Brocade Waistcoat trim'd with a knotted Silver Fringe, and 
lin'd with white Silk ; A floured Satin Nightgown, lin'd with 
a Pink coloured Lustring, and a Cap and Slippers of the 
Same ; a Thread Satin Nightgown, striped red and white, 
and lin'd with a Yellow Persian, and a Cap of the same ; a 
yellow Damask Nightgown lin'd with Blue Persian ; a Scarlet 
Silk net Sash to tye a Nightgown.' These were clothes fit 
for * the prince of puppies, Colonel Edgworth,' * who went one 
day to see his brother who lived but a day's journey from 
him ; yet he took with him a led horse loaded with port- 
manteaus. On his arrival, these were unpacked, and three 
suits of clothes, each finer than the other, were displayed on 
chairs, his nightgown on another, and his shaving plate all 
put out Next morning he appeared at breakfast with his 
boots on, and his brother asked him where he was going for 
a ride before dinner. He replied that he was going home ; 
that he had only just come to see him, and must go back at 
once, which he did. The poor man afterwards died mad in 
the common Bridewell at Dublin. 

Noblemen wore their stars on their coats, and their 
ribands, but it must have been a Collar day when the fol- 
lowing happened : * On Wednesday morning last between 
1 1 and 1 2 at St. James's Gate, was dropt from a Nobleman's 
Coller of Esses, an enamel'd George ; if brought to Mr. Mead's, 
a Goldsmith, at the Black Lyon within Temple Bar, shall 
have a Guinea Reward, and no Questions ask'd.'* The 
reward does not indicate reckless prodigality on the part 
of the nobleman. 

* Journal to Stella^ letter 6. * Postboy^ Feb. 25, 1714, 


We have seen that there was a great variety of colours 
in men's clothing. A little curiosity in colour must not pass 

The City Prentices, those upstart Beaus 

In short spruce Puffs and Vigo coloured clothes * 

— a colour which might puzzle for some time, were it not 
for the huge quantity of j««^ captured at Vigo in 1702. 

There were clothes of Drap du Barri and D'Oyley suits, 
so called after the famous haberdasher, whose name still 
survives in the dessert- napkin. They were made of drugget 
and sagathay, camlet, but the majority of men wore cloth. It 
is scarcely necessary to describe the shape of the coat, for 
the illustrations show it better than any printed description. 
There is but one peculiarity I would point out — that in 171 1 
the coats used to be wired to make them stick out * The 
Skirt of your fashionable Coats forms as large a Circumference 
as our Petticoats ; as these are set out with Whalebone, so 
are those with Wire, to encrease and sustain the Bunch of 
Fold that hangs down on each side.* ^ 

The cheap clothiers lived in Monmouth Street, St Giles, 
(now called Dudley Street), and there was no love lost be- 
tween them and their higher-priced brethren, as the following 
advertisement shows : * Whereas the Monmouth Street Men 
and other Taylors in and about the City, have by divers Ad- 
vertisements in the Postman and other publick Prints, and by 
Bills given from Door to Door, boasted what mighty Penny- 
worths Persons may have of them, in selling Sagathy and 
Druggit Suits, the smallest sized Men for 3 Guineas, and the 
largest sizes for £'i los. and Men's Cloth Suits at £^ and 
£^ los. This is to acquaint all Persons that have occasion 
for such Suits, if they please to make Tryal, may have the 
same as Cheap in Birchin lane, and as well and as fashionable 
made, and may be assured of seeing more choice both of 
broad Cloaths, Camblet, Druggits^and Sagathys than many 
of those Upstarts can pretend to.^ 

A perusal of the advertisements of these 'Monmouth 

' Epilogue to Mrs. Centlivre's Lovers Contrivance, ed. 1703. 
' Spectator^ No. 145. » Postman^ Nov. 15, 1707. 

152 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Street Men * confirms these prices, and one will serve as a 
\ type of all. * At the sign of the Golden Heart in Monmouth 
Street in St. Giles' in the Fields. All Gentlemen and Others, 
may be Furnished with all sorts of Cloathes and chuse their 
Patterns and have them made very well and Fashionable, 
of Cloath, Druggets, or Sagathie, the first size Drugget or 
Sagathie at Three Pounds^ the second size at Three Guineas^ 
and the largest size at Three Pound Ten Shillings ; with all 
sorts of Cloath Suits very Reasonable, and Cheaper than any 
hath yet pretended to make them : With all sorts of Plain 
Liveries at Three Pound Fifteen and Four Pound a Suit, 
and Laced Liveries proportionable ; As likewise all sorts 
of Camblet Suits very Reasonable, and Campaign Coats at 
, Fifteen or Sixteen Shillings a Coat ; All sorts and sizes of 
L^oys Cloathes, very Good and Cheaply In reading these 
advertisements, and indeed in all quotations of price, the 
different value of money — then and now — should never be 
forgotten ; three pounds being equivalent to seven or eight So 
that, according to our ideas, clothing was dearer then than now. 
In the country, owing to the very little correspondence 
between it and the metropolis, of course the fashions were 
some time in reaching remote distances, and were equally 
long in departing from thence, to make way for new ones. 
Addison humorously describes the fashions for men in Corn- 
wall in 171 1. * From this place, during our progress through 
the most western parts of the kingdom, we fancied ourselves 
in King Charles the Second's reign, the people having made 
vary little variations in their dress since that time. The 
smartest of the country Squires appear still in the Monmouth 
Cock, and when they go a wooing, whether they have any 
post in the militia or not, they generally put on a red coat. 
We were indeed very much surprised, at the place we lay at 
last night, to meet with a gentleman that had accoutred him- 
self in a night cap wig, a coat with long pockets and slit 
sleeves, and a pair of shoes with high scallop tops ; but we 
soon found by his conversation that he was a person who 
laughed at the ignorance and rusticity of the country people, 
and was resolved to live and die in the mode.'^ 

> Hari, MSS, 5931, 205. « Spectator, 129. 



Of men's breeches, and the materials of which they were 
made, very little mention is made ; but the stocking is fre- 
quently brought to notice. They were of cloth, knitted 
woollen, thread, and silk. The latter were of all colours, to 
suit the beaus' costumes, but black silk was the wear of your 
well-to-do citizen, professional man, or gentleman, Misson 
says ' The English Silk Stockings are one of its famous Mer- 
chandizes;' and solemn old Thoresby records how he and 
his cousin 'bought each a pair 
of black silk rolling stockings in 
Westminster Hall.' There is no 
mention of gaiters as a protec- 
tion against cold, rain, or mud. 
Addison grumbles that ' another in- 
forms me of a Pair of silver Gar- 
ters buckled below the knee, that 
have lately been seen at ^^ Rain- 
bow Coffee house in Fleet Street' ' 
and considers it his mission 
' to Correct those Depraved Sen- 
timents that give Birth to all 
those little Extravagances which 
appear in their outward Dress 
and Behaviour.' 

With regard to shoes, there 
seems to have been much fop- 
pery. Red heels are specially 
railed against by the Spectator. The beaus wore the heels 
very high, as indeed was the fashion with the fair sex. Gay 
speaks, among his de omnibus rebus, of shoes, and gives 
the following advice* : — 

When the Black Youth at chosen Stands rejoice, 
And Clean your Shoes resounds from ev'ry Voice ; 
When late their miry Sides Stage Coaches show, 
And their stiff Horses thro' the Town move slow ; 
When all the Malt in leafy Ruin lies. 
And Damsels first renew their Oyster Cries ; 

' Spulattr, No. 16. 

* Trivia, b 

154 SOCIAL UFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Then let the prudent Walker Shoes provide 
Not of the Spanish or Morocco Hide ; 
The wooden Heel may raise the Dancer's Bound, 
And with the 'scallop'd Top his Step be crown'd : 
Let firm, well hammer'd Soles protect thy Feet 
Thro' freezing Snows, and Rains, and Soaking Sleet. 
Should the big Laste extend the Shoe too wide. 
Each Stone will wrench th' unwary Step aside : 
The sudden Turn may stretch the swelling Vein, 
Thy cracking Joint unhinge, or Ankle sprain ; 
And when too short the modish Shoes are worn, 
You'll judge the Seasons by your shooting Com. 

Shoe-strings had gone out, and buckles were in fashion ; but 
they had not assumed the proportions they did in after years. 
Boots were never worn except for riding ; and there was in 

this reign very little improvement on the heavy 
and clumsy riding-boot of William the Third's 
time, which was still worn by Marlborough 
and his cavalry. Many are the pairs, with 
their spurs, that are advertised for, as being 
left in coaches. 

In those days of bad pavements and 
defective sewage, when men had hardly b^;un 
the general use of the chair, and a coach was, 
as now, the luxury of the few, shoeblacks were 


a necessity ; and, although a man might, like 
the Templar in * Sir Roger de Coverley,' * have his shoes rubbed 
and his periwig powdered at the Barber's, as you go unto the 
Rose,' yet a large number of * Black Youth at chosen Stands 
rejoice ; and Clean your S/ioes resounds from ev'ry Voice.* 
They were very numerous ; and from them is derived our 
word blackguard^ for so were they called about Charing 
Cross and White Hall. 

There were different kinds of blacking, but, judging from 
the dispraise awarded to each other's goods by rival manu- 
facturers, they could have been neither pleasant nor effective. 
* London Fucus for Shoes ; being an unparalleled Composi- 
tion of the most pure and rich Blacks, Choice Oils, &c., and 
IS a thing so adapted to this Use, that the World never yet 
produced the like Invention, having gain'd a General Ap* 


plause, causing the straitest Shooes to wear with delight and 
ease ; beautifies them to admiration, preserves the Leather 
from cracking or rotting to the very last ; and frees the Feet 
from all Pains, Corns, Swellings, &c, . . . Price i2d, a Roll. 
Note, one Roll serves one Person near half a year.' And 
then the famous 'Spanish Blacking' advertised, and called 
the poor ' Fucus ' names. 

"The little odds and ends of male attire must be noted. 
Gloves, for instance, were in constant use, and we have seen 
how prodigally they were given away at funerals. The ire 
of the Spectator was aroused by a custom, 
then just brought up, of edging them with 
silver fringe, but this luxurious practice 
does not seem to have obtained for very 

The pocket-handkerchiefs, owing to the 
prevalence of the prac- 
tice of snuff-taking, were 
nearly always of silk, 
though cambric was used ; 
and although we do not 
hear of ' Moral Pocket- -^ 
handkerchiefs,' they were shob-black. 

somewhat similarly util- 
ised, as the following advertisement shows : ' A Silk Handker- 
chief Printed, with a Draught of the Roads of England accord- 
ing to Mr. Ogleby's Survey, shewing the Roads and distance in 
measured Miles from London to the several Cities and Towns 
in England, Also the Victory Handkerchief, which gives an 
account of the Success of 5 most glorious Victories obtain'd 
by the Confederates over the French. Ornamented with the 
Arms of the Empire and Great Britain, Prussia and Holland : 
They will both Wash in a weak Lather of Soap without 
Prejudice. Price 2s. 6d.' Others were printed with the 
Queen's Speech to Parliament, April 5, 1710; the standards 
and ensigns taken from the French, with the queen's effigies 
at full length ; Dr. Sacheverell and the six bishops who voted 
with him ; the four seasons of the year with the sun in the 
centre, curiously ornamented ; and the last one I can find 

156 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

advertised in Anne's reign was one printed on white silk with 
* An Abstract of the Peace made between England and 
France, with the lively Effigies of all the Confederates, 
Princes and the several Plenipotentiaries at Utrecht' 

In the early part of Anne's reign it was fashionable for 
men to wear muffs, as it had been ever since Charles the 
Second's time. Ward (1703) says : * What is he in the long 
Whig, with his Fox skin Muff upon his Button, and his 
Pocket book in his Hand ? Why he (replied my school- 
fellow) is a Beau.' But they seem to have become less 
popular in 17 10 {vide Tatler^ No. 155). *I saw he was 
reduced to extreme poverty, by certain shabby superfluities 
in his dress : for, notwithstanding that it was a very sultry 
day for the time of the year, he wore a loose great Coat 
and a Muff* etc. Yet in 171 1 Addison writes {Spectatory 
No. 16) : * I have receiv'd a Letter, desiring me to be very 
satyrical upon the little Muff that is now in Fashion.' 

Every gentleman carried a sword, and we are able to get 
accurate descriptions of them, from the very numerous de- 
scriptions of them in the advertisements of lost and stolen 
swords — how they used to lose them I Probably the company 
at the tavern or club was jovial, the claret good, and the way 
home was badly lit, and in the morning the silver-hilted 
sword was a-missing. I wonder if they ever got them back } 
They cried after them loudly enough, although they did not 
offer great rewards, a guinea or so at the outside. Gay thus 
warns the walker in the streets : — 

Where the Mob gathers, swiftly shoot along, 
Nor idly mingle in the noisy Throng. 
Lur'd by the Silver Hilt, amid the Swarm, 
The subtil Artist will thy Side disarm. 

With a beau, his swOrd, as every other part of his dress, re- 
ceived his special attention, and he very seldom was without 
it, except when dancing. His sword-knot was of s6me gay 
colour, and was very long ; and he was solicitous as to the 
carriage of his sword. * But my sword — does it hang care- 
less ?' asks Bookwit in the * Lying Lover* ; and yet withal 
the hilts very seldom seem to have been of much value, either 


diamond-cut steel, gilt, or plain silver hilts. The following 
are some of the better sort, and of the most artistic merit. 

* A large plain Silver hilted Sword with Scrowls and gilt in 
parts, with a broad gutter'd hollow Blade gilt at the shoulder, 
and the edges ground very sharp and a strong silver gilt 
handle.' * A Hanger with a fine Aggat Haft, Belt, and Silver 
buckle.' *A Silver gilt Sword, done with several Figures, 
with a Chequer Gold handle done one half of it with a Black 
Ribbon.' *A Silver and Gold Hilted Sword wrought with 
Figures and Images about the handle, being tyed with a 
broad black Ribbon, the Blade broad from the Hilt halfway, 
and stain'd with blew and Gold.' * A Silver and Gold hilted 
Sword of a Trophy Pattern, with a man on Horseback on the 
Middle of the Pommel, and the same in the Shell, with the 
Figures lying down on each side of the Horse, the Button of 
the Pommel being in Squares.' 

Here is an advertisement which shows how a poor inno- 
cent was led astray : * June 24, 17 12. Whereas a Gentleman 
coming to Bradbery's Hazard Table last Night, and not a 
Gamester, but brought by an Acquaintance to see the Nature 
of it, lost his Silver hilted Sword, which some of the Company 
took from his side ; This is to give Notice that any body that 
produces the Sword to Mr. John Waters, Perfumer, in the 
Strand, over against the Talbot Inn ; or to Mr. Hosier, over 
against the Bunch of Grapes in N«w Street, Fetter Lane, 
shall have lor. Reward, and no Questions ask'd ; and if the 
Sword is not produc'd, the Man that keeps the Table will be 

Towards the end of Anne's reign swords were worn of a 
preposterous length, which excited the satire of the Guardian} 

* When Jack Lizard made his first trip to town from the 
university, he thought he could never bring up with him 
enough of the gentleman ; this I soon perceived in the first 
visit he made mc, when I remember, he came scraping in at 
the door, encumbered with a bar of Cold iron so irksomely 
long, that it banged against his Calf, and jarred upon his 
right heel, as he Walked, and came rattling behind him as he 
ran down the stairs. But his sister Annabella's raillery soon 

* Guardian, No. 143. 

158 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

cured him of this awkward air, by telling him that his sword 
was only fit for going up stairs, or walking up hill, and that 
she shrewdly suspected he had stolen it out of the College 

Equal, at least, in importance to the sword, was the cane, 
* the nice conduct ' of which was part of a gentleman's educa- 
tion — and, if swords were plentifully lost or stolen, how many 
more despairing owners mourned their canes ? There were 
useful, as well as ornamental canes. 

If the Strong Cane support thy walking Hand, 
Chairmen no longer shall the Wall command ; 
Ev'n sturdy Car-men shall thy Nod obey. 
And rattling Coaches stop to make thee Way : 
This shall direct thy Cautious Tread aright. 
Though not one glaring Lamp enliven Night. 
Let Beaus their Canes with Amber tipt produce, 
Be theirs for empty Show, but thine for use.* 

The majority of those lost were hardly worth advertising 
for ; but we will pick out a few, as specimens of what the 
better sort were like : * A fine Cane with a Gold Head, en- 
graved with a Cypher and Crown on the top of it' * A Cane 
with an Aggot head.' * A small cane with an Amber head 
and a Black Silk Ribbond in it, a Princes Metal Hoop, and a 
Silver Ferril at the bottom.' * A Cane with a Silver Head 
and a Black Ribbon in k, the top of it Amber, crack'd in two 
or three places, part of the Head to turn round, and in it a 
Perspective Glass.' * A Cane with a croched Head, a Silver 
Ferrel and a Silver ring.' * A Cane with a Silver Head, with 
the Figure of the Tower of Babel upon it, done in Chaced 
Work.' * A Cane with a Silver Head and Scent Box, and a 
Ferril of Silver at the Bottom.* 

His snuff-box, too, was an object of his solicitude, though, 
as the habit of taking snuff had but just come into vogue, 
there were no collections of them, and no beau had ever 
dreamed of criticising a box as did Lord Petersham, as * a 
nice Summer box.* So many of them have come down to us 
that they need no description, and I may merely say that 
those of the middle classes were chiefly of silver, or tortoise- 

* Trivia^ book I. 



shell, or mother-of-pearl ; sometimes of ' Aggat ' — or with a 
* Moco Stone ' in the lid. A beau would sometimes either 
have a looking-glass, or the portrait of a lady inside 
the lid. 

We have seen how proud the beau was of his watch, which 
he wore in a fob, or pocket, in his breeches. A seal or two, 
generally of small value, and a watch key, were attached to 
it by a ribbon ; chains, either of gold, silver, or steel, being 
sparingly used. The seals, of course, were then necessary, 
as, there being no gummed envelopes, every letter had to be 
properly sealed, either by wax or wafer, Tompion was the 
great watch-maker, and he lived at 
the Three Crowns, at the comer of ^ 
Water Lane in Fleet Street, where he C 
was afterwards succeeded by Geoi^e 
Graham. The value of Tompion's 
watches may be gathered from the 
fact that from seven to ten guineas 
were generally offered for their reco- 
very when lost, or from eighteen to 
hventy-five guineas of our money. 

The watch of that day, and indeed 
of the whole Georgian era, consisted of 
the watch proper, and an outer orna- 
mental case, which was lined with a 
pad of coloured velvet or satin, to 
make it fit tight to the watch. We 
now never see watch-cases made of 
other materials than the precious metals, or imitations thereof; 
but then, beautiful cases were made of shagreen of various 
colours, or tortoiseshell inlaid, or studded, with gold. Some 
beautiful specimens may be seen in the library of the Cor- 
poration of the City of London, in the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany's collection. 

As umbrellas were not used by men, as being too effe- 
minate, and india-rubber waterproofing was only to be 
discovered more than a century later, men, in Anne's 
reign, had to put their trust in good broadcloth coats or 


i6o SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Nor should it prove thy less important Care, 

To Chuse a proper Coat for Winter's Wear. 

Now in thy Trunk thy Daily Habit fold, 

The silken Drugget ill can fence the cold ; 

The Frieze's spongy Nap is soak'd with Rain, 

And Show'rs soon drench the Camlet's cockled Grain. 

True Witney Broad Cloth with its Shag unshorn, 

Unpierc'd is in the lasting Tempest worn : 

Be this the Horse man's Fence ; for who would wear 

Amid the Town the Spoils of Russic^s Bear ? 

Within the Roquelauris Clasp thy Hands are pent. 

Hands, that stretch'd forth invading Harms prevent 

Let the looped Bavaroy the Fop embrace. 

Or his deep Cloak be spatter'd o'er with Lace. 

That Garment best the Winter's Rage defends, 

Whose shapeless Form in ample Plaits depends ; 

By various Names ^ in various Counties known, 

Yet held in all the true Surtout alone : 

Be thine of Kersey firm, though small the Cost, 

Then brave unwet the Rain, unchill'd the Frost.' 

Scarlet seems to have been the favourite colour for the 
roquelaure or cloak, and some must have been 'exceeding 
magnificaV scarlet rocklows and rocliers, with gold buttons 
and loops, being advertised as lost. Ah! the men of that 
time ! they were always losing something. 

In doors, in their hours of ease, the precious furbelow wig 
was discarded, and their closely cropped or shaved heads 
were clad in handsomely worked caps — called night caps^ 
although only worn in the daytime ; some kind of night cap 
having been an article of dress ever since the time of Eliza- 
beth. They were as common present^ from ladies to gentle- 
men, as a pair of slippers, or a smoking-cap would be now. 
Says Swift, ' Your fine Cap, Madam Dingley, is too little, and 
too hot. I will have that fur taken off; I wish it were far 
enough ; and my old Velvet cap is good for nothing. Is it 
velvet under the fur ? I was feeling but cannot find ; if it be, 
it will do without it, else I will face it ; but then I must buy 
new velvet : but may be I may beg a piece. What shall 

The loose dressing gown, too, was called a night gown — 

* A Joseph^ a Wrap Rascal, etc. • Trivia, book I. 

* Jourfial to Stella, letter 8. 


why, I know not, because it was not worn at night, 'You 
must know I am in my night gown every morning betwixt 
six and seven, and Patrick is forced to ply mc fifty times 
before I can get on my nightgown.'' They were made of 
costly materials as well as 'Callicoe'; indeed, they were 
generally of brocade, or some embroidered material. Men 
used even, early in the day, to lounge into the coffee-houses 
dressed in them. One example will show both their price 

and the materials of which they were sometimes made. 
' Whereas on Tuesday the 23d of December last, 3 Night 
Gowns was agreed for, and taken away from a Shop in 
Exchange Alley, vi/,. One Man's Night Gown of yellow 
Sattin with Red and white Flowers lined with a pale Blue 
Sattin, Value £6 los. One ditto of blue Ground Sattin, 
with red and white Flowers, lined with a plain yellow 
Sattin, Value £'i lOs. One ditto of red and white broad 
stript Thread Sattin, lined with a green and white Persian, 

' Joantal la Stella, letler 8. 

i62 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Value £2 los, for which the Payment left was not satisfactory. 
If the Person who bought the said Gowns will give notice to 
Mr. Gray at the Rainbow and Punch bowl in Gilt Spur Street, 
so as they may be had again, shall have 6 Guineas Reward, 
and no Questions asked.' 

As the ultimate fate of all these fine clothes was the old 
clothes man, a picture of him will as appropriately close this 
portion of the disquisition on male dress, as one of his mate 
will open that on female costume. 




The commode — Description of ladies' dress— The peuicoat — The bodice 

— A costly wardrobe^ Underlinen — Dressing like men — Scents — 
Patches— Patching Whig and Tory— Masks— The hood— High- 
crowned hats — Furs — Umbrellas — Pattens — The fan — Mobs^Shop- 
ping— Stuffs — List of Indian stuffs — Lace — Linens — Tallymen- 
Jewellery- Diamonds— Plate— Children's jewellery. 

Thk ' commode ' must have been so named on the same 
liicns A non lucmdo prin- 
ciple as the night cap and 
gown ; for a more inconve- 
nient headdress, perhaps, 
was never invented. It ori- 
ginated in the Court of Louis 
XIV., and was there called 
a foHtatige because it had 
been introduced by Made- 
moiselle Fontange.' It was 
also named a 'head,* or a 
' top knot,' and was made of 
rows of plaited muslin, or 
lace, stiffened with wire, one 
over the other, diminishing 
as they rose. During the 
reign, their fashion and shape 
altered very much, as is no- 
ticed by Addison: 'There 
is not so variable a thing * *^'""*^"- 

' It \i aaiJ to have had its origin in a hunting poity, where the hair of the 
tiiyal favourite got loose. She hurriedly tied her laced handkerchief round hef 
head ; and the effect produced was so prelly, and aitislic, Ihat it delighted 

1 64 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

in Nature as a Lady*s Head Dress : Within my own Me- 
mory I have known it rise and fall above thirty Degrees. 
About ten years ago it shot up to a very great Height, inso- 
much that the Female Part of our Species were much taller 
than the men/* The numerous examples given in the illus- 
trations of this book render any further reference to the 
* commode ' unnecessary, as the reader will there see it de- 
picted in every stage. The cut on the preceding page la only 
given because it shows it on a larger scale than any other, 
and is, besides, interesting, as forming one of a pack of cards 


Ward give us his definition of a Belky or * Modish Lady,' 
as he prefers to call her, who was — 

At Hackney y Stepney ^ or at Chealsea Bred, 
In Dancing perfect and in Plays well Read. 

Impatient of Extreams, with Pride half Craz'd, 
Then must her Head, a Story higher be raised. 
In her next Gaudy Gown, her Sweeping Train 
Is order d to be made as long again ; 
All things must vary from the common Rode, 
And reach a Size beyond the Decent Mode : 
Thus Monstrously Adom'd, to make a show, 
She walks in State, and Courtsies very low. 
And is a proper Mistress for the Fooly a Beau? 

We get a very good, and at the same time humorous, 
description of female dress in 1707 out of Mrs. Centlivre's 
play of' The Platonick Lady,* wherein one of the characters 
is Mrs. Dowdy, * a Somersetshire Widow, come to Town to 
learn Breeding.* 

Act. 3. Enter Mrs. Dowdy ^ Mrs. Brazen the Matchmaker, Mrs. Wheedle 
the Milliner, Mrs. Turnup the Manto Maker, Mrs. Crispit the Tire 
Woman, and Peeper^ her Maid. They all seem Talking to her. 

Mrs. Dowdy. We'l, we'l la you now, la you now, Shour and Shour 
you'l Gaily me. 

Turnup. Here's your Ladyships Manto and Petticoat. 

Mrs. Dowdy. Ladyship, why what a main difference is here between 
this Town and the Country. I was never call'd above Forsooth in all my 

Louis XIV., who begged her to keep it so arranged for the remainder of the day 
— a hint not wasted on the other ladies, who next day appeared * coifTfes \ la 
Fontange.* * Spectator, No. 98, June 21, 17 11. ' Lond<m Spy, 


Life. Mercy on me, why you ha spoiPd my Petticoat, mum : zee, Peeper^ 
she has cut it in a Thousand Bits. 

Peeper, Oh, that's the Fashion, these are Furbelows Madam — 'tis the 
prettiest made Coat. 

Mrs. Dowdy, Furbelows, a murrain take 'em, they spoil all the Zilk. 
Good strange, shour London Women do nothing but study Vashions, 
they never mind their Dairy I warrant 'em. 

Turnup, Ladies have no other employment for their Brain — and our 
Art lies in hiding the defects of Nature. Furbelows upwards, were 
devised for those that have no Hips, and too large ones, brought up 
the full bottom'd Furbelows. 

Milliner, And a long Neck and a hollow Breast, first made use of the 
Stinkirk — and here's a delicate one for your Ladyship. I have a Book 
in my pocket just come from France^ Intituled, The Elefnents 0/ the 

Toy let 

Mrs. Dowdy, Elements, mercy on me ! what do they get up in the 
Sky now? 

Peeper. A Learned Author to be sure, — let me see that, Mrs. Wheedle, 

Milliner. Here, Mrs. Peeper ^ 'tis the Second Volume ; the first only 
shews an Alphabetical Index of the most notable Pieces which enter into 
the Composition of a Commode. 

Mrs, Dowdy, Well, I shall ne'er mind these hard Names ; Oh Sirs, 
Peeper^ what swinging Cathedral Headgeer is this } 

Peeper, Oh, Modish French Night Clothes ; Madam, what's here— all 
sorts of dresses painted to the Life. Ha, ha, ha, head cloaths to shorten 
the Face. Favourites to raise the Forehead — to heighten flat cheeks 
flying Comets— four Pinners to help narrow Foreheads and long Noses, 
and very forward, to make the Eyes look Languishing. 

Mrs. Dowdy, Ay — that, Peeper^ double it down, I love Languishing. 

Peeper, Take it and read it at your leisure, Madam. 

Mrs. Dowdy, I shall never ha done shour zeeing all my vine things. 
Hy day, what's these two pieces of Band Box for? 

Turnup, 'Tis Past board, Madam, for your Ladyship's Rump.' 

Mrs. Dowdy, A Rump, ho, ho, ho, has Cousin Isbel a Rump, Peeper} 

Peeper. Certainly Madam. 

Mrs. Dowdy. If Cousin has one, as I hope to be kiss'd, I'll have it, 
Mrs. Turnup. 

It IS hardly within the scope of this work to follow the 
varying fashions of the reign, so one more extract must 
suffice. It is from * The Humours of the Army,* by Charles 
Shadwell (a son, or nephew, of the Poet Laureate, 171 3): 
' But there are some fashionable Creatures at the other End 
of the Town, that give great Hopes of their being very odd 

* The extremely Itouffee furbelows were called rumpt furbelows, and the 
brooches inserted in the centre were called rump jewels or rumphlets. 

1 66 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

and Whimsical ; for their Head dresses are no bigger than 
the Skull-caps they us*d to wear ; their Petticoats are up to 
their knees ; their Stays up to their chins ; and their Fans 
up to their Nostrils ; and the mody Shrug makes 'em wear 
their Shoulders up to their Ears ; their Lappets reach down 
to the Frenching of their Petticoats, which are widened with 
Abundance of Whalebone ; They stoop forward when they 
should walk upright ; they shuffle along a tip Toe, curtsey 
on one Side, smile on those they would ridicule, and look 
very grave on their intimate acquaintances.' 

Begin my Muse and sing in Epick Strain 
The Peiticoat ; (nor shalt thou sing in vain, 
The Peiticoat will sure reward thy Pain !) * 

Before its introduction, women to improve their figures, 
or to follow the fashion, wore false hips, but these speedily 
disappeared when the hooped petticoat made its appearance, 
about 1709. Addison wrote a very funny paper, a mock trial 
of it,^ in which the arguments for and against are duly heard, 
and he winds up his judgment with ' I consider women as a 
beautiful romantic animal, that may be adorned with furs and 
feathers, pearls and diamonds, ores and silks. The lynx 
shall cast its skin at her feet to make her a tippet ; the pea- 
cock, parrot and swan shall pay contribution to her muff, the 
sea shall be searched for shells, and the rocks for gems ; and 
every part of nature furnish out its share towards the em- 
bellishment of a creature that is the most consummate work 
of it. All this I shall indulge them in ; but as for the petti- 
coat I have been speaking of, I neither can nor will allow it' 
Vain, idle words ! the fashion crept on, until under the Georges 
it was absolutely outrageous. At present it was a somewhat 
mild hooping of whalebone, compressible — at least such was 
the under framework ; for the word petticoat meant the skirt 
of the dress — over which was the furbelow. They were made 
of varied and rich materials ; one example will serve to 
illustrate : ' Stolen &c. A Cloth Colour Gown and Petticoat 
of Grazet, an Ash Coloured Grazet Gown and Petticoat, a 

» The Petticoat ; an Heroi-Comical Poem^ by Joseph Gay (pseudo for J. 
Durant de Brevel), 1716. « Toiler, 116. 


Hair Colour plush Petticoat, a black Russel Petticoat flower'd, 
an Ash colour Silk Quilted Petticoat, a Cloth Coloured Silk 
Sattinet Gown and Petticoat/ &c. 

The bodices were , laced, open in front, over very tight 
stays, showing them ; and they varied in material from * a 
pair of stays covered with Black Tabby Stitched, lin'd with 
Flannel,* to one * with 8 diamond Buckles and Tags,' for 
which Sir Richard Hoare, of the Golden Bottle in Fleet 
Street, would give the finder twelve guineas. The bodices 
were worn low, showing the bosom — which, however, was 
partially concealed by the * tucker* or * modesty piece,' which 
was an edging going round the top of the dress and front of 
the bosom. In 17 13 this was beginning to be discontinued, 
and deep, and many, were the growls over it in the Guardian. 

The sleeves of the bodice were somewhat short (only 
coming a little below the bend of the arm), and were worn 
hanging, to show the white muslin, or lace, hanging sleeve, 
which came nearly to the wrist — a very pretty fashion ; and 
an apron was worn, made somewhat ornamental by frill- 
ing, etc. 

This formed the outward costume of a lady ; only some- 
times it was of extremely rich material, vide the following : 
* Stolen out of the house of Mr. Peter Paggen in Love Lane 
near Eastcheap . . . One Isabella colour Kincpb Gown 
flowered with Green and Gold, one Silver lace half Ell deep ; 
One Silver Orrice a quarter of a Yard deep ; A large Parcel of 
Black and Silver Fringe ; One dark colour Cloth Gown and 
Petticoat with 2 Silver Orrices ; One Purple and Gold Atlas 
Gown; One Scarlet and Gold Atlas Petticoat edged with 
Silver ; One wrought under Petticoat edged with Gold ; one 
Black Velvet Petticoat ; three Black and White Norwich 
Stuff Gowns and Petticoats ; One Black fine Cloth Gown 
and 2 Petticoats ; One White Satin Gown lined with Black 
Silk ; One Alejah Petticoat striped with Green, Gold, and 
White ; One Silver Net half Yard deep ; One White Sarsnet 
Scarf ; Two Yards of White and Gold Atlas ; one Blue and 
Silver Silk Gown and Petticoat ; One Blue and Gold Atlas 
Gown and Petticoat ; Two Silver. Laces each a quarter of a 
Yard deep, One yellow Chintz Gown and Petticoat, one 

i68 SOCIAL LIFE in the reipi of QUEEN ANNE. 

Workt Petticoat ; one White Holland Gown and Petticoat 
drawn for Stitchin ; One pair of Shoes and Clogs laced with 
Silver ; One dark Colour Cloth Petticoat with a Silver Orrice, 
one White Sarsnet Scarf/ etc. 

Of ladies* underlinen we get a glimpse in the following : 
* Lost &c., a deal box containing 4 fine Holland Shifts, 7 fine 
Cambric Handkerchiefs, 2 Night rails and Aprons, one with 
edging and the other flowered, 2 yards of fine loopt Macklen 
Lace, one Suit of Muslen Lace Night Cloaths, 2 Holland 
Wastcoats, 3 Diaper Towels, One Powder Box and 6 combs.' 

The stockings were either of thread or silk ; in the latter 
case they were sometimes of bright colours. We have already 
seen how the little temptress of the New Exchange asked, 
' Does not your Lady want . . . fine green Silk Stockings?' 
The shoes were beautifully made, of satin or silk, embroidered, 
or of fine Morocco leather, with high heels. 

Oddly enough, even in those days, which we are some- 
how inclined to clothe in idyllic simplicity, women dressed 
like men, as far as they could. Budgell notes this : * They 
already appear in Hats and Feathers, Coats and Perriwigs.** 
And Addison points out to them^ that if their design in so 
doing is to * smite more effectually their Male Beholders,' 
they are mistaken, for * how would they be affected should 
they meet a Man on Horseback, in his Breeches and Jack 
Boots, and at the same time dressed up in a Commode and a 
Night raile?' 

The same little feminine vanities existed then as now. 
We had a glance at the cosmetics and scents, so will only 
just give one more illustration which supplies some then 
missing scents. *I have choice good Gloves, Amber, 
Orangery, Gensa, Romane, Frangipand, Nerol, Tuberose, 
Jessimine and Marshal. All manner of Tires for the Head, 
Locks, Frowzes and so forth ; ' ^ so that they were not 
altogether independent of the barber's art as regards false 

There stands the Toilette^ Nursery of Charms, 
Compleatly fumish'd with bright Beauty's Arms ; 

> Spectator, 331. ^ IbuL 435. » The Virtuoso 

irO.VEX'S 2J/!ESS. 

The Patch, the Powder Box, Pulville, Perfumes, 
Pins, Paint, a flatt'ring Glass, and Black lead Combs. 

So Love with fatal Airs the Nymph supplies 
Her Dress disposes, and directs her Eyes. 
The Bosom now its naked Beauty Shows, 
Th' eNperienced Eye resistless Glances throws ; 
Now vary'd Patches wander o'er the Face, 
And Strike each Gazer with a borrow'd Grace ; 
The fickle Head dress sinks and now aspires. 
And rears it's tow'ry Front on rising Wires ; 
The Curliny Hair in tortured Ringlets flows. 
Or round the Face in laboured Order grows.' 

The mode of coiffure was far less pretentious than i 
ceeding reigns. When 
a cap or commode was 
worn, the hair, except 
in front, was almost en- 
tirely concealed. When 
worn without a cap, as 
in the house — especially 
for dress occasions — It 
was rolled, as in the 
accompanying illustra- 
tion, in a style both 
elegant and informal. 

That curious prac- 
tice of patching the face 
was in force, but was 
used in greater modera- 
tion than cither in the 
reign of Charles I., when 
suns, moons, stars, and coiffuhe. 

even coaches and four 

were cut out of sticking plaister, and stuck on the face, 
and even the mercers patched, to show the effect to their 
customers— or in the Georgian era, when the face was covered 
with a sooty eruption. The effect on a pretty face, as shown 

I70 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

in the accompanying illustration, is far from unpleasant But 
it was an art, and required judgment. 

Penelope. But alas, Madam, who patch'd you to Day? Let me se& 

It is the hardest thing in Dress. I may say without Vanity I know a 

little of it That so low on the Cheeks pulps the Flesh too much. Hold 

still, my dear, I'll place it just by your Eye— (^Jidfc) Now she downright 


Victoria. There's no- 
thing like a sincere Friend ; 
for one is not a Judge of 
one's self. I have a Patch 
box about me. Hold, my 
dear, that gives you a sedate 
Air, that large one near your 

Penelope. People, per- 
haps, don't mind these 
things : But if it be true, 
as the Poet finely sings, 
That all the Passions in 
the Features are, We may 
show, or hide 'em, as we 
know how to affix these 
\ pretty artificial Moles. 
\ Victoria. And so catch 

\ ^ 


Lovers, and puzzle Physio- 

j When not properly 
1 -^"' applied see the result 
' Han't I got too many 
Beauty Spots on, in 
my Mind now my Vace 
louks just like a Plumb Cake var all the World,' * whilst they 
possibly might call forth some uncomplimentary remarks, such 
as ' You pert Baggages, you think you are very handsome now, 
I warrant you. What a devil's this pound of hair upon your 
paltry frowses for .' what a pox are those patches for ? what 
are your faces sore ? I'd not kiss a Lady of this Age, by the 
Mass, I'd rather kiss my Horse.'* 

Misson notes the difference between his countrywomen 
and ours. ' The Use of Patches is not unknown to the 

' The Lying Lovtr. ' The I^atonkk Leuiy. * The yirtuasa. 


French Ladies ; but she that wears them must be young and 
handsome. In England, young, old, handsome, ugly, all are 
bepatch'd till they are Bed-rid. I have often counted fifteen 
Patches or more upon the swarthy wrinkled Phiz of an old 
Hag threescore and ten, and upwards. Thus the English 
Women refine upon our Fashions.' 

One would hardly imagine that this fashion could have 
been pressed into the service of party passion, but so it was, 
if Addison was not jesting — and, after all, perhaps it is not 
so astonishing, when we recollect that the Tory ladies stayed 
away from the Queen's Drawing Room — on her Majesty's 
birthday too — because she gave a flattering reception, and a 
costly sword, to Prince Eugene : * About the Middle of last 
Winter I went to see an Opera at the Theatre in the Hay- 
market, where I could not but take notice of two Parties of 
very fine Women, that had placed themselves in the opposite 
Side Boxes, and seemed drawn up in a kind of Battle Array 
one against another. After a short Survey of them, I found 
they were Patch'd differently ; the Faces on one Hand being 
spotted on the right Side of the Forehead, and those upon 
the other, on the Left. I quickly perceived that they cast 
Hostile Glances upon one another ; and that their Patches 
were placed in those different Situations, as Party Signals to 
distinguish Friends from Foes. In the Middle Boxes, be- 
tween these two opposite Bodies, were several Ladies who 
Patched indifferently on both Sides of their Faces, and seem'd 
to sit there with no other Intention but to see the Opera. 
Upon Inquiry I found that the Body of Amazons on my 
right Hand were Whigs, and those on my Left, Tories : And 
that those who had placed themselves in the Middle Boxes 
were a Neutral Party, whose Faces had not yet declared 
themselves. These last however, as I afterwards found, 
diminished daily, and took their Party with one Side or the 
Other ; insomuch that I observed in several of them, the 
Patches, which were before dispersed equally, are now all gone 
over to the Whig or Tory side of the Face.' ^ 

It has been noticed that masks were used in the country 
by ladies when taking horse exercise ; in fact, it was a sub- 

" spectator, 81. 

172 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN AXNE. 

stitute for the modem veil ; and, in previous reigns, it had 
been used generally out of doors. But in Anne's time it had 
got to be associated with disreputable females, so much so 
that at concerts, and at Powel's puppet show, no person 
wearing a mask was admitted. They were still worn at the 
theatres, but scarcely by ladies. Still they were worn some- 
times even by them, on the first ijight of a play, in case there 
might be any allusion, which might afterwards be excised, 
which would make them blush. They were not expensive 

No change in Government the Women stop. 

For Eighteen Pence in Velvet sets them up.' 

Seeing the class by whom they were worn, people having 
them on were naturally liable to insult. The following illus- 
trates the manners of the time : 
. * An Arch Country Bumpkin having 
' pick'd up a Frog in some of the 
Jjacent Ditches, peeping into the 
Coach as he pass'd by, and being 
very much affronted that they hid 
their Faces with their Masks, Ads 
blood. Says he, you look as ugly 
in those black Vizards as my Toad 
here ; e'en get you all together, 
tossing on't into the Coach: At 
which the frightened Lady birds 
Squeak 'd out, open'd the Coach 
Doors, and leap'd among the throng, to shun their loathsome 

Of course, when the commode was worn, no other head- 
covering could be worn with it ; but, when it came to be lowered, 
and almost disappear, a graceful fashion came up of scarves or 
hoods, and thus bright colours are alluded to more than once 
by contemporary writers, especially in the Spectator* : ' I 
took notice of a little Cluster of Women sitting leather in 
the prettiest colour'd Hoods that I ever saw One of them 
was Blue, another Yellow, and another Philomot ;• the fourth 


was of a Pink Colour, and the fifth was of a pale Green. I 

looked with as much pleasure upon this little party Coloured 

Assembly, as upon a Bed of Tulips, and did not know at first 

whether it might not be an Embassy of Indian Queens,' etc. 

Whatever made Steele attack the hood as he did in a manner 

so scurrilous, and utterly unlike him ? — though, after all, his 

objurgations are directed more against the cloak than the 


Your Hoods and Cloaths or rather Riding Hoods 
Were first invented to steal People's Goods — 
For when their Wearers came with a Pretence 
To Buy — Tho' looking with much Innocence, 
Lace, Silk, or M^'slin privately they steal 
And under those same Cloaks their Theft Conceal.* 

The tall broad-brimmed hat (which still exists in Wales, 
only made in beaver) of James the First's reign was still 
used by country women, and the poorer class in towns. 
Ward, talking of an ' Assembly of Fat Motherly Flat Caps ' 
at Billingsgate, says : ' Their Chief clamour was against High 
Heads and Patches ; and said it would have been a very 
good Law, if Q. Mary had effected her design, and brought 
the proud Minks's of the Town, to have worn High Crownd 
Hats instead of Top Knots.'^ And in ' Tunbridge Walks': 

* Oh ! the joys of a Country life, to mind one's Poultry, and 
one's Dairy, and the pretty business of milking a Cow, then, 
the soft diversions of riding on Horseback, or going to a Bull 
baiting, and the Charming Conversation of High Crown'd 
Hats, who can talk of nothing but their Hogs and their 

Furs were worn, and of course duly lost. From one 
advertisement we get to know the name of * a Sable Tippit 
or Zar ' ; and from another we learn something of its shape, 

* a round Sable Tippet, about 2 yards long, the Sable pretty 
deep and dark, with a piece of black Silk in the Square of the 
neck.' They also had muffs, not only of feathers, as we have 
already seen, but of fur of all sorts, from otter skin to * the 
Cats ' fur. But ladies did not go out more than they could 

' Female Folly, or the Plague of a Woman'' s Riding Hood and Cloak, 17 13. 
^ London Spy, 

174 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

help, either in cold or wet weather. The streets were so bad, 
and, although to them was accorded the * umberellow * (for it 
was far too effeminate a thing for men to carry, no Jonas 
Hanway having yet arisen), yet they did not stir out unless 
obliged ; and it was only 

The tuck'd up sempstress walks with hasty strides 
While Streams run down her oird umbrella's sides.^ 

Curious clumsy things these old umbrellas must have 
been. For a man to have used one, he would have deser\*ed, 
and received, some such satire as *The Young gentleman 

belonging to the Custom 
House, that for fear of rain 
borrowed the Umbrella at 
Will's Coffee House in Comhill 
of the Mistress, is hereby ad- 
vertised that to be dry from 
head to foot on the like oc- 
casion he shall be welcome to 
the Maid's Pattens,*^ 


Ciood Huswives all the Winters Rage despise, 
Defended by the Riding Hood's Disguise ; 
Or underneath th' UmbrcUiCs oily Shed, 
Safe thro' the Wet on clinking Pattens tread. 
Let Persian Dames th' Umbrelliis Ribs display, 
To guard their lieauties from the sunny Ray ; 
Or sweating Slaves support the shady Load, 
When Eastern Monarchs shew their State abroad ; 
Britain in Winter only knows its Aid, 
To guard from chilly Show'rs the walking Maid. 
IJut O ! forget not, Muse, the Patients Praise, 
That female Implement shall grace thy Lays ; 
Say from what Art Divine th' Invention came, 
And from its Origine deduce the name.' 

And then Gay tells the legend of how Vulcan fell in love 
with Martha (ox Patty), the daughter of a Lincolnshire yeoman; 
how to save her feet from the C(jld and wet he studded her 
shoes with nails ; but still she had a cold and lost her voice, 

» TU TatUr, No. 238. - Th J c male TatUr, I'>ec. 12. 

■ Trivia f Ikj »k i. 


until he hit upon the happy idea of the * patten/ the use of 
which completely restored her to health, and 

The Patten now supports each frugal Dame, 
Which from the blue ey'd Patty takes the name. 

But we must not forget that potent weapon in woman's 
armoury, the fan. 

The Fan shall flutter in all Female Hands, 
And various Fashions learn from various lands, 
For this, shall Elephants their Iv'ry shed ; 
And polished Sticks the waving Engine spread : 
His clouded Mail the Tortoise shall resign. 
And round the Rivet pearly Circles shine. 
On this shall Indians all their Art employ. 
And with bright Colours stain the gaudy Toy ; 
Their Paint shall Here in wildest Fancies flow. 
Their Dress, their Customs, their Religion show. 
So shall the British Fair their minds improve. 
And on the Fan to distant Climates rove. 
Here shall the Chinese Dame her Pride display. 
And silver Figures gild her loose Array ; 
She boasts her little Feet and winking Eyes, 
And tunes the Fife, or tinkling Cymbal plies ; 
Here Cross leg'd Nobles in rich State shall dine, 
When on the Floor large painted Vessels shine. 
For These, O China ^ shall thy Realms be sought. 
With These, shall Europ^s mighty Ships be fraught. 
Thy glittering Earth shdl tempt their Ladies Eyes, 
Who for thy brittle Jars shall Gold despise. 
Gay France shall make the Fan her Artists' Care, 
And with the Costly Trinket arm the Fair. 


While Widows seek once more the Nuptial State, 
And wrinkled Maids repent their Scorn too late, 
As long as youthful Swains shall Nymphs deceive, 
And easie Nymphs those youthful Swains believe. 
While Beaus in Dress consume the tedious Mom, 
So long the Fan shall Female Hands adorn.* 

To anyone interested in the use of the fan at this period, 
a perusal of Addison's article in the Spectator (No. 102) is 
recommended : it is too long for reproduction here, and 
would be thoroughly spoilt by merely making use of extracts 

» The Fatt^ by Gay, ed. 17 14. 

176 SOCIAL LIFE in the reigti of QUEEN ANNE, 

from it. They seem to have been seldom lost, or if so, were 
not of sufficient value to advertise— in fact, I have only met 
with one advertisement, * A painted Landskip Fann, cutt, 
gilded Sticks,' and for this a reward of Js. 6d, was offered. 
That they were largely imported is evident by the following 
notice : * For Sale by the Candle, at the Marine Coffee House 
in Birchin Lane &c. — Forty Thousand Fans of Sundry 
Sorts;* but these most probably were either Chinese, 
Japanese, or Indian palm fans. 

Before closing the subject of women's costumes the * Mob ' 
must be noticed — that dress of which Swift writes : * The 
ladies were all in Mobs ; how do you call it ? — undressed.' ' 
This negligent costume, of which no actual contemporary 
description seems to exist, is never mentioned except to be 
decried — as, for instance, the question is asked, * How is a 
man likely to relish his wife's society when he comes home 
and finds her slovenly, in a Mob ? ' And there were one or 
two other articles of dress not usually mentioned, and not 
described, as * Women's laced Head Cloaths commonly called 
Quaker's Pinners ' and * Dozvds' 

What woman could exist without shopping nowadays } 
And the habit was the same among the ladies of Queen 
Anne's time. The Female Tatler (1709) gives us the fol- 
lowing graphic description of shopping : * This afternoon 
some ladies, having an opinion of my fancy in Cloaths, 
desired me to accompany them to Ludgate Hill, which I 
take it to be as agreeable an amusement as a lady can pass 
away three or four hours in. The shops are perfect gilded 
theatres, the variety of wrought silks so many changes of fine 
scenes, and the Mercers are the performers in the Opera ; 
and instead of " vivihir ingeniol' you have in gold capitals 
" No trust by retails They are the sweetest, fairest, nicest, 
dished out creatures ; and by their elegant and soft speeches, 
you would guess them to be Italians. As people glance 
within their doors, they salute them with — Garden silks, 
ladies, Italian Silks, brocades, tissues, cloth of Silver, or cloth 
of Gold, very fine Mantua Silks, any right Geneva velvet, 
English velvet, velvet embossed. And to the meaner sort — 

* Journal to Stellay letter 1 1. 


Fine thread satins both striped and plain, fine mohair silk, 
satinnets, burdets, Persianets, Norwich Crapes, anterines, 
silks for hoods and scarves, hair camlets, druggets or saga- 
thies, gentlemen's nightgowns ready made, shallons, durances, 
and right Scotch plaids. 

* We went into a shop which had three partners ; two of 
them were to flourish out their siiks ; and after an obliging 
smile and a pretty mouth made, Cicero like, to expatiate on 
their goodness ; and the other's sole business was to be 
gentleman usher of the shop, to stand completely dressed 
at the door, bow to all the coaches that pass by, and hand 
ladies out and in. 

* We saw abundance of gay fancies, fit for Sea Captain's 
wives, Sheriff's feasts, and Taunton dean ladies.* This, 
Madam, is wonderfully charming. This, Madam, is so 
diverting a Silk. This, Madam — my stars ! how cool it 
looks. But this, Madam. — Ye Gods ! would I had 10,000 
yards of it ! Then gathers up a sleeve, and places it to your 
shoulders. It suits your Ladyship's face wonderfully well. 
When we had pleased ourselves, and bid him ten shillings a 
yard for what he asked fifteen ; Fan me, ye winds, your 
lady ship rallies me 1 should I part with it at such a price, 
the weavers would rise upon the very Shop. Was you at 
the Park last night. Madam ? Your ladyship shall abate me 
sixpence. Have you read the Tatler to day ? &c. 

* These fellows are positively the greatest fops in the 
kingdom ; they have their toilets and their fine night gowns ; 
their chocolate in the morning, and tlieir green tea two /tours 
after ; Turkey polts for their dinner ; and their perfumes, 
washes, and clean linen, equip them for the Parade.' 

We get a glimpse at the prices of silk dresses in the 
following advertisement : * The Silk Gowns formerly sold in 
Exchange Alley, are removed to the sign of the Hood and 
Scarf, directly over against Will's Coffee House in Cornhill, 
where any Gentleman or Lady may be furnished with any 

* Why Taunton dean ladies I am at a loss to say. unless, as Somersetshire was 
then considered as the * ultima Thulc * of civilisation, it is meant that the dresses 
were as fine and gaudy as a country belle would wear, in concradiatinction to the 
better taste of her town-bred sister. 

VOL. I. N 


SOCIAL LIFE in ike reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Size or Price, there being all Sorts of Silks, from rich 
Brocades of 7 Guineas Price to Thread Sattin Gowns of 
37J.,' etc. 

Besides the stuffs described in the Female Tatler^ there 
were * Silver Tishea, Pudsway Silks, Shaggs, Tabbeys, 
Mowhairs, Grazets, Broch^s, Flowered Damasks, Flowered 
Lustrings, ditto striped and plain, Sarsnets, Italian Mantuas, 
Silk Plushes, F*arendincs, Shagreen, Poplins, Silk Crapes and 
Durants * ; whilst among the woollen goods were * Hair and 
Woollen Camlets, Hair Plushes, Spanish and English druggets, 
Serge Denims, Calamancoes, Russels, Serges, Shalloons, Tam- 
mcys. Ratteens, and Salapeens.* Ladies' black broadcloth cost 
1 3i". 6d, per yard, fine scarlet i Si". 6^., and superfine do. ijs. 6d. 

Of Indian stuffs there is a formidable list, and as the 
names are curious, and are probably lost and forgotten, I 
reproduce them : — 






Do. Persia 

Do. Culme 

Do. Mamoodies 

Do. Romalls 
Bctellees. Oringal 
Guinea stuffs 

















China cherrys 



















































Having a Queen upon the throne — one that kept her 
Court, and dressed well — lace was naturally an article in 
demand. The Queen was somewhat moderate at her Corona- 
tion, for her point lace only came to £6/\. 135'. gd. It w^s 
Flanders lace, and was allowed to be imported, provided ft 
was not made in * the dominions of the French king.* Mechlin 
and Brussels lace first made their appearance in this reign, 
and, in 17 10, the Queen paid ;£^I5I for twenty-six yards of 
fine edged Brussels lace. Indeed, Brussels lace was some- 
what dear : * One Brussels Head is valued at £^0 ; a grounded 
Brussels head ;^30 ; one looped Brussels £2,0' * Lost be- 
twixt Hemming's Row and Owin Street near Leicester Fields, 
a Tin Box with Lace ; whoever brings it to Mrs. Beck at the 
Angel and Star in Fleet Street shall have ^10 Reward and no 
Questions ask'd.' * 9 pieces of fine Bone Lace belonging to 
a Person of Quality' were also lost, and ;{!'io reward offered. 
This lace does not always seem to have been made of thread', 
for, * Whereas two pieces of Silver Bone lace, was brought to 
a shop in Winchester Street to be weighed, the Lace being 
suppos'd to be stol'n, is stoped.' Four pieces of * M'acklTn ' 
lace, lost, induced a reward of five guineas, and' the finder 
of three pieces of * Brussels edging Lace * is supposed' to be 
tempted by the offer of los. to bring them back. 

Wc have read in the robbery from Mr. Paggen's of a 
number of garments with gold and silver lace, and with 
silver ' Orrices,' and the use of bullion lace grew to such an 
extent, that in 171 1, its entry was forbidden under pain of 
forfeiture, and a fine of ;^ 1 00. 

The linen of this reign was finer, and better, than in those 
preceding, and one linen draper of the time has -handed his 
name down to posterity, viz. * Thomas Doyley at the Nun 
in Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.' A list of the linens 
then in vogue, is, as far as 1 can learn, as follows : * White and 
Brown Osnabrigs, Dowlas's, Kentings, Muslins, Bed ticks, 
Garlets, Spotted Lawns, SIctias, Harford Blue, White Shorks, 
Holland, Cambricks, Gentings, Callicoes, Damask, Diaper, 
Huckabacks, Dimmities.* 

Of these ' fine double threaded Cottons for Sheetings ' was 
1 2d, per yard and muslin 5^. 6d, 

N 2 

i8o SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

The * Tally Man ' was an institution in those days, and 
was well known. His handbills remain, and there is a 
singular unanimity among them ; with one voice they make 
Monday the day for purchases and payments. The reason 
for this is obvious ; at that early period of the week the 
Saturday's earnings ought not to be spent. As a rule, the 
terms were, * Paying one shilling a Week for Thirty Shillings, 
untill the Sum is paid for which they Contract.' One gentle- 
man sticks up for his dignity, and begs you to * Note. That 
these goods are not to be sold by a Tally man, but the 
Money is to be taken by Weekly, or Monthly Payments, 
according as it shall be agreed upon for the Ease of the 
Customers.' This system was as pernicious then as now, 
only, as the law of arrest for debt was in full force, the 
prisons held plenty of victims. 

It was not a particularly ostentatious age for jewellery, 
and we can get a good idea of what was worn, by one or two 
advertisements of lost property. * Stolen the nth of this 
Instant February 1703 * between 6 and /of the clock at night, 
from the Golden Buck in Lombard Street, a Show Glass, in 
which, besides several things not remembr'd, were these 
Particulars, viz- A gold Moco ^ Stone Chain set in Gold with 
a Crown at the top. One Grain Gold Watch Chain mark't 
C. O. One large Saphyrc loose and i a little less. One string 
of Pearls from 2 Grains to S or 6 Grains a piece ; one large 
Pearl with a large Hole in it, about 12 Grains, with several 
other loose Pearls ; with several Diamond Rings, Rubies and 
Garnet Grislets set in the Middle. One very large Sized 
Ring, with 12 Diamonds, one being out, with an Ametheist 
broke in the middle. One fine Medal of Cardinal Richelieu ; 
one Smaller Gold Medal with two Heads. Several Stone 
and plain Lockets, and Gold Hearts, with Stones on the top 
to open. One Gold Chain with three links, links and end, 
1 5 d. wt. and one Brilliant Diamond Ring, set round with 8 
Diamonds in the middle ; one longish Diamond weighing 
about 2 grains and a half, or 3 at most. One large Garnet 

* In reality it was 1 704. In the old style of reckoning 1704 did not begin 
till the 25th of March, and the Loudon Gazette of this reign always kept to the 
old style. 

* * Moco ' stones arc what are now called moss agates. 


set in Gold to hang to a Watch, and several Hoops and 
Joints maikt T. S. Several Gold Rings set with Turky and 
Vermillions. Several Gold Buttons, some plain and some 
set with Moco Stones, and a Cornelian Ring Set. One pair 
of plain Gold Buttons linked with a Chain nock fashioned, 
8. d. weight and half. Several false Stone Ear Rings, and 
Rings of several Colours, set in Gold. One pair of Ear Rings, 
Diamonds and Drops, value about 4/. lar. Several right 
Garnet Ear Rings set in Gold with Drops. Two Red Watch 
Bottles rib'd with Gold. Several gilt Watch Bottles and 
other Toys. One gilt Coral with a double branch. One 
Necklace with Pearls and Vermillions ; one Moco Stone 
Bracelet, i large piece of Coral, weight i Ounce 8 p. wt., a 
plain gold Socket to it, 14 or 15 p. wt, I Cornelian set in 
Gold, and very finely enamelled, 3 or 4 Cornelian Seals set 
strong in Gold, several Gold Ear Rings with Tops and Drops 
to 'em, I little Padlock in Gold and Silver and a Gold Key, 
and several Corellionel Keys, &c.' 

* Lost, &c. A Gold Watch made by Richards, with a Gold 
Seal and Cornelion set in it, a Griffin Rampant ingrav'd 
thereon, a pair of Drops hanging at the end of the Chain ; a 
Rumphlet ^ of Diamonds set in Silver and gilL 2 Necklaces 
of Pearl, i middling, the other small ; i Diamond Ring con- 
taining 7 Stones set in Gold. I Mourning Ring marked H. G. 
in a Silver Box.' * A Bristow Stone ^ Necklace set in Silver.' 

There was lost a very interesting memorial ring, to which, 
in those Jacobite days, no doubt a particular value was 
attached. * A Gold ring with 7 Diamonds in the form of a 
Rose, which opens, and within the effigies of K. Charles I. 
Enamelled, next the finger is C. R. with a Death's Head in 
the middle.' 

Diamonds were much worn, and frequently lost. For the 
followin^i^, a reward of 10 per cent, of their value was offered. 
' Lost &c. 42 loose Diamonds, some of them large, belonging 
to a Necklace, and two with holes made behind for Screws to 
be put in, all strung on a white silk ; and two Tags with 16 
small Diamonds.' For the next 100/. was offered, or pro- 
portionate sums for portions. * Lost by a Person of Quality, 

* SiX" anfi\ ' Rumps.' ^ Probably what we cxill * Bristol diamonds.* 

1 82 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

a Diamond Cross of 6 Brilliant Diamonds and a large 
Brilliant Stone loose in a Collet. The middle stone in the 
Cross weighs lo grains, and the other 5 together 29 grains, 
and the Diamond in the Collet 15 grains or there abouts.' 

The greatest loss of diamonds in this reign was the follow- 
ing, for which a reward of 1,000 guineas, and the Queen's 
pardon, was offered. * Whereas there were brought from India 
in the Ship Albemarle (which was driven ashore at Pielpora 
near Pli mouth about the 9th of this instant December) Five 
Bulscs of Diamonds, which are pretending to be missing or 
lost. . . . Amongst which said Diamonds was one very un- 
common, remarkable Diamond, viz. One cut Table Stone of 
the first Water, and in all Perfection, weighing about 26 
Carrats and a Quarter, and one Pointed rough Stone weighing 
about 18 Carrats and a Quarter ; and one other rough Stone 
weighing about 21 Carrats, a Point some thing fallen, Chris- 
talline. White and Clean.' * One is glad to read in * Luttrel's 
Diary,' January 15, 1709, * Part of the Diamonds missing out 
of the Ship Albemarle arc found, and brought to the Secretary's 

*Lost April 23 (1702) upon the day of Her Majesty's 
Coronation, in or near Westminster Hall, a Diamond 
Stomacher, with a Row of Rose Diamonds down the Middle, 
with knots of small Rose Diamonds on each side; in the set- 
ting there being a joint between each knot ; they being all 
set in Silver, and sow'd upon black Ribbon. Lost also at the 
same time one large Rose Diamond set in Silver, and fastened 
to a Bodkin.' 

The Queen herself lost some diamonds on this memorable 
occasion, but nothing of great value, as only ten guineas were 
offered as a reward. * Whereas there was Ten Small Diamonds 
singly set in Silver, but made up together into a Sprig 
fastened by a Wire, which were lost from her Majesty's Robes 
in the Procession upon the Coronation Day,' etc. This, how- 
ever, was not the only loss the Queen suffered during her reign, 
some of her subjects conceiving a violent affection for her 
plate — vide the following advertisements. * Whereas several 
pieces of Plate, as Dishes, Trencher Plates, Knives, forks, 

* London Cazeltc^ Dec. 23/27, 1708. 


spoons and salts, together with Pewter of all Sorts, Table 
Linen and other Necessaries, which were provided and used 
in Westminster Hall at her Majesty's Coronation Feast on 
23 Inst, have been taken away from thence, and are yet 
concealed,' * etc. * Lost last night, being the loth of this 
Instant, January, the following Pieces of Plate, viz, a large 
Monteith ^ with the Queen's Arms ; a Salver, with the Royal 
Arms ; 3 Salts Nurl'd ; 4 Spoons, with W. R. in a Cypher, 
and a Crown over them ; One Plate with the late King's 
Arms, and W. R. ; the bottom of a Mustard Caster, with 
A. R. in a Cypher, and a Crown over it'^ * Lost at Somerset 
House, at the Entertainment of the Venetian Ambassadors, 
one of Her Majesty's Knurl 'd Dishes, weight 52 Ounces, and 
one Silver Mazerine, Weight 20 Ounces, both engrav'd with 
His late Majesty's Arms.'* * Lost from Her Majesty's Palace 
at Windsor, on Sunday the 4th Instant, Two Silver Trencher 
Plates of Her Majesty's Engraven'd A. R. and the Arms of 
England before the Union.* 

The plate of this reign was heavy and cumbrous, and of 
very little artistic merit. It was greatly in use, and was an 
outward and visible sign of its owner's wealth. To such an 
extent did its use obtain, that taverns were ordered not to 
have silver tankards, the temptation to steal them being so 

Ladies occasionally wore chatelaines in the street, and lost 
them, whilst they seem only to have worn their watches for 
the sake of losing their outer case, judging by the numbers 
of advertisements. Being worn outside, there was nothing 
easier to steal. Not the whole watch ; oh no ! but gently to 
press the spring, and the gold case was in the thief's posses- 
sion, with next door to no risk. They were absolutely asking 

* London Gazette^ Jan. 8/ 1 1, 1 704-5. 

' A Monteith was a kind of punch-bowl, with scallops or indentations in the 
brim, the object of which was to convert it into a convenient tray for bringing in 
the wine-glasses. These being placed with the brims downwards, radiating from 
the centre, and with the handles protruding through the indentations in the bowl, 
were easily carried without much jingling or risk of breaking. Of course the 
bowl would then be empty of liquor! 

* New Things produce new words, and thus Monteith 
Has by one Vessel, sav'd his name from Death.* 

Dr. King's Art of Cookery^ etc., p. 37. 

3 Londcn Gazette^ May 26 29, 1707. * Jbid, Oct. 20/24, I7*3- 

i84 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

to be stolen. Even the little children must needs be decked 
out with watches and chains. ' Whereas a Gold Watch, with 
a Gold Chain with 6 lockets, one of them with a Cypher 
L. T. set with Pearl and Green Stones, was lost from a Childe 
1 1 years old.' ' Stop't, a Child's Gold Chain suppos'd to be 
stolen.' ' Cut off from a Child's neck yesterday, a Gold 
Chain, four times about her Neck.' ' Taken from a Child, 
a Gold Chain with this Motto, Memento Mori' ' Lost from a 
Child's side a Silver Scissor Case, Open Work, with Scissors 
in them ; to It a Chain and flat Hook gilt with Gold.' 


FOOD, 1 8s 




English fare — Time of dining — Pontack's — Other ordinaries— Books on 
Cookery — Receipts — Pudding — Fish — Oysters — Poultry — Assize of 
bread — Markets — Vegetables — Lambeth gardeners — Fruit — Dried 

In the matter of food, people were not gourmets as a rule. 
The living was plentiful, but plain, and a dinner was never 
more than two courses ; as Addison wrote, * two plain dishes, 
with two or three good natu red, chearful, ingenious friends, 
would make me more pleased and vain than all that pomp 
and luxury can bestow ; ' and this sentiment pervaded the 
whole of society. Dinner is almost the only meal ever men- 
tioned, and one looks in vain for details of breakfast or supper. 
They were taken, of course, but men, then, did not sufficiently 
deify their stomachs, as to be always talking about them : 
dinner was the meal of the day, and there is no doubt that 
the most was made of that opportunity. Misson says : * The 
English eat a great deal at dinner ; they rest a while, and to it 
again, till they have quite stuff'd their Paunch. Their Supper 
is moderate : Gluttons at Noon, and abstinent at Night. I 
always heard they were great Flesh eaters, and I found it 
true. I have known several people in England that never 
cat any Bread, and universally they eat very little : they 
nibble a few crumbs, while they chew the Meat by whole 
Mouthfuls. Generally speaking, the English Tables are not 
delicately served. There are some Noblemen that have both 
Frencli and English Cooks, and these eat much after the 
French manner ; but among the middling Sort of People they 
have ten or twelve Sorts of common Meats, which infallibly 

1 86 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

take their Turns at their Tables, and two Dishes are their 
Dinners : a Pudding, for instance, and a Piece of Roast Beef; 
another time they will have a piece of Boird Beef, and then 
they salt it some Days before hand, and besiege it with five 
or six Heaps of Cabbage, Carrots, Turnips, or some other 
Herbs or Roots, well peppered and salted, and swimming in 
Butter : A Leg of roast or boird Mutton, dish'd up with the 
same dainties, Fowls, Pigs, Ox Tripes, and Tongues, Rabbits, 
Pidgeons, all well moistened with Butter, without larding: 
Two of these Dishes, always serv'd up one after the other, 
make the usual Dinner of a Substantial Gentleman, or wealthy 
Citizen. When they have boiFd Meat, there is sometimes 
one of the Company that will have the Broth ; this is a kind 
of Soup, with a little Oatmeal in it, and some Leaves of 
Thyme or Sage, or other such small Herbs. They bring up 
this in as many Porringers as there are People that desire 
it ; those that please, crumble a little Bread into it, and 
this makes a kind of Potage' 

Here, then, we have a very graphic, and evidently un- 
biassed, account of the cuisine of this reign. Two o'clock 
seems to have been the middle-class time of dining, but 
people with any pretension to fashion dined later. *Why, 
does any Body Dine before Four a Clock in London 1 For 
my Part, I think it an ill bred Custom to make my Appetite 
Pendulum to the Twelfth Hour. Besides, 'tis out of Fashion 
to Dine by Day light.' ^ And Steele, writing about * Rakes,* 
says : * All the noise towards six in the evening is caused by 
his mimics and imitators ; ' '-^ thus leading to the inference 
that, dinner being at four, and wine being plentifully drunk 
after it, they rose from table half drunk, and went noisily to 
the coffee-houses. 

This, probably, was the case at such a place as Pontack's, 
which held the first rank among the restaurants of the time. 
It was situated in Abchurch Lane, and was said to have 
derived its name from Pontack, a president of the Parliament 
of Bordeaux, who gave his name to the best French clarets ; 
but this could hardly be the case, as all contemporary writers 
call the proprietor Pontack. Misson speaks in high terms of 

» f/ie Basset Table. » Taller, No. 27. 

FOOD, 187 

the place. Swift writes to Stella : * I was this day in the 
City, and dined at Pontack*s with Stratford, and two other 
merchants. Pontack told us, although his wine was so good, 
he sold it cheaper than others, he took but seven shillings a 
flask ; ' and again, * I dined in the City at Pontack's with 
Stratford ; it Cost me Seven Shillings.' * Would you think 
that little lap dog in Scarlet there, has Stomach enough to 
digest a Guinea's worth of Entertainment at Pontack's every 
Dinner Time .'* * * * Mr. Montgomery said you had better go to 
Pontack'Sy Gentlemen, I think there is none here but knows 
Pontack's, it is one of the greatest Ordinaries in England.' ^ 
' Your great Supper lies on my Stomach still, I defie Pontack 
to have prepar'd a better o' th' sudden.'^ 
There were others nearly as good. 

At Locket's,* Brown's and at Pontack's enquire, 
What modish Kick shaws the nice Beaus desire, 
What famed Ragoust, what new invented Salate 
Has best pretentions to regale the Palate.* 

Ward describes a tavern ordinary well ; he is in his element ; 
but to give his description would take up too much room. 
On entering the bar, the principal person visible was the 
dame de coffiptoir, * all Ribbons, Lace and Feathers.* Having 
passed her, and taken a seat at the table, he had * a Whet of 
Old Hock' to sharpen his appetite for dinner, which consisted 
of two calves' heads, a couple of geese, and Cheshire cheese ; 
after which they all fell to a-drinking wine. 

There were cheaper places, or ordinaries, than these to 
dine at. * I went afterwards to Robi7is^' and saw People who 
had dined with me at the Five penny Ordinary just before, 
give Bills for the Value of large Estates;*^ and twopenny 
ordinaries are mentioned, but they must have been for the 
very poor. 

In spite of what Misson says, there was good cookery to 
be got, only it hardly came into ordinary life ; and there are 

* Works of T, Brown. 

^ An Account 0/ the Behccviour^ Confession and last Dying Speech of Sir John 
yohnson. ■ ^-yiftg Lover, 

* Charing Cross. • Prologue to Centlivre's L/rve^s Contrivance* 

♦* A Stock Jobbing Coffee House in Change Alley. ' Spectator^ No. 454. 

1 88 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

two cookery books ' whicH give most excellent receipts, and 
show that there was plenty of variety, both in the material 
and cooking of food ; nay, even in the elegances of the 
table, which were well cared for, as the following receipt of 
Howard's shows : * How to dish up a Dish of Fruits with 
preserved Flowers. — Take a large Dish, cover it with another 
of the same bigness, and place the uppermost over with 
Paste of Almonds, inlaid with red, white, blue, and green 
Marmalade in the figure of Flowers and Banks ; then take 
the branches of candied Flowers, and fix them upright in 
Order, and upon little Bushes erected, and covered with 
Paste : Fix your preserved and Candied Cherries, Plumbs, 
Pease, Apples, Goosberries, Currans, and the like, each in 
their proper place ; and for Leaves, you may use Coloured 
Paste or Wax, Parchment, or Horn ; and this, especially in 
Winter, will be very proper.' Some of the dishes he gives 
are hardly in vogue now ; as for instance : * Spinage Tarts. — 
Take Marrow, Spinage, hard Eggs, of each a handful. Cloves, 
Mace, Nutmeg, Limon-peel shred very fine ; then put in as 
many Currans as you think fit, with Raisins stoned, and 
shred, candied, Orange and Citron peel ; sweeten it to your 
taste, make Puff Paste, and make them into little square 
Pasties ; bake or fry them/ 

Perhaps few people now would care to make Mr. Lamb's 
* Patty of Calves' Brains, — The Calves Brains being clean, 
scald them, then blanch some Asparagus, and put it in a 
Sauce pan, with a little Butter and Parsley ; being Cold, put 
the Brains in the Patty, with the Asparagus, five or six Yolks 
of hard Eggs, and Forc'd Meat ; season it with Pepper and 
Salt. When it is bak'd, add the Juce of a Lemon, drawn 
Butter and Gravy. So serve it! 

Listen to Misson's ecstasies over our national dish — the 
Pudding. * The Pudding is a Dish ver}'' difficult to be 
dcscrib'd, because of the several Sorts there are of it ; Flower, 
Milk, Eggs, Butter, Sugar, Suet, Marrow, Raisins, &c., &c., 
are the most common Ingredients of a Pudding, They bake 

' England's Newest way in all Sorts of Cookery^ etc., by Henry Howard, and 
* Royal Cookery^ or the Complete Court Cook^ by Patrick Lamb, Esq. Near 50 
years Master Cook to tbeir late Majesties King Charles 2. King James 2. King 
\Villiam and Queen Mary, and to Her present Majesty Queen Anne,* 

them in an Oven, they boil them with Meat, they make them 
fifty several Ways: BLESSED BE HE THAT INVENTED Pud- 
ding, for it is a Manna that hits the Palates of all Sorts of 
People ; a Manna better than that of the Wilderness, because 
the People are never weary of it. Ah, what an excellent 
Thing is an English Pudding ! To come in Pudding time, is 
as much as to say, to come in the most lucky Moment in the 
World.' ' 

Offish he says : ' In Proportion Fish is dearer than any 
other Belly-timber at London ;' and as a matter of fact we 
hear very little about it as an article 
of food. The country, inland, was of 
course entirely dependent upon fresh- 
water fish, such as carp, jack, perch, 
etc. The London market was at 
Billingsgate (which kept up its repu- 
tation for its peculiar vernacular), but 
that was also waterman's stairs, and a 
place of departure for boats ; and here 
was sold whatever fish was brought to 
London. A little before every Lent 
came vessels loaded with salt cod, 
which were sold at is. 6d. to 2s. a 
couple, and sometimes at id. per lb. 
Mackerel, on account of its perishable 
nature, was allowed to be sold on 
Sunday, as Gay notes, 'Ev'n Sun- 
days are prophan'd by Mackrell cries,' 

From Billingsgate the fish was distributed to the various 
stalls throughout London : — 

You'll see a draggled Damsel, here and there, 

From Billingsgate her fishy Traffick bear. 


I There was ' ihe Roynl Pence Pudding. Tickets u. each. Made on Thanks- 
giving Day, 1713,9 ffet long, loj inches liroad, and 6 inches deep.'and there were 
lilt; lamiiui \3d. Mariuw puddings. Blood Puddings were also in vogue. See 

' Blood slufTd in Skins is British Christian Food, 
And Franci rohs Mai^hes of the croaking Brood ; 
Spongy Montis in strong Rogousts arc found. 
And In the Simft the slimy Snail is drown'd,* 

iQo SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

And these stalls are thus described : — 

When fishy Stalls with double Store are laid ; 
The golden bell/d Carp, the broad-finn*d Maid, 
Red speckled Trouts, the Salmon's silver Soul, 
The jointed Lobster, and unscaly Soale, 
And luscious 'Scallops, to allure the Tastes 
Of rigid Zealots to delicious Fasts ; 
Wednesdays and Fridays you'll observe from hence, 
Days, when our Sires were doom'd to Abstinence. 

Care was taken for the preservation of salmon, as the follow- 
ing notice shows : * Whereas by divers ancient statutes made 
to prevent the Destruction of the Fry and Brood of Salmons, 
it is ordained. That none shall be taken in any of the Rivers 
or Waters, wherein Salmon is taken, between the 8th of Sep- 
tember and the nth of November ; and that none shall be 
taken in the Waters in the County of Lancaster between the 
29th of September and the 2d of February ; and by a late 
Statute, That no Salmons shall be taken in the County of 
Southampton and the Southern Parts of Wiltshire between 
the 30th of June and the nth of November, nor be exposed 
to Sale under the Penalties thereby provided : These are to 
give Notice that all Salmons taken out of their Seasons, and 
exposed to Sale in London, will be destroyed, as many lately 
have been, by the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor of the said City, 
as not fit to be sold for Victuals, being taken out of their 
Seasons, contrary to the Statutes afore mentioned : And that 
every Person bringing before the Lord Mayor such unseason- 
able Salmons, shall have a Reward for the same, to be paid 
by the Company of Fishmongers, London, as the Lord Mayor 
for the time being shall think fit' * 

Our River Thames, then, was really the habitat of good 
fish, for we read : * A Sturgeon was taken the last Week in 
the River near Stepne}^ which the Lord Mayor sent as a 
Present to Her Majesty.' ^ 

It causes a sigh of regret to read of the great plenty, and 
wonderful cheapness, of real native oysters. They were then, 
as now, only considered fit to eat during the months with R 

* Lo*tdou Gazette, Oct. 31 /Nov. 4, 1706. 
» The Encash Post, June 5/8, 1702. 



in them ; and Gay, speaking of autumn, says, as a sign of 

its arrival, 'And Damsels first renew their Oyster Cries'; 

and in another part of Trivia ' he gives the following sound 

advice : — 

If where Fleet Ditch with muddy Current flows, 
You chance to roam ; where Oyster Tubs in Rows 
Are rang'd beside the Posts ; there slay thy Haste, 
And with the sav'ry Fish indulge thy Taste ; 
The Damsel's Knife the gaping Shell commands, 
While the salt Liquor streams between her Hands. 

And they were wonderfully cheap, sold in the streets by 
the wheelbarrow men at 
' Twelve Pence a Peck.' 
There was keen compe- 
tition in them, and rival 
fishmongers advertised 
the superior excellence 
of their oysters. One 
will serve as a sample . 
of the whole. ' Thomas 
West Fishmonger in 
Honey Lane Market 
near Blossom's Inn, gives 
notice, That all Persons 
who have occasion for 
the Choicest of Oysters 
called Colchester Oys- 
ters, may be supplied for this Season with the largest pick't 
Fat and Green for 3J. a Barrel ; Those somewhat smaller 
at 2s. (xl. of the same sort ; Fat and Green, of a lesser size 
for 2s. the Barrel: The large pickt, white, fat Oysters 
for 2s. 6<i. The smaller white fat Oysters is. 8tf. At all 
these Prizes I will sell the right Colchester Oysters, which, 
without considering their goodness beyond other sorts, are 
cheaper than the Town Wheel barrow Oysters: And that 
all Persons in City or Country, that send for them, may no 
ways be deceived of having the right sort, the prizes are all 
branded on the side of the Cask. Note, they are all branded 
at the Pits, where they are pickt, so that if there be any 


192 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Cheat, it must be by the Oyster Man, which hath been too 
often practised to my Loss and their shameful Gain. My 
Oysters Comes in on Monday's, Wednesdays, Thursdays and 
P>idays by Water Carriage. No Trader in the City or 
Suburbs having them come in so often, by reason of which, 
they will hold good the farthest Journey, to please the nicest 
Eater. Those that are not bought at my own Shop, will, by 
reason of the Extraordinary Charge be 2d. in a Barrel 
advanced ; and all that are desirous to have them from my 
Shop, the same day that they come in of, they shall be 
delivered, if desired, as far as St. James for 2d. Temple Bar 
id. And all other places proportionable, and when all is 
said, I hope tryal will be your Satisfaction.' 

Pickled oysters were also imported from Jersey, and sold at 
IS. 8^. per hundred. Swift writes Stella^ how * Lord Masham 
made mc go home with him to night to eat boiled oysters. 
Take Oysters, wash them clean, that is, wash their shells 
clean ; then put your oysters in an earthen pot, with their 
hollow sides down, then put this pot covered, into a g^eat 
Kettle with water, and so let them boil. Your oysters are 
boiled in their own liquor, and (do) not mix water.' 

Poultry, with the exception of game, was the same as 
now ; the only importation from foreign parts, seemingly, 
being ortolans, which were brought over in September of 
each year. The English ortolan, too, was keenly relished by 
epicures. * You have a coarse stomach, and to such a one, 
a Surloin of Beef were better than a dish of Wheat ears.' * 

For relishes, there were anchovies 8^. per lb., neats' 
tongues and York hams 6d. per lb. ; but salt was somewhat 
dear. The home manufacture did not supply the whole 
demand, as now, and it was imported both from Portugal and 
France. Still, it was made at home. 'Whereas it hath 
been reported, that there was not a sufficient quantity of Salt 
made at Shirley wich, in the county of Stafford, to supply the 
customers that came for it This is to give notice, that with the 
Additional Works, there is now twice the quantity made out 
of the new Pit, much better and stronger than was formerly.' • 

» y<7«r«fl/, March 6, 1 7 12. ' T/ie Virtuoso. 

■ Postmatit June 9/12, 1705. 



Bread, as usual, was made the subject of legislation, and 
the following proclamation was issued : — 

* London May 3. 


* Martis 2 do die Mali 17 10. Amioque RcgiiKB 
* AiincB MagncB Britannics &c. Nono. 

By Virtue of an Act Passed in the last Session of Parliament, 
Intituled, An Act to Regulate the Price and Assize of Bread, 
This Court doth Order and Appoint, That the Assize of all 
White, Wheaten and Household Bread, to be made of Wheat 
for Sale within this City and Liberties thereof, shall for the 
future be Penny, Two Penny, Six Penny, Twelve Penny, and 
Eighteen Penny Loaves, and no other ; and that on every 
Loaf be fairly Imprinted or Marked, several Letters for 
Knowing the Price and Sort thereof, as followcth, that is to 


Finest or WhiU 




every Penny Loaf 

L F. 


I. H. 

Two Penny Loaf 

IL F. 


II. H. 

Six Penny Loaf 


VL H. 

Twelve Penny Loaf 



Eighteen Penny Loaf 



And in further Pursuance of the said Act, this Court doth 
appoint. That the Assize and Weight of the said Bread shall 
be as followcth. 

The Penny Loaf to Weigh by ) 
Avoirdepois or Common Weight J 
The Two Penny Loaf 
The Six Penny Loaf 
The Twelve Penny Loaf 
The Eighteen Penny Loaf 

Whereof all Bakers and others concerned are to take Notice, 

and to Observe the same under the Penalties in the said Act 

contained to be inflicted on all such who shall Neglect so 

to do. 

* Note, That 16 Drams make One Ounce and 16 Ounces 

One Pound. 


VOL. I. O 




-b. Oz. . Dr. 

Lb. Oz. Dr. 

Lb. Oz. Dr. 

— 4. 3. 

— 6. 5. 

— 8. 7. 

— 8. 7. 

— 12. 10. 

I. 0. 14. 

2. 5. 15. 

3. 2. 9. 

4. II. 13. 

6. 5. r. 

7. I. II. 

9. 7. II. 

194 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

And so they continued to regulate the price, according to 
the fluctuations of the corn market 

Milk was produced from cows kept in London, and was 
carried round by women, or milkmaids, as they were called. 

On Doors the sallow Milkmaid chalks her Gains ; 
Ah ! how unlike the Milkmaid of the Plains ! 

And the milch-asses went their daily rounds. Asses' milk 
was in great request, and many were the advertisements of 
milch-asses for sale. Its price was 3^. 6d, per quart. 

Before proud Gates attending Asses bray, 
Or arrogate with solemn pace the Way ; 
These grave Physicians with their milky Chear, 
The Love sick Maid, and dwindling Beau repair. 

Butter was got from the surrounding villages, but already 
there was a trade in this article with Ireland, for on August 
14, 1705, was sold at the Marine Coffee House thirty-eight 
casks of Irish butter and forty-nine casks of Irish beef. 

There were several markets in London, each with its 

Shall the large Mutton smoke upon your Boards ? 
Such Newgai^s copious Market best affords ; 
Would'st thou with mighty Beef augment thy Meal ? 
Seek Leaden hall ; Saint Jame^s sends thee VeaL 
Thames street gives Cheeses ; Covent garden Fruits ; 
Moor fields old Books ; and Monmouth Street old Suits. 

Vegetables were principally supplied from the Lambeth 
market gardens, which *are thus mentioned by Steele*: 
* When we first put off from Shore, we soon fell in with a 
Fleet of Gardeners bound for the several Market Ports of 
London ; and it was the most pleasing Scene imaginable to 
see the Chearfulness with which those industrious People 
ply'd their Way to a certain Sale of their Goods. The Banks 
on each Side are as well peopled, and beautified with as 
agreeable Plantations, as any Spot on the Earth ; but the 
Thames itself, loaded with the Product of each Shore, added 
very much to the Landskip. It was very easie to observe by 
their Sailing, and the Countenances of the ruddy Virgins who 

> spectator^ No. 45^. 

FOOD, 195 

were Supercargoes, the Parts of the Town to which they were 
bound. There was an air in the Purveyors for Covent Garden, 
who frequently converse with Morning Rakes, very unlike 
the seemly Sobriety of those bound for Stocks Market' 

Neither Ward nor Brown viewed the Lambeth gardeners 
in such a couleur-de-rose aspect ; and haply they described 
the scene more accurately. The former says : * A scoundrel 
crew of Lambeth Gardeners attacked us with such a Volley of 
saucy Nonsence, that it made my Eyes stare, my Head ake, 
my Tongue run, and my Ears tingle/ Brown tells us that 

* the next diverting Scene that the River afforded us, was a 
very warm Engagement between a Western Barge, and a 
Boat full of Lambeth Gardeners, by whom Billingsgate was 
much outdone in stupendious Obscenity, tonitrous Verbosity, 
and malicious Scurrility, as if one side had been Daniel 
D—f—'s * Party, and the other the Observator^sJ And they 
both give examples of this bargee slang, which, it is needless 
to say, are utterly unfit for reproduction. 

From these market gardens came the * Asparagrass ' and 

* Sallary,' ^ the * Apricocks ' and those melons which the 
Spectator noted were consigned by Mr. Cuffe of Nine Elms 
to Sarah Sewell and Company, at their stall in Covent 

Misson says, * Fruit is brought only to the Tables of the 
Great, and of a small number even among them. The Desert 
they never dream of, unless it be a Piece of Cheese.' That 
possibly was correct, but still a great deal of fruit was eaten. 
The Daily Con rant of Feh. 20, 1714, mentions the following 
— Pears : ' Bon chrestien,' * Mesir jean,' * Beurd' Apples : 

* Pomme Royal,' * Pomme Dapy,' ' Reinette Grise,' and the 

* Magdclaine ' peach. We also see that 

Wallnuts the Fruit'rer's Hand, in Autumn stain, 
Blue Plumbs, and juicy Pears augment his Gain ; 
Next Oranges the longing Boys entice, 
To trust their Copper Fortunes to the Dice. 

* Lisbon, China Oranges, and Sower Oranges ' were sold in 
Love Lane, near Billingsgate ; as were also * a Parcel of Pot 

> Daniel Defoe. * Potatoes in any large quantity were J</. per lb. 


196 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

China Oranges, of a pleasant taste and flavour, landed out of 
the Lisbon Fleet, now a delivering.' Oranges were favourite 
trees to grow here, and one advertisement mentions 7,000 
of them for sale. The retail price of oranges was not ex- 
cessive, considering the restricted commerce, and the small 
tonnage of the shipping. * We have the finest oranges for 
two pence a piece,' writes Swift. 

The foreign fruit market was, as now, near Billingsgate, 
and here were sold olives, raisins, currants, French * Pruants/ 
and the choicer sorts of French dry fruits, * Pears of Rousselet, 
of Champagne, Prunes of Tours, and Muscadine Grapes/ 
* Candid Maderas Citrons, and Sweet Barbary Almonds.' 





Beer — Hard drinking — * Whetters ' — Wines — List of French and Spanish 
wines — Wines of other countries — Duties on wines — Spirits — Liqueurs 
— Home-made wines — Prices of tea — Adulteration — Price of coffee — 
Chocolate — Its price — Duty on. 

Bi:er always has been the alcoholic liquor most largely 
consumed in England, and, among the poorer and lower 
middle classes, it was so in Anne's reign ; but it was looked 
down upon, and despised, by the upper classes. It was of 
different qualities, from the * penny Nippcrkin of Molassas 
Ale'* to 'a pint of Ale cost me fivepence.'^ Not only were 
there the local brewers in London, but the excellence of 
* right Darby ' and * Sleeford or Lincolnshire ' ales w-as such 
that these breweries were represented. * Right North Country 
Pale Ale ready bottled at 4J. per dozen 'was also to *be 
had ; and pale ale was exported. * Any Merchant that has 
occasion for Pale Ale and Stout, to send to the West Indies, 
may at any time be supplied at the Fountain Brewhouse, by 
the Hermitage, w4th Beer for Shipping at reasonable rates.' 
Dantzic Spruce was also imported. Beer was taxed then, as 
now, by the barrel. * Yesterday the Commons, in a Com- 
mittee of Ways and Means, resolved, That an additional duty 
of 3^/. per barrel be laid upon all beer and ale above 6j. per 
barrel ; and under 6j., \d, \ vinegar 9^/. ; cyder per hogshead 
<^d. ; strong waters mead and matheglin \d, per gallon.*' 

But, for well-to-do people, wine was the drink, and the 
variety was nearly as great as in our time. It was a hard- 
drinking age, and the habit was universal. * I look'd to have 

• London Spy, * Journal to Stdla^ Nov. 29, 1 710. 

■ Lutireirs Diary ^ Jan. 24, 17 10. 

198 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

found you with your Head ake and your morning Qualms'* 
must have been a not unusual salutation ; but it was not 
done for the same reason as by those gentlemen mentioned 
in the Guardian (No. 58), * who drink vast quantities of ale 
and October to encourage our manufactures ; and another 
who takes his three bottles of French claret every night 
because it brings a great custom to the Crown.' 

Nightly on bended knees, the musty Putt^ 
Still Saints the Spigot^ and Adores the Butt \ 
With fervent Zeal the flowing Liquor plies 
But Damns the Moderate Bottel ... for its size. 

The Tripe Club^ Swift 

These evening potations rendered a morning's draught 
generally necessary ; but, after that, drinking was s^in 
postponed till the day's work was over. The modem system 
of * nipping ' did obtain to a slight degree, but it was repre- 
hended. 'Whereas Mr. Bickerstaff, by a letter bearing date 
this twenty fourth of February, has received information that 
there are in and about the Royal Exchange a sort of people 
commonly known by the name of Whetters, who drink 
themselves into an intermediate state of being neither drunk 
nor sober before the hours of Exchange, or business ; and in 
that condition buy and sell stocks, discount notes, and do 
many other acts of well disposed citizens ; this is to give 
notice, that from this day forward no Whetter shall be 
able to give or endorse any note, or execute any other point 
of Commerce, after the third half pint, before the hour of 
one ; and whoever shall transact any matter or matters with a 
Whetter, not being himself of that order, shall be conducted 
to Moorfields^ upon the first application of his next of kin.'' 

The war with France made the French wines somewhat 
scarcer than they would otherwise have been, and opened a 
trade for wines from other countries ; still the number of 
prizes taken, laden with clarets, etc., and the efforts of smug- 
glers, kept the market pretty well supplied. The-.wines seem 
to have been good, although the Spanish and Portugfuese 
wines were fortified with * Stum,* a fact well known, especially 

> The Virtuoso. « Bedlam. • Toiler , 138. 

FOOD, 199 

as to its effects : *get drunk with Stum'd wine.'* The French 
wines were very numerous — some even unknown to us by 
their names — comprising Champagne, Burgundy, Frontiniac, 
Muscat, Anjou, Bouvrie (? Vouvray), Bayonne, Obrian (Haut- 
brion), Pontack, Claret, Bomas (PPomard), High Priniac 
(Preignac), La Fitt, Margouze (Margeaux), La Tour, Graves, 
Cahorze, Blacart, Monson, Hermitage, Langoon, Bosmes 
(? Beaumes), Macco (? Macon), Languedoc, and Cap Breton 
clarets. Their prices were various : ordinary clarets from 
the wood 4f. to 6s, per gallon ; good bottled clarets from 
3 J. or 4f. to lOJ. a bottle. Champagne came over in baskets 
or hampers containing ten dozen to two hundred bottles per 
basket, and was sold retail about 8j. a bottle. Good Bur- 
gundy cost 7J. a bottle, but these prices varied, as they do 
now, with the quality. 

French wines, however, were not universal favourites. * A 
Bottle or two of good solid Edifying Port, at honest George's^ 
made a Night chearful, and threw off Reserve. But this plaguy 
French Claret will not only Cost us more Money, but do us less 
Good,* growls Steele.^ Being at war with France, it was con- 
sidered patriotic not to drink French wine, and Port became 
popular. Its introduction was owing to the treaty with Por- 
tugal in 1703, called the Methuen Treaty, from the name of 
our minister at Lisbon. It is famed as being the shortest 
treaty known, consisting of only two clauses, one that the 
Portuguese should take British cloths, and the other that 
Portuguese wines should be admitted here at one third less 
duty than the French wines paid. Red Viana seems to have 
been frequently substituted for port, and it was sold at about 
5^. a gallon. Then there were White Viana, Lisbon, Passada, 
Annadea, Bende Carlo (Beni Carlos), Barrabar, Carcavella, 
and Ribidavia, whilst the Spanish wines were Sherry, Malaga, 
Tent, Saragusa, Villa Nova, Barcelona, Alicant, Re Gallicia, 
Sallo or Mattero, and White Muscadine. There were Florence 
wines, which came over in rush-covered flasks with oil in the 
neck of the flasks — Chiante, Multapulchana (? Montepulciano), 
Madeira, Canary, Tockay from Hungary, and also (verily, 
there is very little new under the sun) Carhwitz^ from the 

» Shadwell's Epsom Wells, « Spectator^ No. 43. 

200 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

same country ; there were wines from Neuchatel, and ^ wine 
I cannot class, called Mount Allaguer. We hear very little 
of Rhenish wines. In * Tunbridge Walks * an uncomplimen- 
tary reference is made, * Dam rotgut Rhenish ' ; but fine old 
hock was selling in 171 3 at 26s. a dozen, including bottles, 
or new Rhenish might be had for is, Sd. a quart, or 6s, a 
gallon. It is hardly worth going into the prices of these 
miscellaneous wines. One advertisement will be sufficient 
'Advertisement to Private Families of 33 Dozen Bottles 
of excellent rich Palm Canary Wine, a Flower ; also 45 
Dozen of Curious Red Zant, a most noble and scarce Wine, 
no Champaign or Burgundy drinks finer, and likewise 60 
Dozen of Choice Florence Wine, true Flavour and Colour, all 
perfect Neat, and as good as ever was tasted, reserv'd by a 
Gentleman for his own drinking, but obliged to sell them : 
The Palm Wine at 30J. a Dozen, the Zant and Florence 
each 26s. Bottles and all (none less than 4 Bottles) which is 
but at the rate of 2s, 3^. a Quart for the Palm Wine, and 
2s. gd. for the Zant and Florence, tho' would fetch more if 
the Owner could Keep them, the like being scarcely to be 
had in Town, at leastwise not under 3^. a Quart the first, and 
3^. 6d. the last, if for that, and will be dearer.' 

Retailers had to take out a licence to sell wine ; and of 
course there were customs duties. Luttrell says, Dec. 4, 1703 : 
* Yesterday the Commons, in a Committee upon the Supply, 
resolved, nemine con trad icente, that is. per gallon be laid 
upon all Wines over and above the present Customs, to be 
paid by the retailer ;' but, afterwards, he writes, Jan. 15, 1704, 
that the Commons rejected the bill for is. per gallon upon 
wines. On March 20, 1706, the Queen gave her royal 
assent to an Act * for a further duty on low Wines ' ; and, in 
171 3, French wines paid a duty of 4J. 6d. per gallon ! 

T/ie wine merchants of the time were an enterprising firm 
named Brooke & Hellier (mentioned in the Spectator more 
than once), who had several branch establishments in various 
parts of London, even brought wine by road from Bristol, 
and one year paid as much as 25,000/. customs duties; but 
they came to grief in 17 12, and dissolved partnership. 
Brooke afterwards set up in business by himself. 

FOOD, 20I 

There was Batavian arrack for those that liked it, usque- 
baugh (both green and golden), and brandy — especially 
Nants brandy — beloved of the poor in penny drams. Not 
but what there were other brandies — Gaudarella, Viana or Fial 
(? Fayal), Strasburg, Spanish, and even our familiar old friend 
British brandy. The average retail price of * right Nants * 
seems to have been about \2s, per gallon, but Spanish could 
be got 2J. 6d, per gallon cheaper. In 171 3 the customs duty 
on brandy was 65. Sd. per gallon ; freight and leakage came 
to 2s, 6d, ; so that it did not leave much profit after paying 
for the brandy. 

There were liqueurs and cordials ; and they must have 
been very diversified, for the name of the * Still room' was 
not then an empty sound ; and scandal just whispered that 
it was sometimes possible that the dear creatures tasted their 
own manufactures. Are we to believe the following sketch } 
* It would make a Man smile to behold her Figure in a front 
Box, where her twinkling Eyes, by her Afternoon's Drams of 
Ratifee and cold Tea, sparkle more than her Pendants . . . 
Her Closet is always as well stor'd with Juleps, Restoratives, 
and Strong Waters, as an Apothecary's Shop, or a Distiller's 
Laboratory ; and is herself so notable a Housewife in the 
Art of preparing them that she has a larger Collection of 
Chemical Receipts than a Dutch Mountebank ... As soon 
as she rises, she must have a Salutar}^ Dram to keep her 
Stomach from the Cholick ; a Whet before she eats, to 
procure Appetite ; after eating, a plentiful Dose for Con- 
coction ; and to be sure a Bottle of Brandy under her Bed 
side for fear of fainting in the Night.' ^ 

These cordials were not always palatable, if we can 
believe Addison's description of * Widow Trueby's Water,' 
which Sir Roger * always drank before he went abroad.' 
There were the ' Ratafia of Apricocks,' the * Fcnouillette of 
Rhc/ * Millefleurs,' * Orangiat,' * Burgamot,' * Pesicot,' and 
citron or cithern water, with many others. Elder and other 
home-made wines were in use. Let us see how they were 
appreciated. * Her female Ancestors have always been 
fam'd for good Housewifry, one of whom is made immortal, 

* Adam and Eve ^tript of their Furbelows, 

202 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

by giving her Name to an Eye Water and two sorts of 
Puddings. I cannot undertake to recite all her Medicinal 
Preparations ; as Salves, Sere cloths, Powders, Confects, Cor- 
dials, Ratifia, Persico, Orange Flower, and Cherry Brandy, 
together with innumerable sorts of Simple Waters. But 
there is nothing I lay so much to Heart, as that detestable 
Catalogue of Counterfeit Wines, which derive their Names 
from the Fruits, Herbs or trees of whose Juices they are 
chiefly compounded : They are loathsome to the taste and 
pernicious to the health ; and as they seldom survive the Year, 
and then are thrown away, under a false Pretence of Frugality, 
I may affirm they stand me in more than if I entertain'd all 
our Visiters with the best Burgundy and Champaign.' * 

Punch had begun to make its appearance, but it was a 
simple liquor to what afterwards became known by that 
name. Here is a receipt given by a noted brandy merchant 
of the time : * Major Bird's Receipt to make Punch of his 
Brandy. Take i Quart of his Brandy, and it will bear 2 
Quarts and a Pint of Spring Water ; if you drink it very 
strong, then 2 Quarts of Water to a Quart of Brandy, with 6 
or 8 Lisbon Lemmons, and half a Pound of fine Loaf Sugar : 
Then you will find it to have a curious fine scent and flavour, 
and Drink and Taste as clean as Burgundy Wine.' 

There was also an intoxicating liquor, still in limited use, 

called * Brunswick Mum,' whose price was ' Qj. the dozen 

without doors, and lOJ. within.' The name of this compound 

is supposed to be derived from its power of making men 

speechlessly drunk. 

The clamorous crowd is hushed with mugs of mum, 
Till all, tum'd equal, send a general hum. 

Bottled cyder, too, could be obtained at 6s. per dozen. 

The antidote to all these intoxicants was to be found 
in * The Essence of Prunes, Chymically prepar'd by a Son 
of Monsieur Rochefort, a Sworn Chymist of France. It 
gives English Spirits the smell and taste of Nantz Brandy ; 
it prei'ents any Liquor frovi intoxicating tlie Brain* 

We must not forget, however, that tea, coffee, and choco- 
late were in much demand, and that both the coffee and 

* Spectator, 328. 

FOOD. 203 

chocolate houses really supplied these beverages as their 
staple article. Tea was more of a home drink, and was very 
dear, reckoning the different values of money. Perhaps there 
were greater fluctuations in its price than in any other article 
of food. Black tea varied in 1704 from \25, to i6j". per lb. ; 
in 1706, 14J. to \6s. ; in 1707, which seems to have been an 
exceptionally dear year, i6i'., 20^"., 22J-., 24J., 30J., and 32J. ; 
in 1709, it was from \^. to 28j. ; and in 1710, \25. to 2^s, 
Green tea in 1705 was 13^. 6d, \ in 1707, 20J., 22J., 265, ; in 
1709, \os. to 15^.; and in 17 10, \os, to \6s. The difference 
between old and new is given once. The new tea is 14-r., 
and the old \2s. and lOJ. 

The margins in price are not only accounted for by the 
difference in age, but it was well known that old leaves were 
redried, and used in the cheaper sorts ; indeed, there is a very 
curious advertisement in the advertising portion of the Tatlery 
Aug. 26, 1710 : * Bohea Tea, made of the same Materials that 
P'oreign Bohea is made of, 16^. a Pound. Sold by R. Fary 
only, at the Bell in Grace Church Street, Druggist Note. 
The Natural Pecko Tea will remain, after Infusion, of a light 
grey Colour. All other Bohea Tea, tho' there be White in it, 
will Change Colour, and is artificial.' 

Luttrell writes, Dec. 16, 1704: * The Coininons in a Com- 
mittee of wayes and means, resolved to double the duties on 
Coffee, Tea, and Chocolate.' 

The first noteworthy incident in the price of coffee in this 
reign is an advertisement.* * Whereas Coffee was formerly 
sold at 2s, 6d, per pound, and is now already amounted to 
betwixt 6s. and ys, per pound, the Majority of the Retailers 
have thought it reasonable to request their Customers to pay 
3 half pence per Dish, and do assure that no person that 
sells Coffee for id. a Dish can make good Coffee.' It is rather 
interesting to watch the fluctuations in price. In 1706, from 
6s. to 6s. Sd. per lb. ; in 1707, from ys. it fell to 5^. lod. and 
5^-. 4d. ; in 1708 it rose, either owing to speculation, or a 
failure in the crop, to Ss. 4//., lOJ., and i is. 6d.^ which was the 
highest price, when it fell to 9^. lod. and gs. In 1709 it still 
further fell — ys, 4^. and 6s. Sd. ; and in 17 10 it was 5^. Srf. 

> Postman, April 27/30, 1706. 

204 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Attention was paid to its manufacture, for we find that 
* Thomas Burges, Druggist, removed from Snow hill to the 
Blew Anchor in Fleet Street, near Serjeants Inn, sells the 
best of Coffee roasted after a new way, having a better 
flavour, and is a much sweeter way than the common method 
of roasting Coffee.' 

As tea came into favour, chocolate-drinking fell into dis- 
use, although it was generally taken as a drink the first thing 
in the morning, before taking tea and toast It was of two 
kinds, Caracas or Caraco, and Martineco ; and the former was 
the most esteemed. It was roasted and ground, and either 
sold plain or mixed with sugar. Its usual price was 3.^. per lb. 
for the one, and 2s. 6d. for the other. Early in 1703, a man 
advertised a machine of his invention, for making chocolate 
of a far superior quality, at least is, per lb. under the then 
prices ; and, as his advertisements are somewhat curious, 
an example is given : * To the Nobility and Gentry. Whereas 
the Author of the new Invention for making Chocolate, hath 
given a general Satisfaction both for its fineness, goodness 
and Cheapness, to all those that ever yet drank of the same, 
besides the Satisfaction all persons have of its being cleanly 
made, upon sight of the Invention, which some Malicious 
persons, the better to impose upon the World to vend their 
foul broken Nuts does imitate ; but for the working part 
are as Ignorant as a Natural Bull. But the Author of this 
Invention thinks himself ohlig'd to declare to the World, after 
10 Years improving the same with great charge and labour, 
as many honourable persons in London can testifie ; and if 
any person can make it appear, that they were the first 
Invcnters of this so great a conveniency, as does no ways 
exceed 12 Inches, before himself, the Author will lay it by, 
and Act no more, notwithstanding he is now actually peti- 
tioning Her Majesty for a Patten, and, till such time as he 
shall obtain the same, will continue to make and sell his 
Chocolate at these Rates following, viz. All Spanish Nut 
with Vanello at 4s. Sd. a pound, plain 4$". 2d. all Marteneco 
Nut with Vanello 3^. Sd. — plain 3^. 2d. — both sorts made up 
with Sugar answerable. If any Chocolate maker, or others, 
can make it appear he reserves above Sd, in selling a pound 

FOOD, 20S 

for labour and charges in making, a farther remittance shall 
be made in the price.' This gentleman subsequently adver- 
tised that he sold it at * 2d, per Dish liquid — 14//. a Quart 
without doors. Sundays excepted.' 

The duty on the nuts was sufficiently high to induce 
smuggling. * Last Week 6 Sacks of Cocoa Nuts were seiz'd 
by a Custom House Officer, being brought up to Town for 
so many sacks of Beans.' * 

* London Post^ April 14/17, 1704. 

2o6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 



Habit of smoking — Women and children smoking — Prices of tobacco- 
Customs duty — Origin of snuff-taking — The Vigo Expedition — Snuff 
rasps — Ladies taking snuff— Proper use of the snuff-box — Use of a 
spoon — Prices of snuffs — List of ditto — Duty on snuff. 

Allusion has been made to the prevalent use of tobacco, 
both in smoking and as snuff ; and, perhaps, at no time in 
the century was there a larger consumption. The habit of 
meeting convivially at the coffee-houses, and taverns, favoured 
the practice of smoking among the men. Ward, who disliked 
smoking, gives the following account of a famous tobacco 
shop in Fleet Street. Speaking of the company assembled, 
he says : * There was no Talking amongst *em, but Puffvfzs 
the Period of every Sentence ; and what they said was as 
short as possible, for fear of losing the Pleasure of a WhifT, 
as How d'ye do ? Puff. Tliank ye. Puff. Is tlu Weed 
good? Puff. Excellent Puff. Ifs fine Weather. Puff". 
G—d be thanked. Puff. Whafs a clock. Puff, &c. Behind 
the Counter stood a Complaisant Spark who I observ'd 
show*d as much Breeding in the Sale of a Pennyworth of 
Tobacco, and the Change of a Shilling, as a Courteous Foot- 
man when he meets his Brother Skip in the Middle of Cavent 
Garden ; and is so very Dexterous in Discharge of his Occu- 
pation, that he guesses from a Pound of Tobacco to an Ounce, 
to the certainty of one single Com. And will serve more 
Pennyworths of Tobacco in half an Hour, than some Clou- 
terly Mundungns Sellers shall be able to do in half Four 
and Twenty. He never makes a Man wait the Tenth part 
of a Minute for his Change, but will so readily fling you down 
all Sums, without Counting, from a Guinea to three Penny- 
worth of Farthings, that you would think he had it ready 


in his Hand for you before you ask'd him for it. He was 
very generous of his Small beer to a good Customer ; and 
I am bound to say thus much in his behalf, That he will 
show a Man more Civility for the taking of a Penny than 
many MecJianicks will do for the taking a Pound/ 

'Tobacco is very much used in England. The very 
Women take it in Abundance, particular'y in the Western 
Counties,* writes Misson, and Brown also mentions the prac- 
tice ; but, although Jorevin reports that in Charles the Second's 
time, in Worcestershire, it was not only usual for the women 
to join the men in smoking, but that the children were sent 
to school with pipes in their satchels, and the schoolmaster 
called a halt in their studies whilst they all smoked — he 
teaching the neophytes — yet Thoresby runs him very hard. 
'20 Jan. 1702. Evening with brother &c. at Garraway*s* 
Coffee House ; was surprised to see his sickly child of 
three years old fill its pipe of Tobacco and smoke it as 
audfarandly as a man of three score ; after that, a second 
and a third pipe without the least concern, as it is said to 
have done above a year ago.' 

The tobacco was twisted into rope and made up in rolls, 
more after the fashion of Varinas Knaster than of our other 
twisted tobaccos, and it generally had to be cut up before 
using. Its price may be learned from the following adver- 
tisements. * Whereas there has been several Persons who 
have pretended to sell the true Spanish roll'd Tobacco ; 
These are therefore to inform the World, that Jeremiah 
Stoaks at Garraway*s Coffee House in Exchange Ally, 
bought the whole Parcel that was brought into England, 
as by Prize taken by Her Majesty's Fleet at Vigo, and 
that there is not a Nett Portacco in England but what he 
has in his Hands ; These are therefore to advise all Gentle- 
men, that they may be furnish'd with the same tobacco at 
8i". per Pound, at the above mentioned Place, and no where 
else.' This class of tobacco was evidently exceedingly 
choice, comparing it with the ordinary price. * Benjamin 
Howes, Tobacconist, at the Corner of Shoe Lane in Fleet 
Street, London, who hath lived there 30 years and up- 

" At Leeds. 

2o8 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

wards ; he was Partner with Mr. Montague, did sell his best 
old, mild, sweet-scented Virginia Tobacco for 2s. per Pound, 
does now, and will continue to sell the same for 20«/., either 
Large Cut, Small or Long Cut, and Penny Papers for 
Taverns or Publick Houses, full half Ounces for zod. a 
Pound (for present Money). He sells right Spanish in the 
Roll for 8j. a Pound, and Spanish and Virginia mixt for 
3^. a pound, and Encouragement to Country Chapmen.* 

There was a Customs duty on tobacco, of course ; and 
we find, in 1707, the Irish Parliament increasing this tax, 
among many others, in order to vote a supply of 135,000/. 
to Her Majesty. * Dublin, 5 Aug. Resolved, That it is the 
Opinion of this Committee that the said Additional Duty 
be three pence halfpenny per Pound weight on all Tobacco 
which shall be so Imported into this Kingdom, from and after 
the said 29th day of September 1707 over and above the 
Hereditary Duty of two pence halfpenny per Pound, pay- 
able for the same.' 

But it was the singular growth of the practice of taking 
snuff that specially marks the reign of Anne, before which 
time it was comparatively unknown. Lillie, the perfumer, 
previously mentioned, sold snuff, as all his craft did : and 
from him we get a very interesting account of its rise. He 
says: * Before the year 1702, when we sent out a fleet of 
ships under the command of Sir George Rooke, with land 
forces commanded by the Duke of Ormond, in order to 
make a descent on Cadiz, snuff taking was very rare, and, 
indeed, little known in England ; it being chiefly a luxurious 
habit among foreigners residing here, and a few of the 
English gentry who had travelled abroad. Among these, 
the mode of taking the snuff was with pipes of the size of 
quills, out of small spring boxes. These pipes let out a 
very small quantity of snuff, upon the back of the hand, and 
this was snuffed up the nostrils with the intention of pro- 
ducing the sensation of sneezing, which, I need not say, 
forms now no part of the design, or rather fashion of snufl* 

* But to return to our expedition by sea. When the fleet 
arrived near Cadiz, our land forces were disembarked at a 


place called Port St. Mary, where, after some fruitless attempts, 
it was resolved to re-embark the troops, and set sail for 
England. But previous to this, Port St. Mary, and some 
adjacent places were plundered. Here, besides some very 
rich merchandize, plate, jewels, pictures, and a great quantity 
of cochineal, several thousand barrels and casks of fine snuffs 
were taken, which had been manufactured in different parts 
of Spain. Each of these contained four tin canisters of 
snuff of the best growth, and of the finest Spanish manu- 

*With this plunder on board (which fell chiefly to the 
share of the land officers) the fleet was returning to Eng- 
land ; but, on the way, it was resolved to pay a visit to 
Vigo, a considerable port in Spain, where the Admiral had 
advice that a number of galleons from the Havannah, richly 
laden, had put in. Here our fleet got in and destroyed 
most, or all of the Spanish shipping, and the plunder was 
exceedingly rich and valuable. 

* It now came to the turn of the sea officers and sailors 
to be snuff proprietors and merchants ; for, at Vigo, they 
became possessed of prodigious quantities of gross snuff, 
from the Havannah, in bales, bags, and scrows,* which were 
designed for manufacture in different parts of Spain. Thus, 
though snuff taking was very little known or practised in 
England, at that period, the quantities taken in this expe- 
dition, (which was estimated at fifty tons weight,) plainly 
shew that in the other countries of Europe, snuff was held 
in great estimation, and that the taking of it was considered 
not at all unfashionable. 

* The fleet having returned to England, and the ships 
being ordered to be laid in their several ports, the sea 
officers and sailors brought their snuff (which was called, 
by way of victorious distinction, Vigo Snuff,) to a very 
quick and cheap market ; waggon-loads of it being sold at 
Portsmouth, Plymouth, and Chatham, for not more than 
three or four pence per pound. 

' This sort of bale snuff had never been seen or known in 
England before, except through some Spanish Jews, who, 

' Raw hide packages. 
VOL. I. • P 

2IO SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

in the present case, bought up almost the whole quantity at a 
considerable advantage. 

* The land officers, who were possessed of the fine snufis 
taken at Port St. Mary, sold some of them in the several 
ports at which they landed. Others of them, however, 
understood better the nature of the commodity which had 
fallen to their share, and kept it for several years, selling it 
off by degrees, for very high prices. 

* From the above mentioned quantity of different snuffs, 
thus distributed throughout the kingdom, novelty being 
quickly embraced by us in England, arose the custom and 
fashion of snuff taking ; and, growing upon the whole nation, 
by degrees, it is now almost as universal here, as in any other 
part of Europe.' 

But snuff was not always sold ready made : people made 
their own, out of roll tobacco — by means of rasps, which 
were generally carried in the pocket. Specimens of these 
rasps may be seen at the South Kensington Museum, 
but, unless they are in some loan collection, they are very 
poor examples. In private collections, and especially on 
the Continent, arc some of them, being exquisite specimens 
of ivory carving. * Then there's the Miscellany, an apron 
for Stella, a pound of chocolate, without sugar, for Stella, a 
fine snuff rasp of ivory, given me by Mrs. St. John for 
Dingley, and a large roll of tobacco, which she must hide, 
or cut shorter out of modesty, and four pair of spectacles for 
the Lord knows who.* * 

Here we see how customary it was for ladies to take 
snuff in 171 1, although Steele seems to be shocked at it, as 
quite a new fashion in 17 12. Vide his letter in Spectator 
(344) : ' I have writ to you three or four times to desire 
you would take notice of an impertinent Custom the Women, 
the fine Women, have lately fallen into, of taking Snuff. 
This silly Trick is attended with such a Coquet Air in 
some Ladies, and such a sedate Masculine one in others, that 
I can not tell which to most complain of ; but they are to 
me equally disagreeable. Mrs. Saunter is so impatient of 
being without it, that she takes it as often as she does Salt 

* Journal to Stella^ Nov. 3, 171 1. 


at meals ; and as she affects a wonderful Ease and Negli- 
gence in all her manners, an upper Lip mixed with Snuff 
and the Sauce is what is presented to the Observation of all 
who have the honour to eat with her. The pretty Creature 
her Niece does all she can to be as disagreeable as her Aunt ; 
and, if she is not so offensive to the Eye, she is quite as much . 
to the Ear, and makes up all she wants in a confident Air, 
by a nauseous Rattle of the Nose, when the Snuff is de- 
livered, and the Fingers make the Stops and Closes on the 
Nostrils. . . . But Flavilla is so far taken with her Be- 
haviour in this kind, that she pulls out her Box (which is 
indeed full of good Brazile) in the middle of the Sermon ; * 
and to shew she has the Audacity of a well bred Woman, 
she offers it to the Men, as well as to the Women who sit 
near her. ... On Sunday was sennight, when they came 
about for the Offering, she gave her Charity with a very good 
Air, but at the same Time asked the Church warden if he 
would take a Pinch.' 

But, if the ladies took snuff, how much more did the men } 
who were especially addicted to * the humour of taking 
Snufp\ and looking dirty about the mouth by way of orna- 
ment' They took snuff * with a very Jantee Air,' ^ as is well 
exemplified by Steele's humorous puffin Spectator (138) : * The 
Exercise of the Snuff Box, according to the most fashion- 
able Airs and Motions, in opposition to the Exercise of the 
Fan, will be taught with the best plain or perfumed Snuff 
at Charles Lillie's, Perfumer, at the Corner of Beaufort 
Buildings in the Strand, and Attendance given for the 
Benefit of the young Merchants about the Exchange for two 
hours every day at Noon, except Sundays, at a Toy Shop 
near Garraway's Coffee House. There will likewise be 
Taught The Ceremony of the Snuff box, or Rules for offering 
Snuff to a Stranger, a Friend, or a Mistress, according to the 
Degrees of Familiarity or Distance ; with an Explanation of 
the Careless, the Scornful, the Politick, and the Surly Pinch, 
and the Gestures proper to each of them.' 

Snuff was not always taken with the finger and thumb, 

^ See also Tatlcr^ 140. 

- Centlivrc's The Wonder^ a Woman Keeps a Secret^ cd. 1714. 

P 2 

212 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

but a spoon was used — as it is now, in some parts of Scot- 
land, Lapland, Sweden, Norway, and China. In the pro- 
logue of a play called * Hampstead Heath,* published in 1706, 
this habit is mentioned. 

To Noddles cram'd with Digh ton's musty Snuft 
% Whose nicer Tasts think Wit consists alone 

In Tunbridge Wooden Box with Wooden Spoon. 

And in the play (Act 3) : — 

Chum, Madam, I beg your Pardon, 'tis what the Jews take ; but I 
carry sweet Snuff for the Ladies. {Shows another box.) 

Arabella, A Spoon too, that's very gallant ; for to see some People 
run their fat Fingers into a Box is as nauseous as eating without a Fork. 

The prices of snuffs varied much in this reign : the follow- 
ing is the best list I can make out : — 

1705. 1706. 1707. 171 1. 1713. 

s. d. s, d. s. d, s. d, s. d, 

Lisbon, p. oz. 16 18 and \s, 2d. 2 p. lb 26s, — i 6 or p. lb. 20s, 

Tunquin „ — 16 — — — 

Spanish „ — 6 p. lb. 2 j. 6</. & 45. — 3 6 to fr. p. lb. — 

Havanna „ — 6 — 6 o p. lb. — 

Seville „ — 6 — — — 

Italian „ — 16 and is, — — — 

Burgamot „ — 16 and is, — — — 

Musty „ — 6 — — — 

Brazile „ — 6 6j. p. lb. 84^. 2J.6^ 3J.p.oz. 

A more exhaustive list could have been made, but enough 
is given to show the difference in price of the various sorts. 
These were more than have just been given, and included 
Oronoko, Barcelona, Portugal, Tonkar, Orangerie, Port St. 
Mary's, Alicant, Rancia, and Cabinet Havannah. 

And there were snuffs which hardly came under the 
category of harmless sternutatories : as, * The true Imperial 
Golden Snuff ; which thousands of People have found to be 
the most effectual Remedy ever known, for all Distempers 
of the Head and Brain ; It immediately cures the Head- 
ach, be the Pain ever so violent ; instantly removes Drowsi- 
ness, Sleepiness, Giddiness and Vapours ; it is most excel- 
lent against Deafness and Noise in the Ears ; cures stoppages 
or cold in the Head, &c. ; and far exceeds all other Snuff 


for all Humours in the Eyes and. Dimness of sight, and cer- 
tainly prevents Appoplexies and Falling Sickness/ 

Snuff played its part in helping to pay for the long war 
with France.* *9 Feb. 17 10. Yesterday the House of Com- 
mons, in a Committee on Ways and means, resolved, that 
. . . a duty of 3^. per pound be laid upon' Snuff above what 
it already pays, except that of Her Majesty's growth.' 

» Luttrdh 

214 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 



Universal use of coffee-houses — Their convenience— Company — First 
coffee-house— Number of them — Anecdote of Bishop Trelawney — 
Description of interior — The news — Advance in price — Chocolate- 
houses — Famous coffee-houses — Button's Lion — Lloyd's — Sales by 
candle — Jenny Man — Don Saltero's collection — Taverns — Noblemen 
frequenting them — Drinking own wine — Purl houses — List of old 

The coffee-house, was not a new institution in Anne's reign, 
but then it reached the zenith of its popularity. It was 
the centre of news, the lounge of the idler, the rendezvous 
for appointments, the mart for business men. Men might 
have their letters left there, as did Swift ; * * Yet Presto * 
ben't angry, faith, not a bit, only he will begin to be in pain 
next Irish Post, except he sees M. D.'s little handwriting in 
the glass frame at the bar of St. James's Coffee House, where 
Presto would never go but for that purpose.' ^hey were alike 
the haunt of the wit and the man of fashion — a neutral 
meeting-ground for all men, although they naturally assorted 
themselves, like to like, by degrees. There 

The gentle Beau too, Joyns in wise Debate, 
A djus/s his Cravat, and Reforms ^t State' 

— and he might even rub shoulders with a highwa3anany as 
Farquhar suggests, when he makes Aimwell say to Gibbet,^ 
who is a highwayman, * Pray Sir, ha'nt I seen your face at 
Will's Coffee House ? ' and he replies, * Yes Sir, and at 
White's too.' But the excellent rules in force, and the good 
common sense of the frequenters, prevented any ill effects 

• Journal to S/eila, letter 14. 

• A nickname of Swift's — a play on his name. 

• Tfu Tripe Club, y * The Beauje Stratagem, act iii. sc. a. 


from this admixture of classes. All were equal, and took 
the first seat which came to hand. If a man swore, he was 

fined I J., and if he began a quarrel he was fined 'dishes' 
round. Discussion on religion was prohibited, no card- 

2i6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reigfi of QUEEN ANNE. 

playing or dicing allowed, and no wager might be made 
exceeding 5^. These were the simple rules generally used, 
and, if they were only complied with, all must have felt the 
benefit of such a mild despotism. 

Wood mentions that the first coffee-house was at Oxford, 
and was kept, in 1650, by Jacobs, a Jew. The first in Lon- 
don, seems to have been kept by a foreigner named Rosa 
Pasquee, in 1652, in St. Michael's Alley, Co'mhill, whilst 
Hatton says ' : * I find it Recorded that one James Farr^ 
a Barber, who kept the Coffee House which now is the 
Rainbow, by the Inner Temple Gate, (one of the first in 
England) was in the year 1657 presented by the Inquest of 
St Dunstans in the W. for Making and Selling a sort of 
Liquor, called Coffee, as a great Nusance and Prejudice of 
the neighbourhood, &c. And who would then have thought 
London would ever have had near 3,000 such Nusances, and ' 
that Coffee should have been (as now) so much Drank by the 
best of Quality and Physicians.* Of these * near 3,00(5' I 
have, in my searches through the newspapers, etc, of the* 
period, found the names of over 500, which, to preserve them 
again from falling into oblivion, are to be found in the 
Appendix to this book. 
\ These coffee-houses sold alcoholic liquors as well as 
coffee ; a fact which is somewhat whimsically illustrated 
in the following extract from a letter of Bishop Trelawney 
to Bishop Sprat, July 20, 1702 or 3.^ * I had a particular 
obligation to Burnett, and will publiclj^ thank him in print 
(among other matters I have to say to him, and to his Articles 
against our religion) for his causing it to be spread by his 
emissaries that I wasdrunk at Salisbury the 30th of January ; 
whereas the Major General,'* Captain Culleford, a very honest 
Clergyman, and the people of the Inn (which was a coffee 
house too) can swear I drank nothing but two dishes of 
Coffee ; and, indeed I had not stopped at all, but to enable 

* New View of London y 1708. 

^ Atterbnry^s Correspondetue^ ed. 1784, vol. iii. p. 87. 

* His brother. Bishop Trelawney was also a baronet ; and he had an 
unepiscopal habit of swearing occasionally, but when such ^.faux pas occurred 
he always said it was the baronet, not the bishop, that swore. The inconvenience 
of this arrangement was pointed out to him one day by a friend, who remarked 
that, if the baronet was damned for swearing, what would become of the bishop ? 


my children, by a very slender bait, to hold out to Blandford, 
where I dined at 6 that night* \/ 
\f Misson, speaking of coffee-houses, says : * These Houses, 
which are very numerous in London, are cxtreamly con- 
venient You have all Manner of News there : You have a 
good Fire, w hich you may sit by as long as you please ; You 
have a Dish of Coffee, you meet your Friends for the Trans- 
action of Business, and all for a Penny, if you don't Care to 
spend more.' Yes, that was all — anybody, decently dressed, 
might have all this accommodation for One Penny. * Laying 
down my Penny upon the Bar,* writes Addison,* and *so 
briefly deposited my Copper at the Bar,* says Brown, show 
that the habittu^s spent no more ; and Steele, in the first 
number of the Tatler, speaking of the expenses attending 
the production of the paper, says : * I once more desire my 
readers to consider, that as I cannot keep an ingenious man 
to go daily to Will's under two pence each day, merely for 
his charges ; to White's under sixpence ; nor to the Grecian, 
without allowing him some plain Spanish (snuff) to be as 
able as others at the learned table,* etc. 

A man with leisure got rid of some hours daily at the 
coffee house, or houses, and such a one would spend from 
ID A.M. till noon, and again, after his two-o'clock dinner, 
would be there from 4 to 6, when he would leave for the 
theatre, or his turn in the park. 

The illustration gives us an excellent idea of the interior 
of a coffee-house, and its domestic economy — the dame de 
comptoir^ the roaring fire with its perpetual supply of hot 
water, and its coffee and tea pots set close by, so as to be 
kept warm, and the very plain tables and stools, show the 
accommodation that was required, and accepted, by the very 
plain-living people of that day. 

A coffee-house is necessarily a pike de resistance with 
Ward. He describes it graphically, though somewhat roughly, 
and he brings the scene of the interior vividly before our 
eyes. * Come, says my Friend, let us step into this Coffee 
House here ; as you are a Stranger in the Town, it will afford 

» Spectator^ No. 31. 

2i8 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

you some Diversion. Accordingly in we went, where a parcel 
of Muddling Muckworms were as busy as so many Rats in 
an old Cluese Loft ; some Going, some Coming, some Scri- 
bling, some Talking, some Drinking, some Smoaking, others 
Jangling ; and the whole Room stinking of Tobacco, like a 
Dutch Scoot or a Boatswain's Cabbin. The Walls being hung 
with Gilt Frames, as a Farriers shop with Horse shooes; 
which contained abundance of Rarities, viz. Nectar and 
Ambrosia, May Dew, Golden Elixirs, Popular Pills, Liquid 
Snuff, Beautifying Waters, Dentifrisis, Drops, Lozenges, all 
as infallible as the Pope, 

Where every one above the rest 
Deservedly has gain'd the Name of Best 

(as the famous Saffold has it).* 

Brown, also, has plenty to say about them, but one short 
extract only will be borrowed : * Every Coffee House is illu- 
minated both without and within doors ; without by a fine 
glass Lantern, and within by a Woman so light and splendid, 
you may see through her without the help of a Perspective. 
At the Bar the good Man always places a Charming Phillis 
or two, who invite you by their amorous glances into their 
smoaky Territories, to the loss of your sight' These * pretty 
barmaids ' are spoken of by Steele * : * Upon reading your 
late Dissertation concerning IdolSy I cannot but complain to 
you that there are, in Six or Seven Places of this City, Coffee 
houses kept by Persons of that Sisterhood. These Idols sit 
and receive all Day long the adoration of the Youth within 
such and such Districts,' etc. Another contemporary* notices 
that * A Handsom Bar keeper invites more than the Bush. 
She's the Loadstone that attracts Men of Steel, both those 
that wear it to sornc purpose, and those that wear it to none: 
No City Dame is demurer than she at first Greeting, nor 
draws in her Mouth with a Chaster Simper ; but in a little 
time you may be more familiar, and she'll hear a double 
Entendre without blushing.' 

Steele ' gives a polished account of coffee-house frequenters 
and politicians : * I, who am at the Coffee house at Six in a 

> Spectator^ No. 87. « Hickelty Pickcliy, • SpeetaUfr, 49. 


Morning, know that my friend Beaver the Haberdasher has 
a Levy of more undissembled Friends and Admirers, than 
tnost of the Courtiers or Generals of Great Britain. Every 
Man about him has, perhaps, a News Paper in his Hand ; 
but none can pretend to guess what Step will be taken in 
any one Court pf Europe, till Mr. Beaver has thrown down 
hi^ Pipe, and declares what Measures the Allies must enter 
into upon this new Posture of Affairs. Our Coffee House is 
near one of the Inns of Court, and Beaver has the Audience 
and Admiration of his Neighbours from Six 'till within 
a Quarter of Eight, at which time he is interrupted by the 
Students of the House ; some of whom are ready dress'd for 
Westminster, at Eight in a Morning, with Faces as busie as 
if they were retained in every Cause there ; and others come 
in their Night Gowns to saunter away their Time, as if they 
never designed to go thither. I do not know that I meet 
in any of my Walks, Objects which move both my Spleen 
and laughter so effectually, as these young Fellows at the 
Grecian, Squire's, Searle's, and all other Coffee Houses ad- 
jacent to the Law, who rise early for no other purpose but 
to publish their Laziness. One would think these young 
V^irtuosos take a gay Cap and Slippers, with a Scarf and 
Party Coloured Gown, to be Ensigns of Dignity, for the 
vain things approach each other with an Air, which shews 
they regard one another for their Vestments. • . . When the 
Day grows too busie for these Gentlemen to enjoy any longer 
the Pleasures of their Deshabille with any manner pf Con- 
fidence, they give place to Men who have Business or Good 
Sense in their Faces, and come to the Coffee house, either to 
transact Affairs or enjoy Conversation.* 

News was, of course, one of the prime objects of these 
gatherings. * I love News extrcamly, I have read Three 
News Letters to day. I go from Coffee House to Coffee 
House all day on Purpose,' * was literally true of some men. 
Not that their little newspapers gave them much — but of 
them hereafter. Yet there was a chance of hearing some 
news before it got into the papers ; and the quidnuncs would 
go to the Windsor, where was to be had * also the Transla- 

' The Scozvrers, 

220 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN AXNE. 

tion of the Harlem Courant, soon after the Post is come,' 
or to Grigsby's, where * all Foreign News is taken in, and 
Translated into English immediately after the arrival of any 
Mail/ or to Elford's, where * is to be seen and read Gratis, 
the Journal of the famous Voyage of the Duke and Dutchess 
Privateer of Bristol, that took the rich Aquiipuica Ship con- 
taining many remarkable Transactions. Also an Account of 
a Man living alone 4 Years and 4 Months in the Island of 
John Fernando, which they brought with them.* This was, 
of course, Alexander Selkirk, who was brought off the 
island on February 12, 1709; and this log, or the coffee- 
house gossip anent it, probably furnished the inspiration for 
'Robinson Crusoe,' which Defoe published in ^Tfa./^/B, 

We have seen how the coffee-house keepers tried to 
advance their beverages from id, to i\d, becatise of the rise 
in coffee ; but the effort was spasmodic, and did not last 
They had a far better cry in 17 12, as we find in the Daily 
Courant of August 8 in that year. 'These are to give 
Notice, That the Coffee Men by reason of the present Taxes 
on Coffee, Tea, Paper, Candles, and Stamps on all Newspapers, 
find themselves under a necessity of advancing some of their 
Liquors to the prices following ; viz, Coffee 2d. per dish : 
Green Tea 3 halfpence ; and all Drams 2d, per Dram : to 
commence from this day.* Let us hope when they got this 
huge advance they made their tea stronger, and did not give 
their customers ' that pall'd Stuff too often -^und in mean 
Coffee Houses.' * 

No doubt, from the familiar abbreviations, such as Tom's, 
Ned's, Will's, John's, etc., some of the coffee-houses were 
kept by waiters who had saved a little money — such an^ one 
as ' Tom the Tyrant ; who, as first Minister of the Coffee 
House, takes the Government upon him between the Hours 
of Eleven and Twelve at night, and gives his Orders in the 
most Arbitrary manner to the Servants below him as to the 
Disposition of Liquors, Coal and Cinders ; ' ^ while Kidney, 
the waiter at the St. James's Coffee House, immortalised in 
the Tatler as having * the ear of the greatest politicians that 
come hither,' could not be spoken with * without clean linen.' 

* Motteux, in the IVefacc to his Pceni in Praise of Tea, * Spectator^ Na 49. 



The chocolate-houses seem to have been a specialty, and 
they were few in number. In the commencement of the 
reign, in 1702, chocolate was sold at \2d. the quart, 2d. the 
dish. I can only find the names of five chocolate-houses 
(describing themselves as such), and but two of them are of 
any note, White's and the Cocoa Tree. White's was started 
in 1698, and was, in Queen Anne's reign, situated five doors 
from the bottom of the west side of St. James's Street, 
ascending from St. James's Palace. It had a small garden 
attached to it. This house was burnt down in 1723, the 
King and Prince of Wales looking on. Hogarth has im- 
mortalised this event in Plate 6 of the * Rake's Progress.* 
It was to all intents and purposes a gambling house. When 
White died is not known, but Mrs. White had it in March 
17 1 2. Afterwards it passed into the hands of Arthur, who 
had it when it was burnt down ; and he removed next door 
to the St. James's Coffee House. It soon ceased to be a 
chocolate house, and became a club. In 1755 it was 
removed to No. 38, on the opposite or east side of St. 
James's Street. White's Club is supposed to be political ; 
but, apart from its members being Conservative, it takes 
no leading part, contenting itself with being extremely aris- 

The Cocoa Tree Chocolate House stood at the end of 
Pall Mall, on the site of what now is 87 St. James's Street. 
It was a TorjjJtouse ; indeed, Defoe says, * A Whig will no 
more go to theflCocoa Tree or Ozinda's, than a Tory will be 
seen at the Coffee house of St. James's.' The Cocoa Tree 
Club is now held at 64 St. James's Street. 

As the coffee-houses occupied so prominent a part in 
the social economy of the time, a very brief notice of 
some of the best known will be of interest Anderton's is 
still in Fleet Street, beloved of Freemasons and literary 
men. Batson's, in Cornhill, was a famous meeting-place for 
physicians. The Bay Tree still stands in St. Swithin's Lane. 
Button's, which was opposite Tom's, in Russell Street, Covent 
Garden, was a great resort of Addison's ; and here contribu- 
tions to the Guardian could be received. The lion's head 
which served as a letter-box has been immortalised in that 


322 SOCIAL LIFE in the nigtt 0/ QUEEN ANNE. 

paper. It was in imitation of the famous lion at Venice. 
The original is still in existence, but is not always accessible 
to the curious. It was removed from Button's when that 
coffee-house was taken down, and took refuge in the 
Shakespeare's Head Tavern, Covent Garden. For a time it was 
placed in the Bedford Coffee House, and was used as a letter 

box for contributions to T/te Inspector. It returned to the 
Shakespeare's Head in 1769, and remained there till 1804. 
It was then bought by Charles Richardson, th^ proprietor 
of Richardson's Hotel, and at his death it came into the 
possession of his son, who sold it to the Duke of Bedford, 
and it is now preserved in Woburn Abbey. 


Child's was in St Paul's Churchyard, and was %mous 
for its learned frequenters. It was not far from the College 
of Physicians, which was then in Warwick Lane, so doctors 
came there, and, chief among them, Dr. Mead. Sir Hans 
Sloane and other members of the Royal Society dropped in, 
and the house was a noted resort of clergymen — so much so, 
that it is mentioned as such in the Spectator (No. 609) : 
* For that a young Divine, after his first Degree in the 
University, usually comes hither only to shew himself, and on 
that Occasion is apt to think he is but half equippx! with a 
Gown and Cassock for his publick Appearance, if he hath 
not the additional Ornament of a Scarf of the first Magni- 
tude to entitle him to the appellation of Doctor from his 
Landlady, and the Boy at Child's' 

The Camisards was in St. Martin's Lane, and took its 
name from the Camisars, who were French religious fanatics, 
who, being persecuted in their own country, came over here 
in 1707. They claimed the gifts of prophecy, and of working 
miracles. The sect soon died out. Dick's, in Fleet Street, 
still stands, and was so called from its first proprietor, 
Richard Turner, in 1680. 

Garraway's is famous, and derived its name from its 
original proprietor, Thomas Garway, a tobacconist and coffee- 
man, who had it in the middle of the 17th century. He is 
said to have been the first to retail tea. It was always a 
mercantile resort, and here were sold wines, etc., by auction. 
The Grecian, in Devereux Court, Temple, was chiefly visited 
by learned men ; it was from this place that Steele, in his 
scheme of the Tatler, said that all accounts of learning 
should appear under the title of Grecian. It was not, how- 
ever, because of this proclivity that it obtained its classical 
name : it was kept by a Greek named Constantine. Apart 
from its being naturally frequented by the lawyers, the 
scientific ^lite went there, as we gather from Thoresby, 
June 12, 1712 : * Attended the Royal Society, where I found 
Dr. Douglas dissecting a dolphin, lately caught in the Thames, 
where were present the President, Sir Isaac Newton, both the 
Secretaries, the two Professors from Oxford, Dr. Halley and 
Kcil, with others, whose company we afterwards enjoyed at 

224 SOCIAL LIFE in tlu reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

the Grecian Coffee House/ The Guildhall Coffee House still 

Jonathan's was essentially a stockjobbers' house, and was 
in Exchange Alley, as was also Baker's, which had a similar 
clientele, * I have been taken for a Merchant upon the 
Exchange for above these Ten Years, and sometimes pass for 
a Jew in the c^ssembly of Stock Jobbers at Jonathan's/ writes 
Addison in the first number of the Spectator. * Stock Jobbers 
busre at Jonathan's from Twelve to Three,' says Ward. The 
St. James's was as thoroughly a Whig house ^ White's was 
Tory '; and * Foreign and Domestic News you will have from 
St. James's Coffee House ' was part of the Tatler pr(^[ramme. 
We have seen how Swift used it, and how his letters used to 
be directed there ; but what he wrote to Stella was hardly the 
reason of his frequenting the house. He seems to have got 
on very friendly terms with Elliot, the proprietor, rather early 
in his London career, for he writes : * I dined to day with poor 
Lord Mountjoy, who is ill of the gout ; and this evening I 
christened our Coffeeman Elliot's child ; where the rogue had 
a most noble supper, and Steele and I sat among some scurvy 
company over a bowl of punch, so that I am come home late, 
young woman, and cannot stay to write to little rogues.' * 
The Jamaica is still in existence, although not where it was 
in Anne's reign. It was then in Comhill, * by the Ship and 
Castle.' The Jerusalem was then, as it used to be not so 
long since, * near Garraway's.' 

Llo}Trs was then in Lombard Street, and indeed to this 
day, on Lloyd's policies, is stated that this policy shall have 
the same effect as if issued in Lombard Street * And it is 
agreed by us the Insurers, that this Writing or Policy of 
Assurance shall be of as much Force and Effect as the surest 
Writing or Policy of Assurance heretofore made in Lombard 
Streety or in the Royal Exchange, or elsewhere in London! 
Both Steele ^ and Addison ' mention this coffee-house ; and 
for mercantile purposes it shared, with the Marine in Birchin 
Lane, the reputation of being the busiest Here werfe sales 
of wine and ships, and the latter business is still transacted 

> Journal to Stelhy^oy, 19, 1710. « Tatler, 247. » Spsctator^^i^. 


A curious custom obtained in this reig^ — that of seHing 
goods, notably wines, by * the Candle.' Pepys notes it in his 
diary as being new to him, so that it had not been long in 
vogue. Lloyd's and the Marine Coffee Houses were the 
principal places where these singular auctions were held. 

When the custom died out I cannot learn, but probably 
it was during the first quarter of this century. The latest 
account I can find of its being practised is in The Saturday 
Bristol Times and Mirror of March 29, 1873. *Sale by 
Candle. The practice of letting by inch of Candle still pre- 
vails in the County of Dorset. At the annual letting of the 
parish meadow of Broadway, near Weymouth, which occurred 
a few weeks ago, an inch of candle was placed on a piece of 
board nine inches square, and lighted by one of the parish 
officers. The biddings were taken down by one of the parish 
officers, and the chance of taking the meadow was open to 
all while the candle was burning. The last bidder before 
the candle went out was the incoming tenant. This year 
the candle was extinguished suddenly. The land, about 
two acres in extent, was in 1624 presented to the poor by 
William Gould, the object of the gift being to keep the poor 
from working on the highways.' The custom, for aught I 
know, may still exist in some out-of-the-way places. 

Information on maritime matters was even then forwarded 
to Lloyd's (although his News was not published after Feb. 
23, 1696, till 1726), as is shown by the following episode: 
* Loftdon, August 4th. Yesterday Morning a Letter was sent 
by the Penny Post to Mr. Edward Lloyd, Coffee man, in 
Lombard Street ; which letter was subscrib'd Jo. Browne, was 
dated from on Board the Little St Lewis off Bantry Bay in 
Ireland. July. 22. and contain'd in Substance, That the said 
Browne coming in a Vessel of which he was Master, from the 
Bay of Campeachy for Ireland, was taken by the said little 
St. Lewis, a French Frigate of 30 Guns, the 14th of July.'* 
He then went on circumstantially to relate how an officer on 
board had told him that the French had taken the Island of 
St. Helena and fifteen English East India ships ; and that 
their fleet intended to sail for the Cape, to intercept our out- 

• Daily Courant^ Aug. 4, 1704. 
VOL. I. Q 

226 ^ SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

ward-bound East India ships. The editorial comment on 
this news is : * Tis very probable this Letter is a Forgery, but 
as we cannot possibly determine whether it be or not, and 
the Story having made a great Noise in Town, we found our- 
selves oblig'd to give an Account of it* It turned out a 
hoax, for, next day, Lloyd received a letter saying that the 
rumour had served its turn. * To which Mr. Lloyd thinks fit 
to Answer. Sir, Whoever you are that wrote these two 
letters to Mr. Lloyd, he makes it his Request to you, that 
you would please to Coitfirm your Willingness to take off the 
Amusement made by the first, by writing him a third Letter 
in the same Hand the first was, which the second is not' 
Lloyd died on Feb. 15, 171 3. 

There were several coffee-houses kept by persons of the 
name of Man. There was Old Man's, Young Man's, Man's 
New Coffee House, Charing C^oss, Man's in Birchin Lane, 
and Man's in Chancery Lane, opposite Lincoln's Inn Gate. 
Old Man's was in the Tilt Yard, Whitehall, and was the 
rendezvous for officers in the army. The Paymaster-General's 
office is now built upon its site. It was kept by the well- 
known Jenny Man, whom Brown describes as 'pledging an 
Irish Colonel in Usquebaugh.' The Postboy^ June 3/5, 171 2, 
notices her : * Expect something Extraordinary ' in our Next 
In the mean time, we are inform'd, that Jenny — Man is 
indispos'd'; and in the Flying Post^ Nov. 6/8, 171 2, is a 
song, one verse of which refers to her : — 

Alas ! alas ! for Jenny Man^ ' 

'Cause she don't love the Warming Pan,* 
High Church with all her Actions Scan 

Since she was an Inch long. Sirs ; 
She is no Friend to Right Divine, 
Therefore she must not sell French Wine, 
But Tea and Coffee, very fine. 

And sure that is no Wrong, Sirs. 

Young Man's was at Charing Cross, and was a fashionable 
lounge. It was also a gambling house, for Brown says of it : 

' News of the peace. 

' An allusion to the story of the Pretender's being smuggled in a warming-pan, 
and evidence of Jenny's Hanoverian proclivities. 

coffee-houses and TAVERNS. ^ 227 

* Young Man's Coffee House threw it self in my way, and very 
kindly offered its Protection. I acquiesced then, knowing 
myself secure from more Dangers than one, and immediately 
upon my entrance mounted the Stairs, and mingled my 
Person with the Knights of the Round Table, who hazard 
three Months Revenue at a single Cast' Ward is disgusted 
with the superfine air of the place, and says of its frequenters, 
' their whole Exercise being to Charge and Discharge their 
Nostrils ; and keep the Curies of their Periwigs in proper 
Order. . . . They made a Humming, like so many Hornets 
in a Country Chimney, not with their talking, but with their 
Whispering over their New Minuets and Bories^ with their 
Hands in their Pockets, if freed from their Snush Box. . . . 
Amongst them were abundance of Officers, or Men who by 
their Habit appeared to be such ; but look'd as tenderly, as if 
they Carried their Down beds with them into the Camp, and 
did not dare to come out of their Tents, in a cold morning, 
till they had Eat a Mess of Plum Panada for Breakfast, to 
defend their Stomachs from the Wind. . . . Having sat all 
this while looking about us, like a Couple of Minerva's Birds, 
among so many Juno's Peacocks, admiring their Gaiety ; we 
began to be thoughtful of a Pipe of Tobacco, which we were 
not assured we could have the liberty of Smoaking, lest we 
should offend those Sweet Breath Gentlemen. But, however, 
we Ventured to call for some Instruments of Evaporation, 
which were accordingly brought us, but with such a Kind of 
unwillingness, as if they would much rather have been rid of 
our Company ; for their Tables were so very Neat, and Shin'd 
with Rubbing, like the Upper Leathers of an Alderman's 
shoes. The floor as clean Swept, as a Sir Courtly s Dining 
Room, which made us look round, to see if there were no 
Orders hung up to impose the Forfeiture of so much Mop 
Money upon any Person that should spit out of the Chimney 

Nando's was in Fleet Street, at the corner of Inner 
Temple Gate, the house wrongly described as being formerly 
the palace of Cardinal Wolsey, and now a hairdresser's. It 
was not particularly famous for anything in Anne's time, only 
the name is familiar to students of that epoch, as being next 


228 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

door to the shop of Bernard Lintot the bookseller, and men- 
tioned by him in all his advertisements. 

Ozinda's was in St James's Street, and ranked with 
White's as a Tory house. Robin's was in Exchange Alley. 
Swift dated some of his letters to Stella from this cofTee- 
house, and Steele mentions it as a Stock Exchange house in 
the Spectator, No. 454. The Rainbow in Fleet Street is still 
in existence, and Ward * classes it thus : * Coffee and Water 
Gruel to be had at the Rainbow and Nando's at Four.' It 
seems to have been a favourite sign, for I have seven on my 


Squire's was in Ful wood's (now called Fuller's) Rents in 
Holbom, and has been rendered historical by Addison, who 
makes Sir Roger ask him ^ * if I would smoak a Pipe with 
him over a Dish of Coffee at Squire's. As I love the old 
Man, I take delight in complying with everything that is 
agreeable to him, and accordingly waited on him to the 
*Coffee House, where his venerable Figure drew upon us 
the Eyes of the whole Room. He had no sooner seated 
himself at the upper End of the high Table, but he called for 
a clean Pipe, a Paper of Tobacco, a Dish of Coffee, a Wax 
Candle, and the Suppkvient with such an Air of Cheerfulness 
and Goodhumour, that all the Boys in the Coffee room (who 
seemed to take pleasure in serving him) were at once em- 
ployed on his several Errands, insomuch that no Body else 
could come at a Dish of Tea till the knight had got all his 
Conveniencies about him.' Squire died in 1717. 

The following note on the Smyrna Coffee House is the 
best description possible to give of it.' * This is to give notice 
to all ingenious gentlemen in and about the cities of London 
and Westminster, who have a mind to be instructed in the 
noble Sciences of Music, Poetry, and Politics, that they repair 
to the Smyrna Coffee House in Pall Mall, betwixt the hours 
of eight and ten at night, where they may be instructed 
gratis, with elaborate ESSAYS by word of mouth on all, or any 
of the above mentioned Arts. The disciples are to prepare 
their bodies with three dishes of bohea, and purge their brains 
with two pinches of snuff. If any young student gives 

> Comical Vieiu of London, * SpectcUor^ No. 269, • TatUr^ 78, 


indication of parts, by listening attentively, or asking a 
pertinent question, one of the professors shall distinguish him 
by taking snuff out of his box in the presence of the whole 
audience — 

* N.B. The seat of learning is now removed from the corner 
of the chimney on the left hand towards the window, to the 
round table in the middle of the floor over against the fire ; 
a revolution much lamented by the porters and chairmen, 
who were much edified through a pane of glass that remained 
broken all the last summer/ 

John Salter's (or, as he was christened by Steele, or Rear 
Admiral Sir John Munden, *Don Saltero')was situated in 
the middle of Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. He was originally a 
servant to Sir Hans Sloane, and, when he left his service to 
set up as barber and coffee-house keeper, Sir Hans gave him 
some odds and ends from his Museum. Other kind friends 
followed, and Don Saltero*s became a place of note, the 
curiosities, natural and otherwise, taking up much of the 
space. Indeed, Steele, in recording a visit to the Don's, says,* 
* When I came into the Coffee house, I had not time to salute 
the Company, before my eye was diverted by ten thousand 
jimcracks round the room and on the ceiling.' The first 
catalogue of his curiosities that he published, was in 1729, 
and in the preface he says, * The first Donor was the Honour- 
able Sir John Cope, bart., to whom and Family I am much 
obliged for several very valuable pieces, both of Nature and 
Art.' The list comprises 249 articles, which in the 12th 
edition, 1 74 1 , was increased to 420, so that, probably, in Anne's 
time there were not more than a couple of hundred. Apart 
from the natural curiosities, which were numerous, were 
many undoubtedly spurious, as * (2) Painted Ribbands from 
Jerusalem with the Pillar, to which our Saviour was tied 
when scourged, with a Motto on each.* * (40) The Queen of 
Sheba's Fan.' He seems to have invested largely in this 
royal lady's property, for we have *(53) Queen of Sheba's 
Cordial Bottle,' and ' (55) The Queen of Sheba's Milk Maid's 
Hat.' No. 56 was ' Pontius Pilate's Wife's Chambermaid's 

» Tatler, No. 34. 

230 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Sister's Sister's Hat' — a relic which, Steele declares, was 
made within three miles of Bedford. 

These rather detract from the possible authenticity of the 
historical relics, which were numerous, and, if genuine, were 
curious and valuable. *(i5) A Wooden Shoe put under the 
Speaker's Chair in K. James lid's Time.* '(37) Gustavus 
Adolphus's Gloves.' '(38) Harry VIHth's Coat of Mail/ 
*(39) Queen Elizabeth's Stirrup.' '(41) Katherine Q. Dow- 
ager's Coronation Shoes.' * (42) King Charles Hd's Band, which 
he wore in Disguise in the Royal Oak.' * (43) William the 
Conqueror's Flaming Sword.' '(44) Oliver's Sword.* *(45) King 
James Hd's Coronation Shoes.' * (46) King William the 1 1 Id's 
Coronation Sword.' * (47) King William's Coronation Shoes.' 
* (49) Queen Anne's Testament' (50) * Henry the Vlllth's 
Gloves.' * (51) The Czar of Moscow's Gloves ;' and last but 
not least — an undeniable forgery, * (242) Robinson Crusoe's 
and his Man Friday's Shirts.' 

Steele describes the Don as * a sage of a thin and meagre 
countenance ; which aspect made me doubt whether reading 
or fretting had made it so philosophic ; but I very soon per- 
ceived him to be of that sect wjiich the ancients call Gingivist€e\ 
in our language, tooth drawers.' Besides shaving and tooth 
drawing, he played on the violin : * if he would wholly give 
himself up to the string, instead of playing twenty beginnings 
to tuness he might, before he dies, play Roger de Caubly * 
quite out. I heard him go through his whole round, and 
indeed he does play the " Merry Christ Church Bells " * pretty 
justly ; ' and another authority says, * There was no passing 
his house, if he was at home, without having one's ears grated 
with the sounds of his fiddle, on which he scraped most 
execrably.' Steele recommends some of his curiosities to be 
taken away, * or else he may expect to have his letters patent 
for maki'ng punch superseded, be debarred wearing his Muff 
next winter, or ever coming to London without his wife.' 
Either of these would have punished Saltero severely, for he 
was known out of doors by bis old grey muff, which he carried 
up to his nose ; and Mrs. S. had a temper of her own, to 
escape which the Don sometimes slipped off to London by 

' See Appendix. * See Appendix. 


himself. His collection seems to have dwindled away, for 
when it was sold in 1799 there were only 121 lots, and the 
whole seem to have sold for a little over 50/. 

Slaughter's Coffee House in St. Martin's Lane afterwards 
superseded Old Man's as a military meeting-place, and in 
the latter half of the century it was frequented by artists 
and sculptors. Searl's, or Serle's, was a legal coffee-house, 
and was situated at the corner of Lincoln's Inn Fields. Of 
Tom's — I have a list of six — perhaps the best known was 
that in St. Martin's Lane, where, as we have seen, was one of 
the first insurance offices. The Virginia, which was in St. 
Michael's Alley, and afterwards in Cornhill, has disappeared 
within the last few years. 

*A11 accounts of Poetry, under Will's Coffee House,' 
says the Tatler ; it was situated No. I Bow Street, at the 
corner of Rusself Street, and took its name from its proprietor, 
William Urwin. If Ward can be'^trusted, gamblers as well 
'as wits frequcrite^ it, f6r he says * there was * great shaking 
of the Elbow at Wilts about Ten.' . Still it was, par excel- 
lence, the Wits coffee house, a class who are very happily 
described by a contemporary writer : ' * All their words go 
for Jests, and all their Jests for nothing. They are quick in 
the Fancy of some ridiculous Thing, and reasonable good in 
the Expression. Nothir^g stops a Jest when it is coming ; 
and they had rather lose their Friend than their Wit' And 
they are also written of as being * Conceited, if they had but 

once the Honour t6 dip a finger and thumb in Mr. D 's ' 

snush box, it was enough to inspire 'em with a true Genius of 
Poetry, and make 'em write Verse, as fast as a Taylor takes 
his stitches.' In fact, it was on Dryden's reputation that 
Will's coffee-house was then living ; and his going thece is 
noticed by Pcpys, * Feb. 3, 1664 — In Covent Garden to-night, 
going to fetch my wife, I stopped at the great Coffee house 
there, where I never was before : where Dryden, the poet, I 
knew at Cambridge, and all the wits of the town, and Harris 
the player, and Mr. Hoole, of our College. And, had I time 
then, or could at other times, it will be good coming thither, 

' A Comical View of London and Westminster, 
* Hickelty Pickelty, » Dryden's. 

232 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE 

for there, I perceive, is very witty and pleasant discourse. 
But I could not tarry, and, as it was late, they were all ready 
to go away.' Here also Pope saw the old man, whom he 
described as * a plump man with a down look, and not very 

Such, then, were some of the principal coffee-houses. 
What were the taverns like ? There were then no hotels 
proper, such as we know them : a man had to live in private 
apartments, and, when he wanted dinner, he had to betake 
himself to a tavern, or ordinary. As Misson remarks, * At 
London they hardly so much as know what an Auberge is : 
There are indeed a thousand and a thousand Taverns, where 
you may have what you please got for you.' A tavern was a 
far more free-and-easy place than a coffee-house — in fact, it 
is a question whether the convenances of a coffee-house 
would admit of a man * washing his teeth at a tavern window 
in Pall Mall ' ; * indeed, the keeping of them was hardly con- 
sidered reputable, for we find ^ that * Her Majestie sign'd a 
warrant for continuing the salaries of the prince's servants 
during her life, provided they kept no publick houses.' 

Ward describes ^ the freedom and jollity of these places : 
* Accordingly we stept in, and in the Kitchen found half a 
dozen of my Friends Associates, in the height of their Jollitry, 
as Merry as so many Cantabrtdgians at Sturbridge Fair^ or 
Coblers at a Crispbts Feast After a Friendly Salutation, free 
from all Foppish Ceremonies, down we sat ; and when a 
Glass or two round had given fresh Motion to our drowsy 
Spirits, and abandoned all those careful thoughts which 
makes Man's Life uneasie. Wit begot Wit, and Wine a Thirsty 
Appetite to each Succeeding Glass. Then open were our 
Hearts and unconfined our Fancies ; my Friend and I con- 
tributed our Mites to add to the Treasure of our Felicity. 
So7igs and Catcltes Crown'd the Night, and each Man in his 
Turn pleased his Ears with his own Harmony.' 

The most singular thing was, that it was not at all dero- 
gatory for a nobleman or gentleman to go to a tavern for 
a carouse — and all clubs were held at taverns. Thoresby 
relates that, after his reception by the Queen, as one of a 

» Tatler^ II. « Luttrell^ Jan. i, 1709. ■ London Spy, 


deputation from Leeds, on July 2, 1712, 'We left the Duke 
there, but returned in tlie High Sheriff's coach to Sir Arthur 


Kaye's, who, with Sir Bryan Stapleton, accompanied us ; 
from Sir Arthur's we went to the Tavern to drink her 

234 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Majesty's health, and stayed full late.' And Swift writes to 
Stella:* * After dinner we went to a blind tavern, where 
Congreve, Sir Richard Temple, Eastcourt, and Charles Main 
were over a bowl of bad punch. The Knight sent for six 
flasks of his own wine for me, and we staid till twelve.' This 
sending for one's own wine was a peculiar arrangement, but 
doubtless the landlord was' satisfied with a premium on 
* corkage.' Swift frequently speaks of this custom : * To- 
day I dined with Lewis and Prior at an eating house, but 
with Lewis's wine.' * I dined in a Coffee house with Stratford 
upon Chops, and some of his Wine.' Again he was with 
Lords Harley and Dupplin, the son and son-in-law of the 
Earl of Oxford — and * we were forced to go to a tavern, and 
send for wine from Lord Treasurer's.' 

But the frequenters of taverns were not all so respectable 
as these examples ; and Brown supplies particulars of another 
section of society. ' A Tavern is a little Sodom^ where as many 
Vices are daily practised, as ever were known in the great 
one ; Thither Libertifies repair to drink away their Brains, 
Aldermen to talk Treason, and bewail the loss of Trade ; 
Saints to elevate the Spirit, hatch Calumnies, coin false 
News, and reproach the Church ; Gamesters to shake their 
Elbows ; Thither Sober Knaves walk with Drunken Fools to 
make Cunning Bargains and overreach them in their Dealings ; 
Thither Young Quality retire to spend their Tradesmens 
Money ; Thither Bullies Coach it to Kick Drawers, and 
invent new Oaths and Curses ; Thither run Sots purely to be 
drunk. Beaux to shew their Vanity, Cowards to make them- 
selve valiant by the Strength of their Wine, Fools to make 
themselves witty in their own Conceits, and Spendthrifts to 
be made Miserable by a Ridiculous Consumption of their 
own Fortunes.' ^ 

There were lower depths yet : there were the purl Iiouses^ 
where * Tradesmen flock in their Morning gowns, by Seven, 
to cool their Plucks,' and the mug liouses? which in George 

> Joumal, Oct 27, 17 10. 

^ ' Here is nothing drunk but Ale, and every GenUeman haUi his smrate 
Mug, which he Chalks on the Table, where he sits, as it is brought in ; ana every 
one retires when he pleases, as from a Coffee House.' — A yourmy through Eng- 
landt 1722. 


the First's time were made into political clubs. * King George 
for Ever ' was then the mug-house cry, which the coffee-houses 
countered with * High Church and Ormonde ; no Presbyte- 
rians ; no Hanover ; down with the Mug.' 

The following is a list of the principal taverns then in 
existence, for some of which I am indebted to Timbs ' Club 
Life of London.' * The Bear,' at the foot of London Bridge, 
Southwark and west side, which was in existence in 1463, 
was not pulled down till 1761. The * Boar's Head,' in East- 
cheap ; Pontack's, in Abchurch Lane ; and the ' Pope's Head ' 
tavern in Pope's Head Alley, were all standing ; and the 
* Cock,' in Threadneedle Street, was only destroyed in 1851. 
There was the * Salutation ' in Newgate Street, where Wren 
used to smoke his pipe, whilst St Paul's was rebuilding. 
Dolly's chop-house, in Paternoster Row, was established in 
Queen Anne's reign. The * White Hart' in Bishopsgate 
Without, which bore the date 1480, was not pulled down till 
1829. The ' King's Head,' in Fenchurch Street, at the comer 
of Mark Lane, was the hostel at which Queen Elizabeth is 
said to have dined in May 1554- The * Devil,' in Fleet 
Street, now occupied by Childs' bank, was flourishing, and 
Steele describes it * as * a place sacred to mirth tempered with 
discretion, where Ben Jonson and his Sons used to make their 
liberal meetings,' and he says that in the Apollo room were 
the rules of Ben's Club, painted in gold letters over the 
chimney piece. 

This tavern was so popular that a rival sprung up on the 
other side of the street, the * Young Devil,' and here, for a 
year or so, from the beginning of 1708, till some time in or 
about 1709, the Society of Antiquaries held their meetings, 
afterwards at the * Fountain ' tavern. Inner Temple Gate. 
The * Cock,' in Fleet Street, has only just been demolished. 
There was another famous tavern which was near St. Dun- 
stan's Church, in Fleet Street, called * The Hercules' Pillars,* 
which was visited by Pepys, as appears by four entries in his 
diary. Another tavern of this name, at Charing Cross, will 
be noted* when treating of the amusements of the people 

» TatUr, 79. 

236 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

The * Mitrc ' tavern must not be confounded with the coffee- 
house of that name in Mitre Court, but was the one 
frequented by Dr. Johnson, and so often referred to by 

The * Palsgrave's Head,' on the south side of the Strand, 
near Temple Bar, was then a coffee-house, and was so named 
from the Palsgrave Frederick, afterwards King of Bohemia, 
who married the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I. 
The * Crown and Anchor,' which stretched along the Strand 
from Arundel Street to Milford Lane, was famous as being 
the place where the Academy of Music was instituted in 
1 710. The * Rose ' tavern in Drury Lane is frequently men- 
tioned in the literature of this time. It was afterwards 
absorbed into Drury Lane Theatre, when Garrick enlarged 
it in 1776. The * Rummer Tavern,' at Charing Cross, near 
Locket's Ordinary, is often mentioned in advertisements, and 
Brown and Ward speak of * Heaven ' and * Hell,' which were 
two ale-houses near Westminster Hall. Pepys notices one of 
them on January 28, 1660 — ' And so I returned, and went to 
Heaven, where Ludlin and I dined.' And last, not least, was 
the * Bumper ' tavern, which * Dick Estcourt,' the actor, opened 
on January i, 17 12, and which Steele so kindly puffed in 
Spectator No. 264. An exhaustive catalogue of the taverns 
in the City is given by Ward in his *Vade Mecum for 
Maltworms,' a very curious and now rare book ; but it is 
hardly worth while to reproduce their names, even in an 

CLUBS, 237 



Origin — October Club — Calves Head Club — Kit Cat Club — Other club 

Suggested clubs. 

The name of Club, is undoubtedly taken from the practice 
of a jovial company to * club/ or divide the whole expenses 
of the entertainment ; and * the payment of our Clubs ' * is a 
frequently mentioned wind-up of any festivity. Naturally, 
such agreeable meetings were repeated until they became 
habitual, and the society, or cluby was formed ; and these 
humble beginnings laid the foundation of that great social 
organisation which nowhere flourishes better than in 

The principal clubs of Queen Anne's time were the 
October Club, the Calves Head Club, and the Kit Cat Club. 
The October Club was a Political Club, of high Tory pro- 
clivities, and it was so called from the * October Ale ' which 
was supposed to be the drink of the members. It was held 
at the * Bell Tavern,' in King Street, Westminster, and they 
succeeded in plaguing the Whigs to their hearts' content 
Swift writes Stella of them : ^ * We are plagued here with an 
October Club ; that is, a set of above a hundred Parliament 
men of the Country, who drink October beer at home, and 
meet every evening at a tavern near the Parliament, to 
consult affairs, and drive things on to extremes against the 
Whigs, to call the old ministry to account, and get off five 
or six heads. The ministry seem not to regard them, yet 
one of them in confidence, told me that there must be some- 
thing thought on to settle things better.' Swift wrote a little 
pamphlet called * Some Advice Humbly Offered to the 

» London Spy. « Joumai, Feb. 18, 171 1. 

238 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Members of the October Club, in a letter from a Person of 
Honour/ which met with varying fortunes ; for he tells Stella, 

* The little twopenny letter of " Advice to the October Club," 
does not sell : I know the reason ; for it is finely written, I 
assure you ; and like a true author, I grow fond of it, because 
it does not sell : you know that it is usual to writers to 
condemn the judgment of the world ; if I had hinted it to 
be mine, every body would have bought it, but it is a great 
secret*^ A few days later, and He writes, February i, that 
it * begins now to sell ; but I believe its fame will hardly 
reach Ireland.' There is no doubt but that it partially had 
the desired effect — of making these troublesome gentlemen 
less obstructive. Poor Swift was once nearly getting into a 
dilemma with regard to this club, and his story is as follows : 

* Then Ford drew me to dine at a tavern, it happened to be the 
day and the house where the October Club dine After we 
had dined, coming down, we called to inquire, whether our 
yam business had been over that day, and I sent into the 
room for Sir George Beaumont. But I had like to be drawn 
into a difficulty ; for in two minutes out comes Mr. Finch, 
Lord Guernsey's son, to let me know, that my Lord Compton, 
the steward of this feast, desired, in the name of the club, 
that I would do them the honour to dine with them. I sent 
my excuses, adorned with about thirty compliments, and got 
off as fast as I could. It would have been a most improper 
thing for me to dine there, considering my friendship for the 
Ministry. The Club is about a hundred and fifty, and near 
eighty of them were then going to dinner at two long tables 
in a great ground room.' * Afterwards the October Club was 
split, and the more Jacobite portion formed themselves into 
the March Club. 

The Calves Head Club was decidedly an opposition one, 
and its history, true or not, is told in a little book which 
some people have attributed to Ward,* ' The SECRET HIS- 
TORY of the Calves Head Club : or, the REPUBLICAN 
UNMASK'D. Wherein is fully shewn the religion of the 
Calves head Heroes in their Anniversary Thanksgiving 

" Journal, Jan. 28, 1 712. « Ibid, April 13, 17 14. 

■ Brit. Mus, 1093, c. 73. 

CLUBS. 239 

Songs on the Thirtieth of January^ by them called Anthems, 
for the years 1693, 1694, 1695, 1696, 1697. Now PUBLISHED 
to demonstrate the Restless, Implacable Spirit of a certain 
Party still among us, who are never to be satisfied till the 
present Establishment in Church and State is subverted. 
The Second Edition. 

Discite justitiain mo7titi^ & non teninere Divos, Virg. 


Printed, And Sold by the Booksellers of London and West- 
minster. 1703.' 

The author tells the history of the club as follows: 
* Happening in the late Reign to be in the Company of a cer- 
tain active Whigg, who in all other Respects was a Man of 
probity enough ; he assured me, that to his Knowledge, 'twas 
true, That he knew most of the Members of that Club, and 
that he had been often invited to their Meetings, but that he 
had always avoided them : Adding, that according to the 
Principles he was bred up in, he wou'd have made no scruple 
to have met Cfuirles the First, in the Field, and oppos'd him 
to the utmost of his Power ; but that since he was Dead, he 
had no further Quarrel to him, and looked upon it as a 
cowardly piece of Villany, below any Man of Honour, to 
insult upon a Memory of a Prince, who had suffered enough 
in his Life Time. 

* He farther told me, that Milton^ and some other Creatures ^' 
of the Commonwealth, had instituted this Club, as he was 
informed, in Opposition to Bp. Juxon^ Dr. Sanderson^ Dr. 
Hammond, and other Divines of the Church of England, who 
met privately every 30th of January ; and, tho' it was under 

the Time of the Usurpation, had compiled a private Form of 
Service for the Day, not much different from that we now 
find in the Liturgy. . . . 

* By another Gentleman, who, about Eight Years ago, 
went out of meer Curiosity to see their Clul},'and has since 
furnish'd me with the following Papers ; I was informed that 
it was kept in no fix*d House, but that they remov'd as they 
saw convenient ; that the place they met in when he was 

240 SOCIAL UFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

with 'em, was a blind Ally, about Morefields ; ^ that the 
Company wholly consisted of Independents and Anabaptists 
(I am glad for the Honour of the Presbyterians to set down 
this Remark) ; that the Famous Jerry W/tite, formerly Chap- 
lain to Oliver Cromwell^ who, no doubt on 't, came to sanctify 
with his Pious Exhortations, the Ribbaldry of the Day, said 
Grace ; that after the Table Cloth was removed, the Anni- 
versary A ntluniy as they impiously call'd it, was sung, and 
a Calves Scull filled with Wine or other Liquor, and then a 
Brimmer went about to the Pious Memory of those worthy 
Patriots that had kill'd the Tyrant, and delivered their Coun- 
try from his Arbitrary Sway ; and lastly, a Collection made 
for the Mercenary Scribler, to which every Man contributed 
according to his Zeal for the Cause, or the Ability of his 

The following * Anthem,' if not the most refined of the 
series, is, at least, the most spirited and characteristic : — 

An Anthem on the ^oth of January 1696. 

There was a King of Scottish Race, a Man of Muckle might a, 

Was never seen in Battels Great, but greatly he would sh a ; 

This K. begot another K. which made the Nation sad a, 

Was of the same Religion, an Atheist like his Dad a : 

This Monarch wore a Picked Beard, and seem'd a Doughty Hero, 

As Dioclcsian Innocent, and Mercifiil as Nero, 

The Churches darling Implement, but Scourge of all the People, 

He Swore heM make each Mother's Son Adore their Idol Steeple : 

But they perceiving his designs, grew plagy shy and jealous, 

Xl^ And timely Choppt his Calves head off, and sent him to his fellows. 

Old Rowly did succeed his Dad, such a King was never seen a, 

He'd lye with every nasty Drab, but seldom with his Queen a. 

* In the ninth ed., 1 7 14, after ' MoreBelds ' it goes on : ' Where an Axe hung 
up in the Club Room^ and was reverenced as a principal Symbol in this DiaboUau 
Sacrament. Their Bill of Fare was a large Dish of CcUvis-Heads^ dressed several 
ways, by which they represented the King and his Friends, who had safTerM in 
his Cause ; a large Pike with a small one in his Mouth, as an Emblem of Tvianny ; 
a large Cod's Head^ by which they pretended to represent the Person of the King 
singly ; a Boards Head with an Apple in its Mouth, to represent the King, by 
this, as Beastial, as by their other Hicroglyphicks they had done Foolish and 
Tyrannical. Aflcr the Repast was over, one of their Elders presented an Ihon 
BasUike^ which was with great Solemnity bum*d upon the Table, whilst the 
Anthems were singing. After this, another produced Milton^s Defensio Popmti 
Anglicanif upon which all laid their Hands, and made a Protestation in the rorm 
of an Oath, for ever to stand by, and maintain the same ; ' then the tesit goes on 
as above. 

CLUBS. 241 

His Dogs at Council Board wou'd sit, like Judges in their Furs a, 
'Twas hard to say which had most Wit, the Monarch or his Curs a. 
At last he died, we know not how, but most think by his Brother, • 
His Soul to Royal Tophet went to see his Dad and Mgther. 
The furious James Usurp'd the Throne, to pull Religion down a ; 
But by his Wife and Priest undone, he quickly lost his Crown a. 
To France the wand'ring Monarch's trudg'd, in hopes relief to find a. 

Which he is like to have from thence, even when the D 's blind a. 

Oh ! how shou'd we Rejoyce and Pray, and never cease to Sing a, 
^* If Bishops too were Chac'd away, and Banished with their King a, : 
Then Peace and Plenty wou'd ensue, our Bellies wou'd be full a, 
The enliven'd Isle wou'd Laugh and Smile, as in the days of Noll a. 

Whether this * Secret History ' be true or not, it would 
almost appear that there was a Calves Head Club in George 
the Second's reign, for in the Monthly Intelligencer^ which was 
a portion of the Geyitlemmi's Magazine^ we find * : * Friday, 
January 30, 1735. Some young Noblemen and Gentlemen 
met in a Tavern in Suffolk Street^ called themselves the 
Calves Head Club ; dress'd up a Calfs Head in a Napkin, 
and after some Huzzas threw it into a Bonfire, and dipt 
Napkins in their red Wine, and wav'd them out at Window. 
The Mob had strong beer given them, and for a time hallood 
as well as the best ; but taking Disgust at some Healths 
propos'd, grew so outragious, that they broke all the Win- 
dows, and forced themselves into the House, but the Guards 
being sent for, prevented further Mischief.' Different accounts 
exist of this occurrence, variously modifying it, until they 
end in a total denial ; but engravings exist professing to 
give the * True EflRgies ' of the scene. Apropos of this, 
in the 17 14 edition of the * Secret History' is an engraving 
of * the Westminster Calfs Head Club,' which is none other 
than the representation of a coffee-house already produced 
(see p. 215), but altered somewhat to suit the occasion. For 
instance, the dame de coviptoir is erased, and in her place is 
a huge axe. 

Perhaps one of the now best-known clubs of Anne's time 
was the Kit Cat, which derived its peculiar cognomen (so 
Addison says) *from a Mutton Pye.' Attempts have been 
made to attribute its origin to a political gathering of Whig 

» Gent. Mag, vol. v. p. 105. * Charing Cross. 

VOL. T. R 

242 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

noblemen and gentlemen, but contemporary authorities all 
agree that it was founded by Jacob Tonson, the boolcseller ; 
and Sir R. Blackmore, who wrote a poem called ' the Kitcats * 
in 1708, may be considered as knowing something about 
what he wrote. Whether the pieman's name was Christopher 
Cat, or Christopher, living at the sign of the Cat and Fiddle, 
does not much matter : certain it is that the pies from which 
the club was named were called Kit. Cat's pies. 

Various domiciles have been given to the club, but Sir 
R. Blackmore says it was held at the Fountain in the Strand, 
a site now occupied by the Cigar Divan, as is denoted by 
the name of Fountain Court. 

On the fair Strand by which with graceful Pride, 
Unrival'd Tkamis rolls his alternate Tyde, 
Between the Courts which most the People awe, 
(In one the Monarch reigns, in one the Law.) 
A Stately Building reared its lofty Head, 
Which both the Thames and Town around surveyed. 
Here crowned with Clusters Bacchus kept his Court, 
Where mighty Vats his chearful Throne support ; 
High o'er the Gate he hung his waving Sign, 
A Fountain Red with ever-flowing Wine. 

One Night, in Seven, at this convenient Seat, 

Indulgent BOCAJ * did the Muses treat. 

Their Drink was generous Wine, and Kit Cafs Pyes their Meat. . 

Here he assembled his Poetic Tribe, 

Past Labours to Reward, and new ones to prescribe ; 

Hence did th' Assembly's Title first arise. 

And Kit-Cat Wits sprung first from Kit-Cafs Pyes. 

BOCAJ the mighty Founder of the State 

Led by his Wisdom, or his happy Fate, 

Chose proper Pillars to support its Weight 

All the first Members for their Place were fit 

Tho' not of Title, Men of Sense and Wit. 

They showed they had sense at all events, for in the 
summer they went into the fresh air, and held their meetings 
at the Flask at Hampstead. 

Or when Apollo like, thou'rt pleas'd to lead 
Thy Sons to feast on HampsteacTs airy Head ; 
Hampstead that now in name Parnassus shall exceed. 

* Jacob transposed, 

CLUBS. 243 

Another proof, if it were needed, that Tonson was the 
founder of the club, is that forty-two of its members pre- 
sented him with their portraits, painted by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, to adorn his house at Bam Elms. As the room 
was not lofty enough to admit of their being the regulation 
size, special canvases were had (36 x 28 in.), and this is 
still called Kit Cat size. These portraits are still in exist- 
ence, and were all shown at the Art Treasures Exhibition 
at Manchester, and some at the International Exhibition of 
1862. This club was famous for the toasts engraved on its 
drinking glasses, many of which have survived to this day ; 
and this gave rise to Dr. Arbuthnot's epigram — 

Whence deathless Kit-Cat took his name, 

Few Critics can unriddle : 
Some say from pastry cook it came 

And some from Cat and Fiddle. 
From no trim beaus its name it boasts. 

Grey statesmen or green wits, 
But from this pell mell pack of toasts 

Of old Cats and young Kits. 

There were numerous social clubs, the Beefsteak, and 
the Saturday Club, of which Swift makes frequent mention 
in his letters to Stella. Take one instance ^ : * I dined with 
lord-treasurer, and shall again to-morrow, which is his day, 
when all the ministers dine with him. He calls it whipping 
day. It is always on Saturday, and we do indeed usually 
rally him about his faults on that day. I was of the original 
club, when only poor Lord Rivers, lord keeper, and Lord 
Bolinbrokc came ; but now Ormond, Anglesey, lord Steward, 
Dartmouth, and other rabble intrude, and I scold at it ; but 
now they pretend as good a title as I ; and, indeed, many 
Saturdays I am not there.' He also belonged to a club or 
society for social converse and the encouragement of litera- 
ture, which was founded in the latter part of the year 171 2. 
Its meetings were on Thursday, and it was the custom of the 
members to entertain their brethren in turns. He gave one 
dinner at the Thatched House ^ : * it will cost me five or six 
pounds ; yet the secretary says he will give me wine.' But 

» Journal to Stella, Jan. 9, 1 713. * Ibid, FAi ii^ lyijf. 

244 SOCIAL UFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

they soon got extravagant, for their very next dinner is noted * 
as 'The Duke of Ormond's treat last week cost ;f 20 though 
it was only four dishes, and four without a dessert ; and I 
bespoke it in order to be cheap ; ' and this did not include 
wine. In this society, when money was raised for a bene- 
volent purpose, the members were assessed according to their 
several estates : thus, the Duke of Ormond paid ten guineas, 
Swift half a guinea. 

Steele, in Tatler No. 9, gives an amusing and graphic 
account of a club, held at a tavern called the Trumpet, in 
Shire Lane ; and, to show how prevalent the establishment 
of clubs was in this reign, the following are some of suggested 
ones (of course only in fun) to be found in the Spectator \ 
The Amorous, Chit Chat, Everlasting, Fox hunters. Fringe 
glove. Hebdomadal, Henpecked, Lazy, Lawyers, Mohock, 
Moving, Rattling, The Romp, Sighing, Spectator's, Street, 
Twopenny, Ugly, Widows ; and the Guardian supplies a list 
of supposed clubs of little men, and the Short, Silent, Tall, 
and Terrible Clubs. 

* Joumalto Stella^ March 5, 1 712, 




Royal visits to the City — Lord Mayor's show — The lions at the Tower — 
The Armoury — Tombs at Westminster — Bartholomew Fair — ^Descrip- 
tion — Shows — Tight-rope dancing — Natural curiosities — Theatrical 
performances, etc. — Abolition — May fair — Lady Mary — Pinkethman — 
Shows — Visit to — Abolition — Southwark Fair — Its shows. 

But clubs were not the only social enjoyments. The populace 
had, during this reign, many free sights — and the numerous 
visits of the Queen to the City provided fine shows gratis. 
She dined at Guildhall on the Lord Mayor*s day after her 
accession, and she visited the City again on November 12 
the same year, accompanied by both Houses of Parliament, to 
return thanks for the successes at Vigo. Certainly January 19, 

1 704, was kept as a fast ; but on September 7 of that year 
the Queen again went to St. Paul's, in commemoration of the 
victory at Blenheim and the capture of Gibraltar ; and on 
January 3, 1705, the standards* taken at Blenheim were 
carried, by a detachment of horse and foot guards, from the 
Tower, and hung up in Westminster Hall. On the 6th of 
the same month the Duke of Marlborough dined, by invita- 
tion, with the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, at Goldsmiths' 
Hall. Once more the Queen visited St. Paul's, on August 23, 

1705, to return thanks for the Duke's forcing the French 
lines in Brabant, and yet again for the victory at Ramilies on 

* There was an engraving made of these standards ; and a handbill about it 
(Marl. MSS. 5996, 40) is curious, as showing how they pushed trade then. * The 
Colours being only to be seen in Westminster Hall ^ several Gentlemen and Others 
have desired to share in the Comnumoration thereof, by placing the Representation 
of 'em in their Halls and Houses : And now to accommodate those who are so 
disposed, the said Representation with the Imbellishments above mentioned, is 
done on fine Imperial Paper^ and will in a Day or Two be left at your house for 
your Perusal, till call'd for next Day, when you are desired either to return it, or 
be pleased to pay Two Shillings and Sixpence to the Person that delivered the 

246 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

June 27, 1706. This time, the colours taken were deposited 
in the Guildhall, with great pomp, on December 19, 1706: 
the Queen, and Prince George, going into St James's Park 
to sec them pass. On this occasion the Duke dined with 
the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, in Vintners' HalL On 
December 30 of the same year, the Queen gave thanks at 
St. Paul's for the successes of the last campaign in Spain and 
Italy ; and, as^the newspaper account informs us, * the Night 
ended with Ringing of Bells, Bonfires, Illumihations, and 
other Rejoycings.' y 

Yet again was there another day of public rejoicing, on 
May I, 1707, to celebrate the union with Scotland, and the 
Queen once more visited St Paul's. But this was to be the 
last. On thanksgiving day, July 7, 171 3, to celebrate the 
conclusion of peace, Anne was ^ too unwell to play her accus- 
tomed part, and was reluctantly compelled to abandon it and 
remain at home. TKe fireworks on this occasion were splendid. 
* Those in Smithfield began about Ten at Night, and ended 
about Eleven ; when those upon the Thames, over against 
Whitehall, began, and lasted till after Midnight Besides that 
these were in both Places Excellent in their kind, they were 
play'd off with the utmost Regularity and good Order ; so 
that we have not heard of the least Mischief done either upon 
the River or in Smithfield ; ' and, as was observed in the 
Guardian^ No. 103 : * In short, the artist did his part to 
admiration, and was so encompassed with fire and smoke 
that one would have thought nothing but a Salamander 
could have been safe in such a situation.' But these seem 
to have been eclipsed by a display at Dublin in honour of 
the Queen's last • birthday, February 6, 17 14, as is recorded 
in the Daily Courant of February 16, 17 14. 

The Londoner, too, had his Lord Mayor's Show, with its 
fun, perhaps just a trifle rougher than in our day. Owing 
to the difference of old and new style, Lord Mayor's day 
was on October 29 instead of November 9 as now. Ward 
naturally revels in it * : * Tuesday 29. Windows in Cluapside 
stuck with more Faces at Ten, than the Balconies with 
Candles on an Illumination Night Wicked havock of Neats- 

* Comical VUw of London and tVestminsltr. 


Tongues and Hamms in the Barges about Eleven. Artillery 
Men march by two and two, burlesqued in Buff and Bandi* 
leers. The Vintners and Brewers, the Butchers and Apothe- 
caries justle about precedence ; 'Tis pity they are not 
incorporated. The Ladies pelted with dead Cats instead of 
Squibs from Twelve to Three. Mob tumultuous. Boys 
starting to see that which, as the Old Woman said, they 
must all come to one Day.' And in the London Spy he gives 
a very long account of the show, its pageants, and the rough 
humour of the ^ectators. 

* I took three lads, who are under my Guardianship, a 
rambling, in a hackney Coach, to shew them the town ; as 
the lions, the tombs. Bedlam.' * These were the three great 
sights of London : the lions at the Tower, the tombs in 
Westminster Abbey, and the poor mad folk in Bedlam. * To 
sec the lions ' is proverbial, and these had to be visited by 
every one new to the City. In 1703 there were four, two 
lions and two lionesses — one with a cub. In this reign three 
of the lions died almost at the same time, and it was looked 
upon by some as an event of dire portent. Addison laugh- 
ingly alludes to the popular idea of something awful happening 
on the death of a * Tower ' lion, when, in the Free/wider^ he 
makes the Jacobite squire ask the keeper whether any of the 
lions had fallen sick when Perth was taken, or on the flight 
of the Pretender. When dead they were sometimes stuffed, 
as Ward relates. He also says there was a leopard, three 
eagles, two owls, and a hyena. That was in 1703 ; and 
Thoresby, writing in 1709, went to see the 'lions, eagles, 
catamountains, leopards, &c.' He also relates ^ his experiences 
of a visit to the Tower itself : * Walked with Mr. Dale to the 
Tower ; was mightily pleased with the new and excellent 
method the Records ' are put into (of which see a letter of . 
the Bishop of Carlisle to me ;) and viewed many great curi- 
osities of that nature, and original letters from foreign kings 
and potentates, upon parchment, and paper as old (reckoned 
as great a rarity) to the Kings of England, very ancient 
tallies, Jewish stars, &c., which the obliging Mr. Holms showed 

» TatUr, No. 30. ' Dtary, Jan. 21, 1709. 

' The records were kept in the Tower until the present reign. 

248 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

me, who also gave me an autograph of Queen Elizabeth, tiiat 
was his own property ; then went to view the several armouries, 
as that more ancient of the weapons taken in the year i $88 
from the pretended Invincible Armada, and those modem 
from Vigo, and in other memorable transactions of this age ; 
the present armoury for use is put to a surprising method, in 
the form of shields, pyramids, trophies, &c. Some of the 
elder and later kings' armour are placed as though mounted 
on horseback.' 

Ward also visited the Tower, after seeing the lions, and 
has left a most amusing account of what he saw, which is far 
too long for transcription. He first noted * a parcel of Bulky 
Wardens, in old fashion'd Lac'd Jackets, and in Velvet Flat 
caps, hung round with divers coloured Ribbonds, like a Fool's 
hat upon a Holiday.' Indeed, their costume was identical 
with their present state dress, only it was utterly marred by 
their wearing portentous periwigs. Under the guidance of 
one of these gentry he was shown Traitor's Gate, the White 
Tower, and St. Peter's Church ; and afterwards, the Grand 
Armoury, where he was particularly delighted to see that * at 
the corner of every Lobby, and turning of the Stairs, stood a 
Wooden Grmiadier as Sentinel, painted in his proper Colours, 
cut out with much exactness upon Board.' Arrived in the 
arsenal, he was handed over to one of the armourer's men, 
who had * everything as ready at his fingers' ends, as the 
Fellow that shows the Tombs at Westminster. The first 
Figure at our Coming in, that most effected the Eye, by 
reason of its bigness, was a long Range of Muskets and 
Carbines y that ran the length of Xki^-Arntory^ which was dis- 
tinguish'd by a Wilderness of Arms, whose Locks and Barrels 
were kept in that admirable Order, that they shone as bright 
as a Good Housewifes Spits and Pewter in the Christtnas 
Holidays^ on each side of which were Pistols^ Baggonets^ 
ScifniterSy Hangers^ CutlaceSy and the like Configurated into 
Shields y Triumphal Arches, Gates, Pillasters, ScollapsluUs, 
Mullets, Fans, Snakes, Serpents, Sun Beams, Gorgotis Heads, 
the Waves of tlie Ocean, Stars and Garters, and in the middle 
of all. Pillars of Pikes, and turn'd Pillars of Pistols ; and at 
the end of the Wilderness, fire Arms plac'd in the Order of a 


great Organ' Coming thence, he noticed the Tower rooks, 
as he called those men who asked * Whether you will see the 
Crown, the whole Regalia or the King's Marching Train of 
Artillery ? * He would have none of them, but went with a 
warder into the armoury proper, where he * Viewed the Princely 
Scare crows, and he told us to whom each Suit of Armour 
did belong Originally, adding some short Memorandums out 
of History, to every empty Iron side ; some True, some False, 
supplying that with Invention, which he wanted in Memory.' 
He would not see the Regalia, but got a description of it 
from the warder, * and so Cozened the Keeper of our Eighteen 
Pence a piece.' The warder told them ' there was a Royal 
Crown, and a new one made for the Coronation of the late 
Queen Mary, and three others wore by his Majesty with 
Distinct Robes, upon several occasions ; also the Salt, Spoons, 
Forks and Cups, us*d at the Coronation.' Altogether, a visit 
to the Tower then very much resembled one nowadays. 

As to the tombs at Westminster, what more do we want 
to know about them, as they then were, than what is con- 
tained in Spectator No. 26, where Addison grumbles at Sir 
Cloudesley Shovel's monument, * Instead of the brave rough 
English Admiral, which was the distinguishing Character of 
that plain gallant Man, he 'is represented on his Tomb, by 
the Figure of a Beau, dress'd in a long Perriwig,and reposing 
himself upon Velvet Cushions under a Canopy of State } * 
And for all else in the grand old abbey, have we not the 
lifelike description of Sir Roger's visit ? ' how he saw Jacob's 
pillar, sat in the Coronation Chair, handled Edward the Third's 
sword, and afterwards wanted the Spectator to call on him 
* at his Lodgings in Norfolk Buildings^ and talk over these 
Matters with him more at leisure.' It would be a literary 
profanity to deal with them except in their entirety. 

But the lions, the tombs, and Bedlam could never be 
sufficient recreative pabulum for a large city, so there were 
outlets for the exuberance of their spirits in the three fairs, 
1 Bartholomew, May fair, and Southwark. Bartholomew fair 
stands pre-eminent, both for its antiquity, its size, and length 
of duration. In Anne's time it was no longer the great mart 

• spectator^ 329. 

2SO SOCIAL UFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

for cloth it used to be — and the fair was given over to rioting 
and unlimited licence. This fair is a most congenial subject 
for Ward's pen, and he gives it free range — too free, alas ! for 
many extracts. He describes the entrance to it as a ' Bet- 
fegor^s Concert, the rumbling of Drums^ mix'd with the in- 
tolerable Squalling of Cat Calls and Penny Trumpets! so, to 
get out of the noise and smell, prominent in which latter was 
' the Singeing of Pigs, and burnt Crackling of over Roasted 
Pork * (which was a specialty in the fair), he turned into an 
ale house, where he had doctored beer, and was so annoyed 
by a waiter, who would constantly inquire, *Do you call, 
sirs?' that he threatened to kick him downstairs. From 
this upper room he could see the booths, and note the 
humours of the fair : the mock finery of the actors, who were 
* strutting round their Balconies in their Tinsey Robes, and 
Golden Leather Buskins ; ' and the sorry buflfoonery of the 
Merry Andrews. Having rested, he sallied forth into the 
fair, saw the rope-dancers, one of whom was a n^fess, who 
set a countryman near Ward into fits of laughter, which he 
explained : * Master, says he, I have oftentimes heard of the 
Devil upon two Sticks, but never Zee it bevore in me Life. 
Bezide, Maister, who can forbear Laughing to see the Devil 
going to Dance ?' He speaks in 'high terms of the German 
rope-dancer, of whom Lauron gives two portraits. He then 
went into a booth to see * a Dwarf Comedy y Sir-nam*d a DroU^ 
but docs not seem to have cared much about it He and his 
friend then refreshed themselves with * a Quart of Fill-birds, 
and Eat each of us two Penny worth of Burgamy Pears,' and 
witnessed another performance. They then needed solid 
food, so determined to have a quarter of a pig (sucking pig 
of course), and made their way to Pye Corner, ' where Cooks 
stood dripping at their Doors, like their Roasted Swine's 
Flesh,' but the total absence of cleanliness in the cookery was 
so repulsive, that they had to forego the luxury. 

After undergoing the certain penalty of having his hand- 
kerchief stolen, he went to see another droll, the plot of which 
seems to have been perfectly inexplicable, and he came to 
the conclusion that ' Bartholomew Fair Drolls are like State 
Fire Works, they never do any Body good, but those that 


are concern'd in the Show.' The wax-work was then visited, 
and then they went to a music and dancing booth, in which 
they not only had a most discordant instrumental concert, 
but saw a woman * Dance with Glasses full of Liquor upon 
the Backs of her Hands, to which she gave Variety of Motions, 
without Spilling,' and e^ youthful damsel perform a sword 
dance, which was succeeded by * abundance of Insipid Stuff.* 
They got away, and passed by the * Whirligigs,' went into a 
raffling shop, and the Groom Porter's, after which he went 
to an alehouse to rest himself and smoke a pipe, and finally 
went home, thoroughly tired. 

This, then, was a true record of a visit to Bartholomew 
Fair, by the aid of which we shall thoroughly appreciate the 
following advertisements of the amusements there : — 

* At the great Booth over against the Hospital Gate, 
during the XXvci^oi Bartholomew Fair \i'^ be seen the Dancing 
on the Ropes, after the French and Italian Fashion, by a 
Company of the finest Performers that ever yet have been 
seen by the whole World. For in the same Booth will be 
seen the two Famous French Maidens, so much admired in 
all Places and Countries wherever they come (especially in 
May fair last), where they gain'd the highest Applause from 
all the Nobility and Gentry, for their wonderful Performance 
on the Rope, both with and without a Pole ; so far out doing 
all others that have been seen of their Sex, as gives a general 
Satisfaction to all that ever yet beheld them. To which is 
added, Vaulting on the High Rope, and Tumbling on the 
Stage. As also Vaulting on two Horses, on the great Stage, 
at once. The Stage being built after the Italian manner, on 
which you will see the Famous Scaramouch and Harlequin. 
With several other Surprizing Entertainments, too tedious 
here to mention. Perform'd by the greatest Masters now in 
Europe, The like never seen before in England! 

Rope-dancing was evidently very popular, for there is 
another booth, in which Blondin is outdone. * It is there you 
will sec the Italian Scaramouch dancing on the Rope, with 
a Wheel Barrow before him with two Children and a Dog in 
it, and with a Duck on his Head ; who sings to the Company, 
and causes much laughter.' And yet one more, for it intro- 

252 SOCIAL UFE in the rdgn of QUEEN ANNE. 

duces us to the most famous rope-dancer of the reign—' Lady 
Mary.' *Her Majesty's Company of Rope Dancers. At 
Mr. Barnes and Finly's Booth, between the Hospital Gate 
and the Crown Tavern, opposite the Cross Daggers, during 
the usual time of Bartholomew Fair, are to be seen the most 
famous Rope dancers in Europe. And ist'2young MaidenSi 
lately arrived from France, Dance with and without a Pole 
to admiration. 2. The Famous Mr. Barnes, of whose per- 
formances this Kingdom is so sensible, Dances with 2 
Children at his Feet, and with Boots and Spurs. 3. Mrs. 
Finly distinguished by the name of Lady Mary for her 
incomparable Dancing, has much improv'd herself since the 
last Fair.' Lady Mary is frequently mentioned in contem- 
porary literature, and on one occasion is alluded to * as little 
dressed as Lady Mary.' This probably arose from her dis- 
pensing with petticoats in dancing. The German rope-dancer, 
immortalised by Lauron, is dressed in a fine frilled Holland 
shirt, trunk hose, and tights — in fact, the usual acrobatic dress ; 
and Ward notices two dancers, * who, to show their Affection 
to the Breeches wor'em under their Petticoats ; which, for 
decency's sake, they first Danc'd in ; But they doft their 
Petticoats after a gentle breathing.' This probably accounts 
for the caustic remark in the Spectator (No. 51), *The 
Pleasantry of stripping almost Naked has been since prac- 
tised (where indeed it should have begun) very successfully 
at Bartholovteiv Fair.' 

There were, also, natural curiosities to be seen. ' At the 
next Door to the Sign of the GreyJunind in Smithfield^ is 
to be shown (by Her Majesty's Order) a Wonderful and 
Miraculous Sight, a M^le Child which was bom in Gamsey 
of the body of Rebecca Seckliriy and now sucks at her Breasts, 
being but Thirty Weeks old, with a prodigious big Head, 
being above a yard about, and hath been shown to several 
Persons of Quality.* 

* By Her Majesties A uthority. At the Hart's Horn's Inn 

in Pye Corner, during the time of Bartholomew Fair, will be 

seen these strange Rarities following, viz. A Little Farey 

Woman, lately come from Italy, being but Two Foot Two 

Inches high, the shortest that ever was seen in England^ and 


no ways Deform'd, as the other two Women are, that are 
carried about the Streets in Boxes from House to House, for 
some years past, this being Thirteen Inches shorter than either 
of them ; if any Person has a desire to see her at their own 
Houses, we are ready to wait upon them any Hour of the 

* Likewise a little Marmazet from Bengal that dances the 
Cheshire Romids^ and Exercises at the Word of Command. 
Also a strange Cock from Hamborough^ having Three proper 
Legs, Two Fundaments, and makes use of them both at one 
time. Vivat Reginae ' {sic), 

*Next Door to the Golden Hart in West Smithfield, 
between the Hospital Gate and Pye Comer during the time 
of Bartholomew Fair, is to be seen the Admirable Work of 
Nature, a Woman having three Breasts ; and each of them 
affording Milk at one time or differently, according as they 
are made use of There is likewise to be seen the Daughter 
of the same Woman, which hath breasts of the like Nature, 
according to her Age ; and there never hath been any ex- 
tant of such sort, which is wonderful to all that ever did, or 
shall behold her.' 

Theatrical performances naturally took a prominent part ; 
for the two theatres shut up during Fair time, and Mills, 
Doggett, and Penkethman, all fair actors, and belonging to 
the regular stage, had booths here, and did well ; in fact, 
Penkethman became wealthy. As Ward remarks * : * After 
struggling with a Long See-Saw, between Pride and Profit ; 
and having Prudently considered the weighty difference 
between the Honourable Title of one of His Majesties 
Servants, and that of a Bartliolomew Fair Player^ a Vagabond 
by the Statue, did at last, with much difficulty, conclude. 
That it was equally Reputable to Play the Fool in the Fair 
for Fifteen or Twenty Shillings a Day, as 'twas to please 
Fools in the Play House at so much a week.' 

At Parker's Booth was played the Famous History of 
Dorastus and Fawnia, 'With very pleasant Dialogues and 
Antick Dances.' 

* Never Acted before. At Miller's Booth, over against 

' See Appendix, • Londm Sfy, 

254 SOCIAL UFE in the trign of QUEEN ANNE. 

the Cross Dag^rs, near the Crown Tavern, during the tiine 
of Bartholomew Fair will be presented an Excellent new 
Droll caira 

* The Tempest, or the Distressed Lx)vers, 

With the English HERO and the Highland Princess, with the 
Comical Humours of the Inchanted Scotchman, or Jockey 
and the three Witches. Shewing how a Nobleman of 
England was cast away upon the Indian Shore, and in his 
Travels found the Princess of the Country, with whom he 
fell in Love, and after many Dangers and Perils, was mairied 
to her ; and his faithful Scotchman, who was saved with him, 
travelling thorow Woods, fell in among Witches, where be- 
tween 'em is abundance of Comical Diversion. There in the 
Tempest, is Neptune with his Tritons in his Chariot drawn 
with Sea Horses and Mairmaids singing. With Variety of 
Entertainments, Performed by the best Masters ; the Par- 
ticulars would be too tedious to be inserted here. Vivat 

There seems to have been another version of this play, 
which, after all, was only a travesty of Shakespeare's 
* Tempest' 

* At Doggctt's Booth, Hosier Lane End, during the Time 
of Bartholomew Fair, will be presented a New Droll, called 
the Distress'd Virgin, or Unnatural Parents, Being a True 
History of the Fair Maid of the West ; or The Loving 
Sisters. With the Comical Travels of Poor Trusty in search 
of his Master's Daughter, and his encounter with Three 

* Also Variety of Comick Dances and Songs, with Scenes 
and Machines never seen before — Vivat Regina.* 

In the next advertisement we see three of* Her Majesty's 
Servants ' combine in keeping a booth in the Fair. 

* At Pinkcman's, Mills', and Bullock's Booth, 
In the Old Place over against the Hospital Gate, During the 


time of Bartholomew Fair will be presented, A New Droll 


* The Siege of Barcelona, or the Soldier's Fortune, 
With the taking of Fort Mount jouy, 

Containing the Pleasant and Comical Exploits of that 
Renown'd Hero Captain Blunderbuss and his Man Squib ; 
His Adventures with the Conjuror ; and a Surprizing Scene 
of the Flying Machine, where he and his Man Squib are 
Enchanted ; Also the Diverting Humour of Corporal Scare 

* The Principal Parts Acted by the Comedians of the 

Theatre Royal, 

Colonel Lovewell , . . Mr. Mills. 

Captain Blunderbuss . , Mr. Bullock. 

Squib, his Man .... Mr. Notris, alias Jubilee 


Corporal Scare Devil . . Mr. Bickerstaff. 

Maria, the Governor's Daughter Mrs. Baxter. 

The Dame of Honour . . Mrs. Willis. 

* To which will be added the Wonderful Performance of 
the most celebrated Master, Mr. Simpson the famous Vaulter ; 
Who has had the Honour to teach most of the Nobility in 
England ; and at whose request he now performs with Mr. 
Pinkeman to let the World see what Vaulting is. Being 
lately arrived from Italy. 

* The Musick, Songs and Dances are all by the best Per- 
formers of their kind, whom Mr. Pinkeman has Entertained 
at extraordinary Charge, purely to give a full Satisfaction to 
the Town. Vivat Regina.' 

* At Be7i Johiso7i'5 BOOTH (by Mrs. Mynn's Company of 
Actors). In the Rounds in Smithfieldy during the FAIR, 
Will be presented an excellent Entertainment, being the 
Famous History of WlIITTINGTON, Lord MAYOR of LONDON : 
Wherein besides the Variety of SONGS and DANCES, will be 

' So called because in 1699 he played the part of Dicky in Farquhar's Con* 

stunt CoupU, or a Trip to the Jubilee, 

256 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

shown an extraordinary View of several stately and sur- 
prising Scenes ; as a Rowling Sea, bearing a large Ship 
under Sayl, with Neptune, Mermaids, Dolphins, &c. Also a 
Prospect of a Moorish Country, so swarming with Rats and 
Mice, that they over run the King and Queen's Table at 
Dinner ; Likewise a large diverting SCENE of Tapestry, 
fiird with all living Figures ; and lastly, concluding with a 
Lord Mayof^s Triumph, in which are presented nine several 
Pageants, being Six Elephants and Castles, a Magnificent 
Temple, and two Triumphal Chariots, one drawn by two 
Lyons, and the other by two Dolphins ; in all which are 
seated above twenty Persons in various Dresses ; with Flag^s, 
Scutcheons, Streamers, &c. The Preparation and Decora- 
tion of which infinitely exceed both in Expence and Grandeur, 
all that has ever been seen on a Stage in the Fair. The Chief 
Parts are performed by Actors from both Tlieatres, Vivat 

Here we see a departure from the old drolls, and a 
reliance on the part of the management on mechanical and 
spectacular effects: besides which, there was the puppet 
show, pure and simple. *By Her Majesties Permission. 
At Heatly's Booth, Over against the Cross Daggers^ next 
to Mr. Miller's Booth ; During the time of Bartholomew Fair, 
will be presented a Little Opera, Caird, The Old Creation of 
t/ie World Newly Reviv'd, With the Addition of the Glorious 
Battle obtained over the French and Spaniards, by his Grace 
the Dtike of Marlborough, The Contents are these — 

1. The Creation oi Adam and Eve. 

2. The Intreagues of Lucifer in the Garden of Eden. 

3. Adam and Eve driven out of Paradice. 

4. Ci^/« going to Plow. ^^^/ driving Sheep. 

5. Cain Killeth his Brother Abel 

6. Abraltam Offering his Son Iscuic. 

7. Three Wisemen of the East guided by a Star, who 
Worship him. 

8. Joseph and Mary flee away by Night upon an Ass. 

9. King Herod's Cruelty, his Men's spears laden with 


* 10. Rich Dives invites his Friends^ and orders his Porter 
to keep the Beggars from his Gate. 

* 1 1. Poor Lazarus comes a begging at Rich Dives's Gate, 
the Dogs lick his Sores. 

* 12. The good Angel and Death contends for Lazarus's 

* 13. Rich Dives is taken Sick and dieth, he is buried in 
great solemnity. 

* 14. Rich Dives in Hell, and Lazarus in Abra/iam's Bosom, 
seen in a most glorious Object, all in machines, descending 
in a Throne, Guarded with multitudes of Angels, with the 
Breaking of the Clouds, discovering the Palace of the Sun, in 
double and treble Prospects, to the Admiration of all Spec- 
tators. Likewise several Rich and Large Figures, which 
Dances Jiggs, Sarabrands, Anticks, and Country Dances^ 
between every Act ; compleated with the merry Humours 
of Sir John Spcndall, and PunchanellOy with several other 
things never yet Exposed. Performed by Mat Heatly. Vivat 

This show seems to have been popular, for in another 
fair we have it again with variations : * At Crawly s Booth, 
over against the Crown Tavern in Smithfield during the time 
of Bartholomew Fair^ will be presented a little Opera call'd, 
The Old Creation of tlie Worlds yet newly reviv'd, with the 
addition of Noah's Flood \ also several Fountains playing 
Water during the time of the Play. 

* The last Scene does present Noah and his Family coming 
out of the Ark, with all the Beasts, two by two, and all the 
Fowls of the Air seen in a Prospect sitting upon the Trees. 
Likewise over the Ark is seen the Sun rising in a most 
glorious manner, moreover a multitude of Angels will be 
seen in a double rank, which presents a double prospect, 
one for the Sun, the other for a Palace, where will be seen 
six Angels, ringing six Bells, 

* Likewise Machines descends from above, double and 
trible, with Dives rising out of Hell, and Lazarus seen in 
Abraham's bosom, besides several Figures dancing Jiggs^ 
Sarabrands, and Cou7itry Dances^ to the Admiration of all 

VOL. I. s 

258 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Spectators ; with the merry Conceit of Squire Punch and 
Sir John SpendalL 

* All this is compleated with an Entertainment of Singing 
and Dancing with several Naked Swords, l^erform'd by a 
Child of Eight Years of Age, to the general Satisfaction of 
all Persons. Vivat Regina.* 

As a specimen of the dancing booth Ward visited, take 
the following handbill : * James Miles, From Sadlet^s Wells, 
at Islington ; Now keeps the GUN MusiCK BOOTH, in 
BartlioUnnew Fair. Whereas Mr. MUes by his Care and 
Diligence to oblige the Gentry, and all others that are Lovers 
and Judges of good Musick, has put himself to an extra- 
ordinary Charge, in getting such Performers, as, no doubt, 
will give a general Satisfaction to all. This is also to gixT 
Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, That they may 
be accommodated with all Sorts of Wine, and other Liquors ; 
with several extraordinary Entertainments of Singling and 
Dancing, which was never performed at the Fair, viz. : — 

* I. A New Dance between Three Bullies and Three 

* 2. A New Dance between Two Spirits and Two Scara- 

* 3. A New Dance between Four Swans and Four Indians 
riding on their Backs. 

* 4. A Wrestler's Dance, performed by Two Youths. 

* 5. Likewise Dancing on the Tight Rope, and a Young 
Man that Vaults the Slack Rope, with variety of Tumbling. 

* 6. A New Dance of Eight Granadiers, who perform the 
whole Exercise of War, in their proper Accoutrements, to 
the just Time of Musick. 

*7. A New Scotch Dance, with their Habits and Bonnets, 
performed by Two Ik)ys, to Admiration. 

' 8. A New Entertainment between a Scaramouch, a 
Harliquin, and a Punchanello in Imitation of Bilking a 

* 9. A New Cane Chair Dance by Eight Persons. 

' 10. A New Dance by Four Scaramouches, after the 
Italian Manner. 


* 1 1. A New Dance by a Scaramouch and a Country 

*I2. A New Swan's Dance, performed by Four young 
Lads, to the Amazement of all Spectators. 

* 1 3. We shall also present you with the Wonder of her 
Sex, a young Woman who dances with the Swords, and 
upon the Ladder, with that Variety, that she challenges all 
her Sex to do the like. 

* 14. A Cripples Dance by Six Persons with Wooden Legs 
and Crutches in Imitation of a Jovial Crew. 

* 1 5. A Posture Dance, performed by Eight Persons. 

' 16. A Dance by Six Men, wherein Two Coopers, Two 
Grinders, and Two Butchers perform everything natural to 
their Trades. 

* 17. The Vigo Dance, performed by an English Man, a 
Dutch Man, a French Man, and a Spaniard, 

* 18. A Blacksmith's Dance. 

* 19. A Tinker's Dance ; together with other extraordinary 
Entertainments too long to be inserted. Vivat Regina.' 

There was a famous Merry Andrew who used to act for 
Pinkethman, and who, at other times, followed the vocation 
of a Horse Doctor. There is a very curious elegy upon him, 
still extant ' : — 

That us'd to visit Smithfield or May Fair^ 
To pertake of the Lewdness that is acted there ; 
T' oblige the Mobb, that did some Pastime lack, 
He'd Merry Andrew turn ; and name of Quack 
Forsake a Fortnight, then that time expired 
The Name o{ Doctor was again acquired. 

Occasionally there were rather more refined exhibitions, 
but they were very rare. Here is one, * In the first Booth on 
the left Hand from the Hospital Gate, over against the Royal 
Oak Lottery, in Bartholomew Fair, from 9 o'clock in the 
Morning till 9 at Night, will be exposed to publick View, 
all the most valuable wrought Plate taken by her Majesties 
Fleet at Vigo. Having been first Lodged in the Tower and 
never exposed before but in the Tower, viz., a fine large 

> Ilarl, MSS,, 5931, 251. 
S 2 

26o SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANXE. 

Altar Piece with 6 Angels at full proportion, standing round 
on Pedestals, 4 Apostles supporting the 4 pillars, and 4 
Angels attending them, with each a lamp for Incence in 
their Hands, also a Crown set with Valuable Stones, a Holy 
Water Pot garnished with Curious Fillegrin Work, and a 
great many other extraordinary Curiosities of Gilt and Fille- 
"grin Plate, all brought from Vigo. The like never seen in 
England before. Price 6d^ 

Bartholomew Fair began on August 24 of each year, 
being St. Bartholomew's Day, and lasted fourteen days. In 
1 69 1 and 1694 it was reduced to the old term of three days, 
and in 1697, 1700, and 1702 stage plays were prohibited in 
the fair. The revenue derived from it formed part of the 
income of the Lord Mayor, and in 1697 a proposal was 
made to allow the Lord Mayor 4,000/. a year for the main- 
tenance of his office, and abolish his perquisites ; when 
Bartholomew Fair was valued at 100/. per annum. 

On June 2, 1708, * the Common Council of this Git}- 
Mett, and the lease for holding Bartholomew Fair expiring 
the I ith of August, agreed, That for the future none should 
be kept for Stage Plays, raffling Shops &c. which tend to 
debauchery ; but only 3 dayes for the sale of leather and 
Cattle, according to its antient custome.' * The raffling shops 
were clearly illegal, for the same writer says, October u, 
1705: * Yesterday the grand yixy found bills of indictment 
against all those persons who kept raffling shops in the 
Cloysters during Bartholomew fair.' But all the legislation 
in the world was imjxDtcnt to put down this fair, until, in this 
century, public opinion as to the expedience of fairs \%-as 
changed, and * Bartlemy ' fair was proclaimed for the last 
time in 1855. 

May Fair, or, as it was originally called, St. James's Fair. 
was of old date, as Machyn mentions it in his * Diary for 
1560.' Pcjjys, also, calls it by the latter name when he 
speaks of it : its name of May fair was comparatively recent. 
and was, of course, owing to its being held in that month. 
It was held on the north side of Piccadilly, and seems to 

* L*.UtrelI. 


have had even a more evil repute than Bartholomew Fair. 
The Obserifator says : * Can any rational men imagine that 
her Majesty would permit so much lewdness as is committed 
in May Fair, for so many days together, so near to 
her royal Palace, if she knew anything about the matter ? ' 
Anyhow the fair flourished during the major portion of Anne's 

The shows were very much like those at the larger fair. 
Here is one in 1702 : * At Miller's Booth in May Fair^ the 
Second Booth on the Right Hand coming into the Fair, over 
against the Famous Mr. Barnes the Rope Dancer, will be 
presented an Excellent Droll, call'd Crispin and Crispiamis ; 
or a Shoemaker a Prince. With the Comical Humours of 
Barrady and the Shoemaker's Wife. With the best Machines, 
Singing and Dancing, ever yet in the Fair. Where the Famous 
Ladder Dancer performs those things upon the Ladder 
never before seen, to the Admiration of all Men. Vivat 

* Lady Mary ' was at the same fair, and advertises herself 
by means of a disclaimer : * Whereas it hath been maliciously 
reported that Mrs. Finley, who for her incomparable Dancing 
on the Rope, is unwillingly distinguished by the Name of the 
Lady Mary, was Dead ; This is to inform all Persons, That 
the said Report is Notoriously false, she now being in Mr. 
Barnes's and Finley's Booth, over against Mr. Pinkethman 
and Mr. Simson's, next to Mr. Mills, and Mr. Bullock's in 
May Fair,' &c. And she was there again in 1704: * At Mn 
Finley and Mr. Barnes's Booth, During the time of May Fair, 
will be seen a Compleat Company of near 20 of the best 
Rope Dancers, Vaulters and Tumblers in Europe, who are all 
excellent in their several Performances, and do such won- 
derful and surprizing things, as the whole World cannot 
parallel ; where Finley, who gave that extraordinary satisfac- 
tion before Charles HL King of Spain on Board the Royal 
Katherine, performs several new entertainments, and where 
the Lady Mary, likewise shows such additions to her former 
admirable perfections, as renders her the wonder of the 
whole world.' She was very popular, as Pinkethman some- 
what bitterly remarks in the * Epilogue to the Bath ' (acted 

262 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

at Drury Lane, 1 701), where he says he made grimaces to 
empty benches, while Lady Mary had carried all before her : — 

Gadzooks, what signified my Face ? 

This, however, did not prevent Pinkethman from going 
there again ; for in 1704 he issued the following adx'crtise- 
ment: * In Brookfield Marketplace at the East comer of 
Hide Park, is a Fair to be kept for the space of Sixteen days, 
beginning the First of May : The first three days for Live 
Cattle and Leather, with the same Entertainment as at Bar- 
tholomew Fair, where there are shops to be Lett ready built 
for all manner of Tradesmen that usually keep Fairs ; and 
so to continue yearly at the same Time and place ; being a 
Free Fair ; and no person to be arrested or molested during 
the Time of this Fair by Virtue of Pye Powder Court And 
at Mr. Pinkeman's Droll Booth will be performed sexieral 
Entertainments which will be expressed at large upon the 
Bills, especially one ver>' surprizing that the whole World 
never yet produced the like, viz. He speaks an Epilogue upon 
an Elephant between Nine and Ten Foot high, arriv'd from 
Guinea, led upon the Stage by Six Blacks. The Booth is 
easily known by the Picture of the Elephant and Mr. Pin- 
kethman sitting in State on his back, on the outside of 
his Booth. Any body that wants Ground for Shops or 
Booths, may hire it of Mr. Pinkeman, enquire at the Bull 
Head in Brookfield Market, alias May Fair.' 

He was there again in 1707. 'At Pinkeman's Booth in 
May Fair, to entertain the Quality, Gentry, and others, he 
has got Eight Dancing Doggs, brought from Holland, which 
are Admir'd by all that see them : and they will dance upon 
Mr. Pinkcman's Stage in each Show. This Extraordinary 
Charge he\s at (in procuring these Doggs) is purely to di\*ert 
the Town. They are the Wonder of the World, The last 
Show beginning between 8 & 9 a Clock for the Entertainment 
of the Quality, as the Park breaks up.* 

There was another theatrical company : * At the Xew 
I*LAV HousK in May Fair, During the time of the Fair 
will be Play'd, the True and Ancient Stor>' of MAUDLIN tht 
Merchants Daughter of Bristol and her lover ANTONia 


How they were Cast away in a Tempest upon the Coast of 
Barbary ; where the Mermaids were seen floating on the 
Seas, and Singing on the Rocks, foretelling their danger. The 
Droll intermingled with most delightful merry Comedy, 
after the manner of an Opera, with extraordinary variety of 
Singing and Dancing : By his Grace the Duke of Southamp- 
ton's Servants. Tlie Place will be Known by the Balcone 
adorn' d with Blue Pillars twisted with Flowers, Vivat Regina.' 
May Fair boasted of its natural curiosities, as the two 
following advertisements testify : * Near Hide Park Comer 
during the Time of May Fair, near the Sheep pens over 
against Mr, Penkethman*s Booth ; Is to be seen the Wonder 
of the World in Nature, being a Mail Child born with a Bear 
growing on its Back alive, to the great Admiration of all 
Spectators, having been shown before most of the Nobility 
of the Land.' 

* By Her Majesties Permission. This is to give Notice to 
all Gentlemen, Ladies and others, that coming into May Fair, 
the first Booth on the left Hand, over against Mr. Pinke- 
mans Booth ; During the usual time of the Fair, is to be 
seen, a great Collection of Strange and Wonderful Rarities, 
all Alive from several parts of the World. 

* A little Black Man lately brought from the West Indies, 
being the Wonder of this Age, he being but 3 Foot high and 
25 Years Old. 

* Likewise 2 Wood Monsters from the East Indies, Male 
and Female, being the Admirablest Creaturs that ever was 
seen in this Kingdom ; they differ from all Creaturs what- 
soever, and are so Wonderful in Nature that it is too large 
to insert here. 

* Also a little Marmoset from the East Indies, which by 
a great deal of Pains is now brought to that perfection, that 
no Creature of his Kind ever perform 'd the like ; he Exercises 
by Word of Command, he dances the Cheshire Rounds, he 
also dances with 2 Naked Swords, and performs several other 
Pretty Fancies. Likewise a Noble Civet Cat from Guiny 
which is admir'd for his Beauty, and that incomparable Scent, 
which Perfumes the whole Place. Also a Muntosh from 
Rushy, being very Wonderfully Marked. 

264 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANXE. 

*Also a HelHscope from Argier, being the Beauttfuk 
Creature in all the World ; specked like a Leopard. Vivat 

The * London Spy * would be incomplete without an 
account of a scene so congenial as May Fair, so of course he 
visited it ; but it does not appear to have vied in any d^ree 
with Bartholomew Fair. *We order'd the Coach to drive 
thro* the Body of the Fair that we might have the better 
View of the Tinsey Heroes and the gazing Multitude ; ex- 
pecting to have seen several Corporations of Stroling Vaga- 
bonds, but there prov'd but one Company, amongst whom 
Merry Andrew was very busie in coaxing the attentive Crowd 
into a good Opinion of his Fratemitie's and his own Per- 
formances ; and when with abundance of Labour, Sweat, 
and Nonsense he had drawn a great cluster of the Mob on 
his Parade, and was just beginning to encourage them to 
Walk in and take tluir Places ; his unlucky opposite, whose 
boarded Theatre entertain 'd the Publick with the wonderful 
activity of some little Indian Rope Dancers, brings out a 
couple of Chattering Homunailusses^ drest up in Scaratfumch 
Habit ; and every thing that Merry Andrew and his Second 
did on the one side, was mimick'd by the little Flat nos'd 
Comedians on the other, till the two Diminutive Buflfoons, 
by their Comical Gestures had so prevail'd upon the gaping 
Throng, that tho* Merry Andrew had taken pains, with all 
the wit he had to collect the Stragling Rabble into their 
proper order, yet like an unmannerly Audience, they tum'd 
their Backs upon the Players^ and devoted themselvps wholly 
to the Monkeys, to the great vexation of Tom Fool and all 
the Strutting train of imaginary Lords and Ladies. At last 
comes an Epitome of a Careful Nurse, drest up in a Country 
Jacket, and under her Arm a Kitten for a Nurslin, and in her 
contrary hand a piece of Cheese ; down sits the little Matron 
with a very Motherly Countenance, and when her Youngster 
Mczv'd, she Dandled him, and Rock'd him in her Arms, with 
as great signs of Affections as a loving Mother could well 
shew to a disordcr'd Infant ; then bites a piece of the Cheese, 
and after she had mumbled it about in her own Mouth, 
then thrust it with her Tongue into the Kitten's. Just 


as I have seen some Nasty Old Sluts feed their Grand- 

The other shows in the fair seem to have been very poor : 
two or three dancing booths, a puppet show, * a Turkey Ram, 
with as much Wooll upon his Tail as would load a Wheel- 
barrow,' and a couple of tigers, were all Ward could find 
worth recording. 

The fair was disorderly, and in 1702 an incident occurred 
which materially assisted its downfall. * Westminster, May 16. 
The Constables of this Liberty being more than ordinary 
vigilant in the discharge of their duty, since the coming forth 
of her Majesty's pious Proclamation again Vice and De- 
bauchery, and having in pursuance thereof taken up several 
Lewd Women in May Fair, in order to bring them to Justice, 
were opposed therein by several rude Soldiers, one of whom 
is committed to Prison, and the rest are diligently enquired 
after.* * In fact, among them they managed to kill a constable, 
named John Cooper — for which murder a fencing-master 
named Cook was afterwards hanged at Tyburn ; and, although 
the fair lingered a few years longer, yet it became such a 
nuisance that in November 1708 the Grand Jury of West- 
minster 'did present as a publick Nuisance and Incon- 
venience, the yearly riotous and tumultuous Assembly in a 
place called Brook Fields in the Parish of St. Martins in t/ie 
FieldSy in this County, called May Fair.* * 

This was the beginning of its end, and 1708 saw the last 
of the fair. 'Saturday 30 April 1709. Yesterday was pub- 
lished a proclamation by her Majestic, prohibiting the erecting 
or making use of any booths or stalls in Mayfair, for any 
plays, shows, gaming, musick meetings, or other disorderly 
assemblies.'^ That this had been expected is shown by Steele, 
writing on April 18, 1 709. 'Advices from the upper end of 
Piccadilly say, that May Fair is utterly abolished.** 

The Tatler (No. 21) makes merry over its downfall, and 
says, ' if any lady or gentleman have occasion for a tame 
elephant, let them enquire of Mr. Pinkethman, who has one to 
dispose of at a reasonable rate. The downfall of May-fair 

' Postnimt, May 14/16, 1 702. * Stcntfs Survij^ ed. 1720. 

» Luttrell. * Tatler, No. 4. 

266 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

has quite sunk the price of this noble Creature, as well as of 
many other Curiosities of Nature. A tiger will sell almost 
as cheap as an ox ; and I am Credibly informed, a man may 
purchase a cat with three legs, for very near the value of one 
with four. I hear likewise that there is a great desolation 
among the gentlemen and ladies who were the ornaments of 
the town, and used to shine in plumes and diadems ; the 
heroes being most of them pressed, and the queens beating 

There was also a fair at Southwark, but of this very little 
mention is made in the newspapers or handbills. It was an 
old one, dating from 1492, and was founded by a Charter 
granted by Edward IV., to hold a fair * for three days, that is 
to say, the 7th, 8th, 9th days of September to be holden, 
together with a Court of Pie Powders, and with all the 
liberties to such Fairs appertaining.* It used to be opened 
with some degree of state by the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs, 
and was generally called * Our Lady*s Fair.' 

The indefatigable public caterer, Pinkethman, was there, 
in 1704, with * the same Company that was at Bartholomew 
Fair over against the Hospital Gate, particularly the two 
famous French Maidens, and the Indian Woman ; and also 
Italian Interludes of Scaramouch and Harlequin, by those 
two Great Masters of their kind Mr. Sorine and Mr. Baxter ; 
and likewise extraordinary Performances on the Manag'd 
Horse by the famous Mr. Evans and Mr. Baxter, who both 
perform several new things in their Way. And also Mr. 
Evans walks on the Slack Rope, and throws himself a 
Somerset through a Hogshead hanging eight Foot high, with 
several other Entertainments too tedious to insert here.' 

In 1705 *the two famous French Maidens the Lady 
Isabella and her Sister,' again attended the fair, accobipanied 
by * the Famous Mr. Luly, who walks on the Slack Rope 
without a Pole, and stands upon one Legg distinctly playing 
a tune on the violin ; and likewise turns himself round on the 
Rope with as much freedom as if on the Ground.' 

An old friend was also there, * The Whole Story of the 
Creation of the World, or Paradise lost,' but seemingly its 
sole attraction was not sufficient, for it was accompanied by 


' The Ball of Little Dogs come from Lovain^ which performs, 
by their cunning tricks, Wonders in the World by Dancing. 
You shall see one of them named Marquis of Gaillardin^ 
whose Dexterity is not to be compared ; he dances with 
Mrs. Poiicette his Mistress, and the rest of their Company at 
the sound of Instruments ; observes so well the Cadance, 
that they amaze every Body. They have danced in most of 
the Courts of Europe, especially before the Queen and most 
of the Quality of England, They are carried to Persons of 
Qualities Houses if required. They stay but a little while in 
this Place. They give a General Satisfaction to all People 
that see them.' 

Here also was to be seen the English Sampson, William 
Joyce, described by Ward as * the Southwark Sampsofi, who 
breaks Carmens Ribs with a Hug, snaps Cables like Twine 
Thread, and throws Dray Horses upon their backs, with as 
much Ease as a Westphalia Hog can crack a Cocoa Nut* 
When he exhibited before William HI., he lifted i ton and 
14^ lbs. of lead, tied a very strong rope round him to which 
was attached a strong horse, which, although whipped, failed 
to move him : this rope he afterwards snapped like pack thread. 
* We are credibly informed that the said Mr. Joyce pull'd up 
a Tree of near a Yard and a half Circumference by the Roots 
at Hamstead on Tuseday last in the open View of some 
Hundreds of People, it being modestly computed to Weigh 
near 2000 weight* 

268 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 



The Lincolnshire ox — The large hog — The whale — Monkeys and 
wjld beasts — * The Lest Man and Hors in the World * — Performing 
horse — Dwarfs and g^iants — Human curiosities — Helen and Judith 
— Conjurors — Posture masters — Mr. Clinch — Waxwork — Mrs. Sal- 
mon, etc. — Westminster Abbey wax- figures — PowelPs puppets — 
Mo\nng pictures — Glass-blowing — Miraculous fountain — Winstanley 
— His waterworks — The four Indian chiefs. 

But it must not be imagined that these fairs monopolised all 
the rarities and natural curiosities. On the contrary, there 
were plenty on exhibition elsewhere, as we shall see. * This is 
to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, that the 
Great Ox that hath been so long talk'd of, and that hath 
been in the News so often, is now come to London^ and is to 
be seen any Hour of the Day, at the White Horse Inn in 
Fleet Streety at the same place where the great Elep/tant xczs 
seen. This Large and Famous Beast, otherwise called the 
True Lincolnshier Ox, is Nineteen Hands High, and Four 
Yards Long, from his Face to his Rump, and never was 
Calv'd nor never Suckt, and two Years ago was no bigger 
than another Ox, but since is grown to this Prodigious Big- 
ness. This Noble Beast was lately shown at the University 
of Cambridge^ with great Satisfaction to all that saw him. 
The like l^cast for l^igncss was never seen in the World 
before. Vivat Reginai* (j/V). Other dimensions are given 
when it was exhibited at May Fair. * His shin being 36 inches 
round, and an Ell broad from Huckle Bone to Huckle Bone 
across the l^ack.* The following looks suspiciously like a 
newspaper puff: 'Yesterday the 17th Instant, was proflcr^d 
for the Great Lincolnshire Ox, 350 Guineas.'* 

• I\ii!y Courani^ Nov. 28, 1 703. 


Then there was a * Large Buckmghatnshire Hog, above 
10 Foot long; 13 Hands high; above 7 foot and a half 
round the Body ; almost $ Foot round the Neck, and 18 inches 
round the fore Leg, above the Joynt.' And * At the White 
Horse in Fleet Street * could be seen the * Wonderful Wor- 
cestershire Mare 19 Hands high, curiously shaped, every way 

These were native productions, and, although abnormal, 
could not compete with rarities from foreign lands — especially 
with the whale, vide Daily Courant^ September 15, 1712 : 
* There being last Week a Royal Parmacitty Whale taken in 
the Thames, which is the noblest Fish ever seen in England, 
the same will for the curiosity of Gentlemen, &c., be exposed 
to view in a Barge near the Faulcon over against Black Fryers 
at 2d, a piece.* It got rather odoriferous by keeping, so we . 
read in the Daily Courant of September 22, that * the Royal 
Whale, supposed to be the Spermacete so much admired, 
will be exposed to Sale by Auction to-morrow at 4 o'clock.* 
Its purchaser is unknown, but we hear of it again : * We 
called at the Isle of Dogs to see the Skeleton of a whale, 
forty-eight yards long, and thirty-five round.* 

Of course there was no Zoological Society at that time, 
and the only way of seeing foreign animals was by small 
private collections, which, for want of capital, never contained 
any very rare specimens. Still, it was something even to get 
this, and we must not forget that our own Zoological collec- 
tion is the work of the present century, and is an example 
followed by scarcely any other town in England; where still, 
as in the villages, people are dependent upon the travelling 
menageries for any practical knowledge they may possess of 
the natural history of any land other than their own. In 
London a permanent collection of wild beasts, or at all events 
lions and tigers, had existed at the Tower, where once was a 
white bear, which used, duly fastened by a cord, to fish in the 
Thames ; and we have seen that these animals were one of 
the principal sights of the city. 

* At the White Horse Inn in Fleet Street, any time of the 
Day or Evening,' were to be seen * i. A little Black Hair)' 

• Diar)- of Ralph Thorcsby, July 14 j 1 7 14. 

27© SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Pigmey, bred in the Desarts of Arabia, a Natural Ruff of 
Hair about his Face, two Foot high, walks upright, drinks 
a Glass of Ale or Wine, and does several other thii^ to 
admiration. 2. A Hyenna. 3. A Murine dear, one of the 
seven Sleepers. 4. The Remark from the East IndiesL 
5. The Noble Histlx from the West Indies. 6. The little 
Whifler, admired for his extraordinary Scent 7. The Mock 
call, the Bird of Paradise.' 

' To all Gentlemen and others that are lovers of Rarieties. 
Are to be seen divers sorts of Outlandish Beasts lately 
brought over, which, altho by Nature feircc and Savage, are 
here to be seen very gentle and tame, giving great Satisfac- 
tion to all the beholders. As first A Leopard, a beast of 
excellent beauty, presented to an English Merchant in Tur- 
key by the king of the Arabs, as a particular mark of favour 
for eminent Services performed, who for the Maintenance of 
it in its voyage from Aleppo, gave One hundred and nin^y 


of the best and fattest fowls. Likewise two Dromedaries 
Male and Female, the Male being the largest that ever was 
in England, being seven foot high, and ten foot in length ; 
his common burden is twelve hundredweight, with which he 
travels 40 miles a day ; there is also to be seen a Civet Cat 
giveing a pleasant smell throughout the Room. Likewise a 
Wolf and other wild beasts are there to be seen at any time 
of the day (all being alive).* 

A dromedary seems to have been considered a great 
curiosity, and the following advertisement gives a wonderful 
description of it. *By Her Majesties Authority. Betwixt 
the Queen's Head and Crooked Billet near Fleet Bridge. This 
is to give notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and others, that 
there is here to be seen, two strange wonderful and re- 
markable monstrous Creatures, an old She Dromodary^ being 
seven foot high, and ten foot long, lately arrived from Tartary^ 
and her young One, being the greatest Rarity and Novelty 
that ever was seen in the three Kingdoms before. These Crea- 
tures is much admired above all other Creatures in their way 
of bringing forth their young, for they go fourteen Months 
with young ; these Creatures resembles several sorts of 
Creatures, and yet but one at the last ; they are headed like 
a Horse, ey'd like an Ox, nos*d like a Deer, cloven Lipt like 
a Hare, also neck'd like a Swan, and Tailed like a Mule, and 
cloven footed like a Cow, also the young Creature shewing 
several Actions by the word of Command. Note also that 
natural Dromodarys (as these be) are the swiftest Creatures 
upon Earth : These Creatures are to be seen at any hour 
of the day from eight in the Morning till nine at night 
Vivat Regina.* 

' By Her Majesty's Authority. Is to be seen, the Hand 
of a Sea Monster which was lately taken on the Coasts of 
Denmark ; the whole Creature was very large, and weighed 
(according to Computation) at least fifty Tuns, and was 
seventy foot in length : His upper part resembled a Man ; 
from the middle downwards he was a Fish, &c. Likewise 
there is a Man Tegcr, lately brought from the East Indies, a 
most strange and wonderful Creature, the like never seen 
before in England, it being of Seven several Colours, from 

272 SOCIAL LIFE in tlie reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

the Head downwards resembling a Man, its fore parts clear, 
and his hinder parts all Hairy ; having a long Head of Hair, 
and Teeth 2 or 3 Inches long ; taking a Glass of Ale in his 
hand like a Christian, Drinks it, also plays at Quarter Staff 
There is also a famous Porcupine, a Martin Drill, a Pecari 
from the Deserts of Arabia, the Bone of a Giant above a 
Yard long, with several other Monstrous Creatures too diffi- 
cult to describe, all alive. This is to give notice that the 
Man Teger is removed from Holborn Bars to the sign of 
the George against the steps of Upper More Fields. Vivat 

*This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and 
Others, that are Lovers of Ra-arities, that over against the 
Muse Gate, near CJiairing Cross, is to be seen the same 
Creature that was shown at Epsom and the Bath all this 
Summer. This Noble Creature, which much resembles a 
Wild Hairy Man, was lately taken in a Wood at Bengali in 
the East Indies, he Dances upon the strait Rope with a Pole 
in his hands, he cuts Capers upon the Rope, and Dances true 
to the Musick. Likewise this Creature walks the Steep 
Rope with a Pole in his hands. He walks upon a small 
Slack Rope Swinging, at the same time drinks a Glass of 
Ale, and all this is performed on a Rope no bigger than a 
penny Cord ; and swings on it, to the great Admiration of 
all Spectators. He pulls off his Hat, and pays his Respects 
to the Company, and smoaks a Pipe of Tobacco as well as 
any Christian. This Noble Creature flings a Strapader^ and 
hangs by his Hands and his Feet, and performs such Won- 
derful Things, that ne'er was done by any Rope Dancer 
whatever.' This was the rope-dancer spoken of by Addison : 

* He is by birth a Monkey ; but swings upon a Rope, takes a 
pipe of Tobacco, and drinks a glass of Ale, like any reason- 
able Creature.' ^ 

Occasionally, but very rarely, the nobler beasts were shown. 

* At the Duke of Marlborough's Head in Fleet Street, is to 
be seen these Rarities following, i. The noble and majes- 
tick Lion, latcl)' brought from Barbar>', which for its most 
.surprizing Largeness, and its being so wonderful tame, far 

* S/'i\-:,i/or, N.J. 28. 


exceeds any that ever was seen in the world. 2. A young 
Lion lately brought over from Algier, so wonderful tame 
that any Person may handle him as well as his keeper. 3. 
The noble Panther lately brought from Egypt, one of the 
beautifullest Creatures in the World for variety of Spots of 
divers Colours ; a Creature much admired by all the Gentle- 
men, and Ladies that ever saw him. 4. The Noble Pelican 
or Vulture, lately arrived from America 3 foot high, 9 over. 
' The Head like a Griffin, Neck like a Swan ; the like never 
seen in this kingdom before.' 


A rhinoceros could only be seen stuffed, and with its- 

In the latter part of i/ii there was a show of 'the 
Lest Man and Hors in the World,' which Addison has 
immortalised in the Spectator (No. 271), saying that the man, 
his wife, and horse ' are so very light, that when they are put 
together into a Scale, an ordinary Man may weigh down the 
whole Family,' These were combined with some wild 
animals, which evidently would not pay to exhibit by them- 

' By Her Majesty's Permission. This is to give Notice tO' 
VOL. I. T 

274 SOCIAL UFE in ike reign of QUEEN AX^:E. 

all Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, that JUST over against 
the Mews Gate at Oiaring Cross, is to be seen a Collection 
of strange and wonderful Creatures from most Parts of the 
World, all alive. 

* The First being a little Black Man, being biit 3 Foot 
high, and 32 Years of Age, strait and proportionable every 
way, who is distinguished by the Name of the Black Prince, 
and has been shown before most Kings and Princes in 
Christendom, The next being his Wife, the Little Wotman^ 
Not 3 Foot high, and 30 Years of Age, strait and proportion- 
able as any Woman in the Land, which is commonly call'd 
the Fairy Queen, she gives a General satisfaction to all that 
sees her, by Diverting them with Dancing, being big with 
Child. Likewise their little Turkey Horse, being but 2 Foot 
odd Inches High, and above 12 Years of Age, that shews 
several diverting and surprising Actions, at the Word of 
Command. The least Man, Woman and Horse that e%-er 
was seen in the World Alive Tlu Horse being kept in a Box. 
The next being a strange Monstrous Female Creature, that 
was taken in the Wood in the Desarts of iETlOPlA in Prcstor 
John's Country, in the remotest parts of Affrica, being 
brought over from Cape de Bon Esperance alias Cape of Good 
Hope\ from hir Head downwards she resembles Humane 
Nature, having Breasts, Belly, Navel, Nipples, Legs, and Arms 
like a Woman, with a long Monstrous Head, no such Creature 
was ever seen in this part of the World before, she showing 
many strange and wonderful Actions which gives great satis- 
faction to all that ever did see her. The next is the Noble 
/'iir^rK which is very much admir'd by the Learned. The next 
being the Noble Jack-call, the Lion's provider, which hunts 
in the Forest for the Lion's Prey. Likewise a sitiall Egyptian 
PantJur, spotted like a Leopard, The next being a strange 
monstrous Creature, brought from the Coast of Brazil, having 
a Head like a Child, Legs and Arms very wonderful, with a 
long Tail like a Serpent, wherewith he feeds himself, as an 
Elephant doth with his Trunk. With several other Rarities 
too tedious to mention in this Bill.* 

Before quitting the natural history shows u-e must 


* The finest Taught Horse in the World. 
These are to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and 
Others, that are Lovers of Sport and Ingenuity, that at the 
S/iip on Great Tower Hill will be shewn a Dancing Horse, 
which performs a great many Dexterous Actions at the Word 
of Command, Viz., He fetches and carries like a Spaniel 
Dog, if you hide a Glove Handkerchief, Door Key, Pewter 
Bason, or so small a thing as a Silver Two Pence, he will seek 
about the Room till he finds it and brings it to his Master. 

*Turn him loose in the Room without either Bridle or 
Halter on his Head, altho* there were a hundred People in 
the Room, some paying as they come in, and some not 
paying, yet let them sit and be mixed one amongst another, 
he will find them out that have not payd from the rest. 

* Borrowing several pieces of Money of Persons in the 
Room, Blind fold this Horse whilst the Money is in Borrow- 
ing, yet giving him the Money, he will take it in his Mouth one 
piece after another and will give it where 'twas Borrowed, 
and will give account what Pieces they are when he delivers 
them. He tells all Numbers and findeth any one Person from 
another ; he plays at Cards, at Putt, a thing much to be 
admired, he plays with as much readiness as any one that 
plays with him. Tell him that there is an Express Warrant 
come to press him, and that he must leave his Master to go 
and serve the French King, unless he can find some way to 
deceive the Press Masters, he presently falleth so Lame, that 
he can hardly set one Foot before another, but telling him if 
he is Alive he must go, he throweth himself on the Ground, 
and with his Legs stretched out stiff, and his Tongue lying 
out of his Mouth, as if he were Dead ; but telling him that 
he must rise and Serve Queen Ayine, he riseth up and is 
Extraordinary Brisk and Cheerful ; he turns his Body round 
on one Foot, and will Leap through Hoops, and performs 
Sixty Actions at Command without Bridle on his Head ; the 
like never seen by no dumb Creature in the World. Vivat 

Dwarfs always have been shown about, and the following 
advertisement is probably that of one of the rivals to that 
spiteful ' little Farey Woman ' already noticed. 


276 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

* At the Brandy Shop over against the Eagel and Chili 
in Stocks Market, is to be seen any hour of the Day, from 8 
in the Morning till 9 at Night, a little GertPtan Woman, the 
Dwarf of the World, being but 2 Foot 8 Inches in Height, 
and the Mother of 2 Children, as straight as any Woman in 
England ; she sings and dances incomperable well, she has 
had the honour to be shown before Kings and Princes, and 
most of the Nobility of the Land, she is carried in a little 
Box to any Gentleman's House, if desir'd.* 

*In Bridges Street in Covent Garden, over against the 
Rose Tavern, is to be seen a Living FAIRY, suppos'd to be a 
Hundred and Fifty Years Old ; his Face being no bigger 
than a Child's of a Month : was found Sixty Years ago ; 
Look'd as Old then as He does now. His Head being a 
great piece of Curiosity, having no Scull, with several Im- 
perfections worthy your Observation.* 

* There were giants in the earth in those days,' and at the 
' Hercules's Pillars at Charing Cross * might be seen a German 
giant, seven and a half feet high, and an Italian giantess 
'above Seven foot high, and every way proportionable 
weighing 425 Pounds Weight.* This seems to have been 
the normal height of giants, for the Saxon giant ' who was 
* but Twenty Five Years of Age, he is Seven Foot and Fi\-c 
Inches in height, and every way Proportionable.' He was 
shown to the Queen and Prince George at Windsor; but, 
previously, * he had the Honour to be presented with a piece 
of Armour proportionable to his Bigness, by the King of the 

Germany, however, was not to have the monopoly of sup- 
plying us with giants — that, our patriotism could not stand- 
so a real live British giant was produced, warranted genuine. 
The only fault about him is that he docs not state his hei^t, 
so that we have no means of comparing him with the foreign 

'This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladys and 
Others, that there is now to be seen in this Place, a Tall 

> 'This is to satisfic all People thai have been infomi'd that the Ilirii 

Tall Man, haii kiird a Man, and u-as to be hang'd ; that it is all fiUse, and hax 
been given out by other Show KeciK-rs, on purpose to take away his Citdit and 
Good Nanu:.*— The Post Boy, April 12, 14, 1709. 


Britain, Born on a Mountain near Llanriost ; from the A^ 
of 16 Years he has Travelled abroad, and has been shown 
before all the Foreign Kings and Princes in Christendom ; 
and is now lately come into England, and had the Honour 
to have been shown before Her Present Majesty ai Great 
Brittain and her Royal Consort the Prince to t/ie great Satis- 
faction of all Spectators that have seen him, he being the 
TalUst Man that ever was show'd in this Kingdom.' 

' There is lately brought to this Place from America a 
Savage ; being a Cannibal Indian or Man Eater who was 
taken in a Skirmish near South Carolina, between the Natives 
of that Place and some of the Wild Savage Men. Likewise 
an Indian Woman, a Princess of that Country." 

Divers freaks of humanity were shown, but it requires 


some credulity to take in the following : ' At the Herculus 
Pillars at C/uirring Cross, is to be seen a Girl that was found 
on a Mountain, in the west oi England; When an Eminent 
Gentlewoman observing her to be without Fingers or Toes ; 
and without Speech, in regard to her Distress, ordered her to 
be brought to her Habitation ; this Gentlewoman for many 
Years, was troubled with Convulsions of a severe kind, was 
perfectly Cured in a very short time, by the Girls Streaking. 
This Girl hath like Success in Pains that arise from the 
Spleen, Sores, and Swellings, and many other Distempers, 

278 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANME. 

and what is very Remarkable also in her ; She never spoke 
one Word in Four Years, and then by a Prophetick Spirit, 
said, the Gentlewoman that preserved her, would Die by Two 
a Clock which happened accordingly. The Girl is Ingenious, 
and can Work at her Needle; and perform several other 
things worth Observation ; Price for seeing her Six Pence a 
Piece. She Toucheth Gratis.' 

* This young Man was Bom in Hungary^ and is about i8 
years of Age, a Foot and a Half High : In the places where 
the Thighs, or Legs should be ; hath Two Breasts in all 
points like a Woman's on which He Walks. The Natural 
parts are of the Male kind ; Climes, or gets from the Ground 
upon a Table, and sits on a Comer of it, but 3 Quarters of 
an Inch broad, and shews more Artful Tricks, to the General 
Diversion, Satisfaction, and Admiration of all Spectators, and 
speaks several Languages. Vivat Regina.' 

The following, although a curious, could hardly have been 
a pleasing, exhibition. * The Bold Grimace Spaniard. At 
the Ram's Head Inn in Fanchiirch Street^ is to be seen a 
Bold Grimace Spaniard^ lately brought over, by Daxnd Com- 
we//, in the Bi/boa Merchant : He liv'd 1 5 Years among wild 
Creatures in the Mountains, and is reasonably suppos'd to 
have been taken out of his Cradle, an Infant, by some Sa\-age 
Beast, and wonderfully prescrv'd, 'till some Comedians ac- 
cidently pass'd thro' those Parts, and perceiving him to be of 
human Race, pursu'd him to his Cave, where they caught 
him in a Net They found something wonderful in his 
Nature, and took him with 'em in their Travels thro' Spain 
and Ita/y, He performs the following surprising Grimaces, 
viz. He lolls out his Tongue a Foot long, turns his Eyes in 
and out at the same time ; contracts his Face as small as an 
Apple ; extends his Mouth six Inches, and turns it into the 
Shape of a Bird's Beak, and his Eyes like to an Owl's ; turns 
his Mouth into the Form of a Hat cock'd up three wa^^s ; 
and also frames it in the manner of a four square Buckle ; 
licks his Nose with his Tongue, like a Cow ; rolls one Ej^c 
Brow two Inches up, the other two down ; changes his face 
to such an astonishing Degree, as to appear like a Corpse 
long buried ; Altho bred wild so long, yet by travelling with 


the "aforesaid Comedians 18 years, he can sing wonderfully 
fine, and accompanies his yoice with a thorow Bass on the 
Lute. His former natural Estrangement from human Con- 
versation obliged Mr. Comwell to bring a Jackanapes over 
with him for his Companion, in whom he takes great Delight 
and Satisfaction.' 

Queen Anne's time could also match our age with * Two 
Headed Nightingales,' * Siamese Twins,' or *Pygopagi.' *At 
Mr. John Pratt's, at the Angel in Comhil ... are to be seen 
two Girls, who are one of the greatest Wonders in Nature 
that ever was seen, being Born with their Backs fasten'd to 
each other, and the Passages of their Bodies are both one 
way. These Children are very Handsome and Lusty, and 
Talk three different Languages ; they are going into the 
7th year of their Age. Those who see them, may very well 
say, they have seen a Miracle, which may pass for the 8th 
Wonder of the World.' These were Helen and Judith, who 
were born at Tzoni, in Hungary, October 26, 1701 ; lived to 
the age of twenty-one, and died in a convent at Petersburg 
February 23, 1723. They were well shaped, very good look- 
ing, and very fond of each other. They spoke Hungarian, 
high and low Dutch, French, and English. 

There was also exhibited * A young fresh country Lad 
just arriv'd from Suffolk ; who is covered all over his Body, 
except the Face, Palms of the Hands, and Soles of his Feet, 
with Bristles like a Hedgehog, as hard as Horn, which shoots 
off yearly.' 

* There is lately arrived a Person that was bom without 
either Arms or Hands, and he does such miraculous things 
with his Feet, that the like never was known in the World. 
.... He writes very fine with his Mouthy right and left Foot 
without discerning, which is the best, and in five sorts of 
Languages, and makes his own Pens with a Pen Knive ; he 
walks upon his two great Toes, and stands upon one Toe ; 
he lays his Foot in his Neck, and hops upon the other, he 
stands upon the top of a little Stool, and reaches a Glass 
with his Mouth from under it ; he threads a very fine and 
small Needle, and sows very prettily ; and all Actions what- 
soever is done by Hands, he does with his Feet : he Combs 

ato SOCIAL LIFE in t/u reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

or dresses a Perriwig very well, shaves himself, dresses and 
undresses himself &c, and all with his feet, &c.' 

There were conjurors, especially ' the incomparable Ger- 
man. ... He makes pass through his Cups 60 Balls, with- 
out touching them, and they are tum'd into little live Birds, 
which whistle upon the Table, He takes a parcel of Cards, 
and throws them about the Room, and they are tum'd into 
little live Birds.' He was only equalled by ' An admirable 
Piece of Ingenuity in Hanging Sword Court, the Middle of 
Fleet Street,' where twice a day. 'several Persons may 
be Entertained at Tables with 
various Dishes; and different 
kinds of Liquors, arising from 
Fountains on the Table to the 
drinking Glasses of the Enter- 
tained ; of the which, when 
they are satisfied, a Serpent 
arising from a Box on the 
Middle of the Table, flyeth 
away with the Table and what's 
thereon remsuning ; and that 
very moment another Table of 
the same Dimensions, and fur- 
nished with another service, is 
in place where the former Table 
stood, without any visible 

Posture masters, as the acrobats were then called, abounded, 
and one of the chief among them was Higgins, successor to 
the famous Clark, who could dislocate and deform himself at 
pleasure. But he must have found a worthy imitator in ' The 
young Posture Master from Exeter, who performs those Pos- 
tures of Body, that none never yet did ; he extends his Body 
into all deform'd Shapes of Stature ; he makes his Hip and 
Shoulder Bones meet together ; he stands upon one Leg and 
extends the other in a direct Line half a Yard above his 
Head ; he drinks her Majesty's Health on his Head ; he lays 
his Head on the Ground, and turns his Body round twenty 
Times, without stirring his Face from the Place ; he sucks all 


his Bowels into his Breast, making a pack Saddle -on his Back, 
that he will bear the lustiest Man that will be pleas'd to sit 
upon his Rump ; he will sit in a Posture as if his Body was 
split, and so divides his Legs that his Toes are separated 
Six Foot ten Inches from Toe to Toe ; he stands on a Table 
and turns his Head backwards below his Heels ; he likewise 
dances any Dance upon his Knees with his Toes in his Hands, 
and dances true to the Musick.' But even all these accom- 
plishments do not seem to have been sufficiently attractive of 
themselves, for with him was * a Child of five Years of Age, 
who does the Activity of Tumbling to the greatest Per- 
fection. After which, Mr. Cornwall takes an empty Bag, 
and turns it twenty times, and stamps on it, if required, and 
then commands several Eggs out of it, and at last the live 

Children then, as now, had to go through acrobatic per- 
formances. There was * a Boy that walks upon a Slack Rope 
no thicker than a Penny Cord, and a little Girl that vaults on 
the high Rope ; ' but, even in our time, we should hardly like 
to see * a little Child about two Years and a half old, perform 
such wonderful things on the Stiff Rope, as is surprising to 
all that behold him.' We hear more of this poor little thing. 
* Whereas it has been industriously and falsly reported that 
the little Child that is under 3 years old, that danced on the 
Rope and tumbled, is dead ; Mr. Francis thought it proper 
to certify all People, that the Child is living and well ; and 
he challenges all Europe to produce a Child of his Age to 
perform what he does, both for Dancing and Tumbling. Like- 
wise the little Girl about 7 Years old, that danced the Rope, 
vaulted the Slack Rope, and tumbled to the Admiration of 
all who saw her.' 

There was a curious entertainment that lasted nearly the 
whole of Anne's reign ; of which the first notice I can find is 
in the Daily Cotirant, November 27, 1704. By degrees Clench 
enlarged his rdpertoire until he did all described in the 
accompanying handbill. * These are to give Notice to all 
Gentlemen, Ladies and Others^ that Mr. Clench oi Bamet who 
imitates the Hom^ Huntsman and Pack of Hounds, the Sham 
Doctor, Old Wofuan, Drunken Man, the Bells, Flute, Double 

282 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

Curtell^ the Organ with three Voices^ by his own Natural 
Voice, to the greatest Perfection ; (being the only man that 
ever could Attain to so great an Art,) will perform/ etc 
Clinch is mentioned in the Tatler (No. 51): *A good com- 
pany of us were this day to see, or rather to hear, an artful 
person do several feats of activity with his throat and wind- 
pipe. The first thing wherewith he presented us, was a ring 
of bells, which he imitated in a most miraculous manner ; 
after that, he gave us all the different notes of a pack of 
hounds, to our great delight and astonishment' Thoresby 
went to see him, and reports : * * Evening to hear the memor- 
able Mr. Clench, whose single voice, as he has learned to 
manage it, can admirably represent a number of persons, at 
sport and in hunting, and the very dogs and other animals, 
but none better than a quire of Choristers chanting an 
anthem, &c.' 

Waxwork figures have always been a popular exhibition, 
and then was living a Mrs. Salmon, whose fame was as great 
as Madame Tussaud's. Her handbills were curiosities in 
their way, but they are so long that one only can be tran- 
scribed. * The Royal Off Spring : Or, the Maid's Tragedy 
Represented in Wax Work, with many Moving Figures and 
these Histories Following. King Charles the First upon the 
Fatal Scaffold, attended by Dr. Juxon the Bishop of London^ 
and the Lieutenant of the Tower, with the Executioner and 
Guards waiting upon our Royal Martyr. The Royal Seraglio, 
or the Life and Death of Malioviet the Third, with the Death 
of IrenicB Princess of Persia, and the fair Sultaness Urania, 
The Overthrow of Queen Voaditia, and the Tragical Death 
of her two Princely Daughters. The Palace of Flora or the 
Roman Superstition. The Rites of Moloch, or the Unhumane 
Cruelty, with the manner of the Canaanitish Ladies, Offering 
up their First-bom Infants, in Sacrifice to that ugly Idol, in 
whose Belly was a burning Furnace, to destroy those Unhappy 
Children. Margaret Countess of Heningbergh, Lying on a 
Bed of State, with her Three hundred and Sixty Five Children, 
all bom at one Birth, and Baptized by the Names of Jolms 
and Elizabeths, occasioned by the rash Wish of a poor beggar 

' Sort of bassoon. ' Diary ^ Jan. 14, 1 709. 


Woman. Herinonia a Roman Lady, whose Father offended 
the Emperor, was sentenced to be starved to Death, but was 
preserved by Sucking his Daughter's Breast. Old Mother 
Shipton that Famous English Prophetess, which fortold the 
Death of the White King ; All richly dress'd and composed 
with so much variety of Invention, that it is wonderfully 
Diverting to all Lovers of Art and Ingenuity. All made by 
Mrs. Salmon y and to be seen near the Horn Tavern in Fleet 
Street. Vivat Reginae {sic).' 

Of the miraculous accouchement of Margaret, Countess 
of Heningberg, Thoresby says ^ : * After, walked to Gray's 
Inn to Mr. Smith, who most courteously entertained me, and 
gave me some inscriptions he had taken for me in his travels, 
particularly that for the memorable Countess who had 365 
children at a birth ; he saw the two basins they were bap- 
tized in.' 

Nor was this the only exhibition of the kind ; there 
was yet another similar show. * The Effigies of his late 
Majesty King William III. of Glorious Memory, is Curiously 
done in Wax to the Life, Richly Drest in Coronation 
Robes, standing by the Effigies of his late Royal Consort, 
Queen Mary in the like Dress ; likewise the late Duke of 
Gloucester in his Garter Robes. Together with the Effigies 
of several Persons of Quality and Others, all which are Alive, 
or have been so of late Years, whereby the Spectators may 
Judge of Likeness. They are to be seen every Day at Mr. 
Goldsmith's in Green Court in the Old Jury.' ' This is the 
same artist who is spoken of in a newspaper paragraph. * On 
Wednesday last Mrs. Goldsmith^ the famous Woman for Wax- 
work, brought to Westminster Abbey the Effigies of that cele- 
brated Beauty the late Duchess of Richmond, which is said 
to be the richest Figure that ever was set up in King Henry's 
Chapel.' 3 

* To be seen in Exeter Change in the Strand, as well in 
Christmas and other Holidays, as at all other times, tho* the 
Change be shut, only then you must go in at that end towards 
Chariyig Cross. 

» Diary, July 14, 1712. ^ The English Post, March 23/25, 1702. 

• Daily Courant, Aug. 6,1703. 


284 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

(u finished 

S and to be Sr 

^ seen. The present g 

Court of England ^ 

flj OB 

o "* in Wax, after (and as 

g^ big as) the Life, in the g* 

6 Inner Walk of Exeter Cftange ^ 

(-1 in the Strand, much exceeding that gi 

which was at the New Excfiange tho* ^ 
c both made by the most deservedly famous 

Mrs. Mills^ whom in that Art, all ingenuous *» 

qT Persons own, had never yet an Equal : The names ^ 

§ of the chief Persons, are, The QUEEN, his Royal ' - O 
2" Highness Prince George^ the Princess Sopliia^ his Grace g 
§*The Duke of Marlborough, the Countess of Mancluster^ 8. 
^ the Countess oiKingstone, the Countess oiMusgrave &c § 
^-. As likewise the Effigies o{ Mark Anthony, naturally 

c acting that which rendered him remarkable to the ^ 

a. World ; Cleopatra his Queen, one of her g 

.S Egyptian Ladies, Oliver Cromwell in ^ 

Armour, the Count Tallard: with ma- 

^ ny others too tedious here to men- S 

^ tion. To be seen from 9 in the 3" 

.^ Mom, till 9 at Night You °* 

P-i may go in at any of the 5 

^ Doors in the C7^;((fi?, ^ 

H and pass thro' the iO 

Hatter's Shop in $ 

J the Outward » 
^ Walk. 

Persons may have their Effigies made, or their deceased Friends 

on reasonable Terms.* 


The Westminster waxvVork figures were then in a sadly 
dilapidated condition. Brown says^: *As soon as we as- 
cended half a Score Stone Steps in a dirty Cobweb hole, and 

in old Worm eaten Presses, whose Doors flew open on our 

* A Walk routid Lotidott and WestminsUr* 



approach ; here stood Edward the Third, as they told us, 
which was a broken piece of Waxwork, a batter'd Head, and 
d Straw stuff'd Body, not one quarter cover'd with Rags ; his 
beautiful Queen stood by, not better in Repair ; and so to the 
number of half a score Kings and Queens, not near so good 
figures as the King of the Beggars make, jind all the begging 
Crew would be ashamed of their Company. Their Rear was 
brought up with good Queen Bess, with the Remnants of an 
old dirty Ruff, and nothing to cover her Majesty's Naked- 

One of the most popular exhibitions was the puppet 
shows kept by Robert Powell, a dwarf- 
ish deformity. ' This is Mr. Powell— 
That's he — the little Crooked Gentle- 
man, that holds a Staff in his Hand, 
\¥ilhout which he must fall.' ' His 
' Punch's Theatre ' was in the little 
Piazza, Covent Garden — and Steele 
makes the under sexton of St. Paul's' 
Church grumble at his entertainment, * 
because it took people away from him, 
Defoe says ; ' Mr. Powell by Subscrip- 
tions and full Houses, has gathered 
such Wealth as is ten times sufficient 
to buy all the Poets in England ; that ^^_^ 
he seldom goes out without his Chair, VJ -^ 

and thrives on this incredible Folly portrait of powell. 
to that degree, that, were he a Freeman, he might hope 
that some future Puppet Show might celebrate his being 
Lord Mayor, as he has done SirR. Whittington.'* Both in 
the Tatkr and Spectator he is frequently referred to, especi- 
ally in the former. In the season he took himself and his 
puppets to liath. so that he always kept them employed. 

His performances were very varied, one being 'The 
History of King HIadud, Founder of the Bath. The Figures 
being drcst after the manner of the Ancient Britains. With 
the Walks, Groves, and Representation of the King's Bath 

286 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

and new Pump house. The Figures of Ladies and Gentle- 
men all moving in real Water.' He caught the passing folly 
as it flew, and depicted it as in * The City Rake or Punch 
tum'd -Quaker/ *Poor Robins Dream or the Vices of the Age 
Exposed ; ' or, he had a puppet * of a Rope Dancer, being an 
exact Pattern of the present Lady Isabella.' He was for ever 
bringing out some novelty, even if it was such rubbish as * a 
New Piece of Machinary after the British Manner, contrived 
and just finished by Powell, which represents a Paradice 
wonderful surprising. At -the breaking of the clouds arise 
several Triumphal Arches, which form several most agreeable 
Prospects ; beautify'd by her most Serene Majesty of Great 
Britain in her Royal Robes, attended by her Peers and 
Officers of State ; under their Feet are represented the 
Trophies taken from the French and Bavarians by her 
Majesty's Arms this War.* 

One of the last of Powell's advertisements, in Queen Anne's 
reign, was : * Whereas it has been reported that Punch of the 
Bath and Covent Garden was dead, these are to inform the 
Publick that he was only in a small consumption, but by the 
long experienc'd Cordial of the Golden Elixir is recovered, 
and remov'd for the Air to the Great Masquerading House in 
Spring Garden, where he hopes once more to see his noble 

Pinkethman was far too keen to let Powell have the 
monopoly of this sort of entertainment, so we find a hand- 
bill : * This is to give Notice, that Mr. PenkethmaN, who, 
by his Indefatigable Industry, has ever made it his Study 
to Invent Something New and Excellent to please the 
World, has, with the Greatest Diligence, Labour and Ex- 
pence, set himself to contrive, which he has now, after 
Several Years Application, brought to Perfection, a most 
Surprising and Magnificent Machifu, call'd the PANTHEON, 
consisting of several Curious Pictures, and Moving Figures, 
representing the Fabulous History of the HEATHEN GODS. 

'The Whole contains Fourteen several Entertainments, 
and near a Hundred Figures (besides Ships, Beasts^ Fowl, 
and other Embellishments) some near a Foot in Height ; all 
which have their respective and peculiar Motions, their very 


Heads, Legs, and Arms, Hands and Fingers, Artificially 
moving exactly to what they perform, and setting one Foot 
before another, as they go, like Living Creatures, in such a 
Manner that Nothing but Nature itself can exceed it. In 
short, the Painting is by the Finest Hands, and the Story 
and Contrivance so Admirable, that it justly deserves to be 
esteemed One of the Greatest Wonders of the Age.' This 
show is casually mentioned in Spectator (No. 31). 

Pinkethman was also proprietor of a moving picture, for 
in an advertisement ^ he says : * Mr. Pinkethman In order to 
divert and oblige the Gentry and others of Greenwich, Dept- 
ford, Woolwich, Lee, and other adjacent places thereabouts, 
has removed the most Famous Artificial and Wonderful 
Moving Picture that came from Germany, and was to be 
seen at the Duke of Marlborough's Head in Fleet Street, is 
now to be seen at the Hospital Tavern in Greenwich,' etc. 
Thoresby ^ saw this picture when in London in 1709, and was 
highly delighted with it. He also says : * I had some dis- 
course with the German inventor of it, Mr. Jacobus Morian.' 
The following is its handbill : — 

* To All Gentlemen, Ladies and others 
Notice is hereby given, that here is arrived from Germafiy^ a 
most artificial and Wonderful Original Picture, the like never 
seen in all Europe : Part of this fine Picture .represents a 
Landskip, and the other part the Water on Sea : In the 
Landskip you see a Town, out of the Gates of which cometh 
a Coach Riding over a Bridge through the Country, behind, 
before, and between the Trees till out of sight ; coming on the 
Bridge, a Gentleman sitting on the Coach, civilly salutes the 
Spectating Company, the turning of the Wheels and motion 
of the Horses are plainly seen as if natural and Alive. There 
Cometh also from the Town Gate a Hunter on Horseback, 
with his Doggs behind him, and his Horn at his side, coming 
to the Bridge he taketh up his Horn and Blows it that it is 
distinctly heard by all the Spectators. Another Hunter 
painted as if Sleeping, and by the said Blowing of the Horn 
awaking, riseth up his Head, looks about, and then lays 

» DaUy Courant^ May 9, 1709. • Diar)', Feb. II, 1709, 

288 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

down his Head again to Sleep, to the great Amazement and 
Diversion of the Company. There are also Painted and 
Represented, Country men and Women, Travellers, Cows and 
Pack horses going along the Road till out of sight. And 
at a seeming distance on the Hills are several Windmills con- 
tinually Turning and Working. From a River or Sea port, 
you see several sorts of Ships and Vessels putting to Sea, 
which Ships by degrees lessen to the sight as they seem to 
Sail further off. Many more Varieties too long to be in- 
serted here, are Painted and Represented in this Picture to 
the greatest Admiration, Diversion and Satisfaction of all 
Ingenious Spectators. The Artist Master of this Piece hath 
employed above $ years in contriving, making and per- 
fecting it. It was design *d for a present to a great Prince 
in Germany^ to be put in his chiefest Cabinet of g^reatest 
Rarities, but that Prince Dying, the maker kept it to him- 
self, and now presents it to the View and Diversion of 
all ingenious Persons.' This picture is just noticed in the 
Tatler (No. 129) : *and I doubt not but it will give as good 
content as the moving picture in Fleet Street' 

There was another of these mechanical toys, exhibited at 
the same place. * Far exceeding the Original formerly shewn, 
and never publish'd before the beginning of the present Year 
17 10. Representing several stately ships and vessels sailing 
out of the Port of a City ; a Coach, drawn by four Horses 
going over a bridge into the Town ; a Cart with an Old 
Woman in it, drawn by two Horses, the Wheels moving : A 
Gentleman carry'd in a Chair, saluting the Company, A 
Windmill continually turning round; Swans swimming, 
. . wl^ich dip their Heads in the Water : A Man digging with 
a Pick Ax : All in lively Motion,' etc. And still one more 
appeared in 1713, which was a representation of the sky 
effects of morning, moon, and night, with ships sailing, and 
saluting the forts as they passed. 

At the Duke of Marlborough's Head, too, was to be seen 
* a true and very natural Representation of the most famous 
Antiquities and Stupendious Works commonly called the 
Seven Miracles of the World ; All which cannot but be 
pleasant to the Eyes of all curious Beholders, and perhaps^ 


more agreeable than may by Words be expressed/ but there 
is no record of what this exhibition was like. 

*In Bell Yard, over against the Middle Temple Gate, 
Fleet Street, next door to the Bell Inn, at the Arms of 
Amsterdam, will be shewn for tlrp- satisfaction of all persons 
of Qualit}' and others, most Curious and exact Model of 
the famous City of Amsterdam, being between 20 and 30 
foot long, and near 20 foot broad ; with all the Churches, 
Chappels, Stadt house. Hospitals, noble Buildings, Streets, 
Trees, Walks, Avenues, with the Sea,. Shipping, Sluices, 
Rivers, Canals, &c., most exactly built to admiration ; In 
short, the Situation and Representation of the whole City is 
performed with such Art and Ingenuity, to the wonderful 
satisfaction of the States General of the United Provinces, 
several Foreign Princes, our Nobility, Gentry, Artificers and 
others, that have seen it, that it is allowed to be one of the 
greatest curiosities ever yet seen in England. This great 
piece of Work was 12 years in finishing, and cost a vast sum 
of Money.' 

It is always interesting to watch glass-blowers at work; 

and see them turn out their pretty but fragile toys ; and 

doubtless they yielded as much, or more, delight in Anne's 


* By Her Majesties Authority. 

This is to give Notice to all Gentlemen, Ladies, and Others, 
That there is lately arriv'd in this Place, a Rare and Curious 
Artist, which in the presence of all Spectators maketh all 
Sorts and Fashions of Indian, China, and all Sorts of Curious 
Figures &c. As Jars Teapots, Coffee Dislies^ Bottle and Flower . 
Pots, as small as they please ; being very dexteriously inter- 
mixed with red, blew, and other Colours, as Natural as the. 
Indian painting : As also all sorts of Beasts, Birds, F^owls^ 
Images, Figures of Men, Women, and Children, which he 
bloweth of all Colours in Glass, so curiously, the like was 
never seen in this Kingdom. 

* Besides all this, he sheweth you a most wonderful and 

admirable Glass of Water, wherein are four or five Images, 

which he maketh every one to come up and down as he 

' pleases, without any help or assistance, being very pleasant 

VOL. I. U 

290 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

and delightful to all Spectators ; with several other Rarities 
too tedious to Mention. 

* There is a Wlieel that's tum'd by Humane power, whidi 
Spins Ten Thousand Yards of Glass in less than half an 

* He also maketh Artificial Eyes of Glass to admiration, 
they being so curiously made and coloured, that they cannot 
be discerned from the Natural Eyes ; Likewise he teacheth 
how they may fix them in their Heads themselves, to the 
great Satisfaction of all persons that make use of them, . . , 
Vivat Regina.* 





There was another artist in glass who blew * Swans, Ducks, 
Birds, Knives, Forks, and Scabbards, Decanters, Cruets, 
Bottles and Ladles, with pipes to smoke Tobacco, and Grena- 
docs to stick by the Snuff of a candle that gives a report like 
a Gun ; blows Tea Pots and other fancies imitating China.' 

A singular mechanical toy, too, deserves special men- 
tion : * At the Black Horse in Hosier Lane, near West 
Smithfield is to be seen a large piece of Water Work, 1 2 
Foot long and 9 foot high, with a new Mathematical Foun- 
tain 8 foot high, made in white flint glass, in which is a 
Tavern, a Coffee house and a Brandy shop, which at your 
command runs at one Cock hot and Cold liquor, as Sack, 


Whitcwine, Claret Coffee, Tea, Content, plain, cherry and 
Rasberry Brandy, Geneva, Usquebaugh, and Punch. All 
these liquors of themselves rising much higher than their 
levil, and each liquor drawn singly at one Cock ; The like 
never performed in any Nation by any Person till Now, by 
Charles Butcher, 

Fur satisfaction your own eyes believe, 
Art cannot blind yoa, nor your Taste deceive ; 
Com and i\ek-oin my friends, and last e're you pass, 
\i% but (ui. to scc't and ^d. each glass.' 

Hut the man who did most with hydraulic power was 
W'instanlcy, the builder of the fantastic, semi-Chinese pagoda 
li"hth(iiisc on the Eddystone rock. W'instanley had been 
a iTierccr in London, and, having made some money, retired 
from business, and went to live at Littlebury in Essex. Merc 

292 SOCIAL LIFE in the reitj^n of QUEEN ANNE. 


he constructed ingenious but useless hydraulic toys, and, 
from being locally famous, he opened an exhibition of them 
in London. 

The first mention I can find of it in this reign, is in the 
PostmaUy May 1/4, 1703 : * Mr. Henry Winstanley's Water 
Works, will be Opened on Thursday being the 6th of May ; 
And All Persons that please to see them, are desired to be 
there between 3 and 4 of the Clock. The House is at the 
lower end of Pickadilly, towards Hide Park.' In the Daily 
Con rant, August 14, 1703, he notifies that: *Mr. Henry 
Winstanley's Water Works being now open'd, and several 
Persons coming too late, by reason of the days being shorter, 
this is to satisfic and give notice, that they will be shewn 
from Monday next at Four of the Clock. And therefore 
all Persons that are disposed to see then;, are desired to be 
there before the time, or exactly at it. And also this is 
further to acquaint, that they will not be shewn this Season 
longer than 10 or 14 days, by reason of Mr. Winstanly's 
having extraordinary Occasions of going out of Town.* 

It was a disastrous * out of town ' for him, for he had his 
wish gratified in being in his gimcrack lighthouse *in the 
greatest storm ever known,' namely, that of November 27, 
1703, which clean swept away the building, Winstanley, and 
five other persons. 

For some years after his sad death his exhibition was in 
abeyance, until we see by the Daily Courant^ June 5, 1707 : 
/ The famous Water Works of the late Ingenious Mr. Henr>' 
Winstanley are now open'd, and will continue to be shown 
this present June, and the ensuing Month of July (for the 
Benefit of his Widow) by his old Servants, with several 
Additions. And all Persons that please to sec them, arc 
desir'd to be at the House by 5 of the clock at the farthest, 
and they will not lose time in staying. The House is at the 
lower End of Picadilly towards Hide Park, and is known by 
the Wind Mill on the top of it. As also his famous House 
at Littlebury in Essex is kept up, and shewn as formcrl\\ 
with several additions.' His widow continued to show them, 
with many variations, every summer during the remainder o{ 
the reign. In 171 1 there were shown * Sea Gods and God- 


desses, Nymphs, Mermaids, and Satirs, all of them playing 
of water as suitable, and somexFire mingling with the water, 
and Sea Triumphs round the Barrel that plays so many 
Liquors ; all which is taken away after it had pefform'd its 
part, and the Barrel is broke in Pieces before the Spectators/ 
In 1712 there is the same entertainment, but fuller details 
are given : it was * of 6 several sorts of Wine, and the best 
brandy and biskets, all coming out of the famous Barrel, and 
given to the Boxes and Pit ; with Geneva, Cherry beer, and 
Cyder to the first Gallery, there is also Coffee and Tea as at 
all other times.* 

In 171 3 'the Curious Barril will be made a Spring 
Garden, entertaining the Boxes and Pit with Cool Tankards, 
Spaw Waters, Bisquits, Milk, Ale, Beer, Sullibubs, Cake, and 
Cheese Cakes, and Flowers playing of Water : And a very 
delightful part will be added to the 3 Parts that are usually 
performed. There is Galuthetis's Flight from Polyheme, and 
as she is carried in State by Neptune attended by many 
Figures playing of Water, and some with Fire mingling with 
it ; then will be a great Tempest of Thunder and Lightning 
and burning Flames rolling in great Cascades of Water, 
to the Expence of 300 Tun extraordinary.' In 1714, 'the 
Curious Barrel will be made a Dairy House, entertaining the 
Boxes and Pit with Curds, several sorts of Creams, Milk, 
Whey, Cakes, Cheese Cakes, Sullibubs, New Butter, Butter 
Milk, which a Woman will be seen to chum, and a flying 
Zepherus, a Flora presenting the Spectators with a Basket of 
Fruit. . . . There is Galathea's flight from Polypheme guided 
by two flying Boys, with a flaming Torch playing Water 
through the Flames : A flying fiery Dragon, out of whose 
Mouth comes great Fire Balls, flames of P'ire, a large sheet of 
Water, with many Cascades of Water, to the expence of 800 
Tuns extraordinary.' It was a very popular exhibition, and 
ranked, as wc sec,' with the opera and the play. 

In 1710 the good folks of London were treated to a 
somewhat unusual spectacle — that of four real live Indian 
chiefs, or kings, as they were called. They came over in April 
of that year, and were treated as guests of the nation ; apart- 

' spectator ^ No. 1 68. 

394 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

ments being obtained for them at an upholsterer's in King 
Street, Covent Garden,' and they were taken in two of the 
royal carriages to visit the Queen. Luttrell says : ' 20 Aprill. 
F'our Indian Sachems, or Kings of the 5 Indian Nations, lately 
arrived here, offering their services to assist her majestic against 
all her enemies in those parts, and secure her from the French 
in and about Canada in America, had yesterday audience of 
the queen, and accepted very graciously ; her majestic ordered 
them presents, the lord Chamberlain to entertain them at her 
charge, and that they be shown what is. remarkable here,' On 

the 2 1 St they visited, in a royal bai^e, Greenwich Hospital 
and Woolwich Dockyard, and on the 22nd they saw the 
Banqueting Hall and Chapel at Whitehall. On the 26th 
they were present at a review of cavalry and infantry tn 
Hyde Park. On the 28th the New England and New York 
merchants gave them a feast, and the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury presented them each with an English Bible. On May 3 
they had their audience of leave, and then went by way of 

1 Talhr. \1U 


Hampton Court to Windsor, from whence they travelled to 
Portsmouth, and, embarking on board the Dragon^ sailed 
from Spithead on the 8th May, and landed safely at Boston 
July 1 5 of the same year. 

The following handbill shows that at some period of their 
stay they went to see Powell's Marionettes. 

* At PUNCH'S Theatre 

* For the Entertainment of the 

' Four Indian Kings, viz. 

* (a) The Emperor Tee Yee Neen Ho Ga Row. 

* (b) King Sa Ga Yeau Qua Rah Tow, 

* (c) King E Tow oh Koatn, 

* (d) King Oh Nee Yeath Tow no Riow. 

* At the Upper End of St, Martin's Lane^ joyning to 
Litchfield Street, will be presented a NEW OPERA, per- 
formed by a Company of Artificial Actors^ who will present 
you with an incomparable Entertainment call'd 

* The Last Years Campaigne 

With the Famous Battle fought between the Confederate 
Army (commanded by the Duk? of Marlborough) and the 
French in the Woods near Blaguiers, With severed Comical 
entertainments of Punch in ttie Camp. Also variety of Scenes ; 
with a most Glorious Prospect of both A rmies, the French in 
tlieir Entrenchments, and the Confederates out ; wliere will be 
seen several Regiments of Horse and Foot engaged in Forcing 
tlie French Lines, With the Admirable Entertainments of a 
Girl of Five Years Old Dancing with Swords' The 50th 
Spectator gives an amusing account of their supposed 
description of this country. 

* This was before Powell removed to the Piazza, Covent Garden. 

296 SOCIAL LIFE in the retgn of QUEEN ANNE. 



Bear-baiting — Bear-gardens — Bull-baiting — Description — Extraordinary 
bull-bait — Cock-fighting — Cock-pits — Value of matches — Training. 

But all amusements at this time were not so innocent as 
the foregoing : there were fiercer and more blood-stirring 
excitements for the men. Take bear and bull baiting. The 
former was dying out, and was no longer as popular as it 
was during the reigns of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. 

Slender} Why do your dogs bark so ? be there bears i' the town ? 

Anne. I think there arc, Sir ; I have heard them talked oil 

Slender, I love the sport well ; but I shall as soon quarrel at it as 
any man in England. You are afraid, if you see the bear loose, are you 

Anne, Ay, indeed, Sir. 

Slender, That's meat and drink to me now : I have seen Sakerson ' 
loose twenty times, and have taken him by the chain ; but, I warrant 
you, the women have so cried and shriek'd at it, that it pass'd ; but 
women, indeed, cannot abide 'em ; they are very ill-favoured rough 

We learn something of a bear-baiting from Hudibras. 

And round about the pole does make 

A circle, like a bear at stake. 

That at the chain's end wheels about, 

And overturns the rabble rout. 

For after solemn proclamation 

In the bear's name, as is the fashion, 

According to the law of arms, 

To keep men from inglorious harms. 

That none presume to come so near 

As forty feet of stake of bear ; 

' Merry ^Wives of Windsor^ Act I. sc. I. 
' ^ This bear belonged to Henslow and Alleyn, proprietors of Paris GaideOp 
near the Globe Theatre, Bankside. 


If any yet be so fool hardy, 
T expose themselves to vain jeopardy, 
If they come wounded off, and lame, 
No honour's got by such a maim. 

Indeed, in 1709, Christopher Preston, of Hockley-in-the- 
Hole, was attacked and partially devoured by one of his own 
bears. His funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. 
Pead, then incumbent of St. James's, Clerkenwell. 

The animals destined for combat were paraded through 
the streets, as we learn from Gay (* Trivia,' Book 2). 

Experienced Men, inured to City Ways, 

Need not the Calendar to count their Days. 

When through the Town, with slow and solemn Air, 

Led by the Nostril walks the muzzled Bear ; 

Behind him moves majestically dull. 

The Pride of Hockley Hole^ the surly Bull ; 

Learn hence the Periods of the Week to name. 

Mondays and Thursdays are the Days of Game. 

That these places of so-called sport were disorderly need 
not be said ; indeed, to * make a place a bear-garden ' is 
proverbial. The rough element wanted some safe outlet for 
its energy, and found it in such exhibitions. Nor must we 
be too hasty to decry them when we recollect that it was only 
in 1835 that it absolutely became illegal to keep any house, 
pit, or other place for baiting or fighting any bull, bear, dog, 
or other animal. We have our dog-fights now — prize- 
fighting is not yet extinct, many a quiet main of cocks is - 
fought, many a rat-pit exists, and badger-drawing is not 
altogether an unknown thing. 

There were three bear-gardens — at Hockley-in-the-Hole 
(Clerkenwell), at Marrybone Fields (at the back of Soho 
Square), and at Tuttle (Tothill) Fields, Westminster, and at 
all these baiting was carried on. Of the latter we find an 
advertisement promising plenty of sport:* *At William 
Wells's Bear Garden, in Tuttle Fields, Westminster, this 
present Monday the loth of April, will be a Green Bull 
Baited ; and 20 Doggs fights for a Coller, and that Dogg that 
runs farthest and fairest wins the Coller ; with other Diver- 
sion of Bull Baiting and Bear Baiting^ 

' IlarL MSS, 5931, 282. 

298 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANISTE. 

* Here follows the Manner of those Bull Baitings which 
arc' so much talk'd of : They tie a Rope to the Root of the 
Horns of the Ox or Bull, and fasten the other End of the 
Cord to an Iron Ring fix'd to a Stake driven into the 
Ground ; so that this Cord being about i s Foot long, the 
Bull is confin'd to a Sphere of about 30 Foot Diameter. 
Several Butchers, or other Gentlemen, that are desirous to 
exercise their Dogs, ^ stand round about, each holding his 
own by the Ears ; and when the Sport begins, they let loose 
one of the Dogs : The Dog runs at the Bull : the Bull im- 
movable, looks down upon the Dog with an Eye of Scorn, 
and only turns a Horn to him to hinder him from coming 
near : The Dog is not daunted at this, he runs round him, 
and tries to get beneath his Belly, in order to seize him by 
the Muzzle, or the Dewlap, or the pendant Glands : The Bull 
then puts himself into a Posture of Defence ; he beats the 
Ground with his Feet, which he joins together as close as 
possible, and his chief Aim is not to gore the Dog with the 
Point of his Horn,^ but to slide one of them under the Dog's 
Belly (who creeps close to the Ground to hinder it) and to 
throw him so high in the Air that he may break his Neck in 
the Fall. This often happens : When the Dog thinks he is 
sure of fixing his Teeth, a Turn of the Horn, which seems to 
be done with all the Negligence in the World, gives him a 
Sprawl thirty Foot high, and puts him in danger of a damnable 
Squelch when he comes down. This Danger would be un- 
avoidable, if the Dog's Friends were not ready beneath him, 
some with their Backs to give him a soft Reception, and 
others with long Poles which they offer him slant ways, to 
the Intent that, sliding down them, it may break the Force 
of his Fall. Notwithstanding all this care, a Toss gener- 
ally makes him sing to a very scur\y Tune, and draw his 
Phiz into a pitiful Grimace : But, unless he is totally 
stunn'd with the Fall, he is sure to crawl again towards the 
Bull, with his old Antipathy, come on't what will. Some- 
times a second Frisk into the Air disables him for ever from 
playing his old Tricks ; But, sometimes, too, he fastens upon 

* These clogs were only a moderate size. 

*'' If too shaq), the bull's horns were covered with wooden sheaths. 


his Enemy, and when once he has seiz*d him with his Eye 

teeth, he sticks to him like a Leech, and would sooner die 

than leave his Hold. Then the Bull bellows, and bounds, 

and Kicks about to shake off the Dog ; by his Leaping the 

Dog seems to be no Manner of Weight to him, tho' in all 

Appearance he puts him to great Pain. In the End, either 

the Dog tears out the Piece he has laid Hold on, and falls, or 

else remains fix'd to him, with an Obstinacy that would 

never end, if they did not pull him off. To call him away 

would be in vain ; to give him a hundred blows would be as 

much so ; you might cut him to Pieces Joint by Joint before 

he would let him loose. What is to be done then } While 

some hold the Bull, others thrust Staves into the Dog's 

Mouth, and open it by main Force. This is the only Way 

to part them.' * 

This, however, was not always the case. Look at the 

other side : — 

Curs'd dog, the bull reply'd, no more 
I wonder at thy thirst of gore ; 
For thou (beneath a butcher train'd, 
Whose hands with cruelty are stain'd. 
His daily murders in thy view) 
Must, like thy tutor, blood pursue. 
Take then thy fate. With goring wound 
At once he lifts him from the ground : 
Aloft the sprawling hero flies. 
Mangled he falls, he howls, and dies.' 

Here is a refinement of cruelty : * At the Bear Gardai 
in Hockley in the Holey 17 10. This is to give notice to all 
Gentlemen, Gamsters, and Others, That on this present 
Mo7i(iay is a Match to be fought by two Dogs, one from 
Newgate Market, against one of Honey Lane Market, at a 
Bull, for a Guinea to be spent Five Let goes out off 
Hand, which goes fairest and farthest in Wins all ; like wise 
a Green Bull to be baited, which was never baited before, 
and a Bull to be turned lose with Fire works all over him ; 
also a Mad Ass to be baited ; With variety of Bull baiting 
and Bear baiting ; and a Dog to be drawn up with Fire 
works.' ^ These novelties took, for a subsequent advertise- 

» Misson. « Gay, Fable 9. » HarL AfSS, 5931, 46. 

3CX) SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

ment tells us that * The Famous Bull of Fire works pleased 
the Gentry to Admiration.' Indeed, it must have been 
popular, for in an advertisement of the Tatler^ Jan. 3/5, 1709 
(1710), we find : * This Day is published The Bull Baiting, or 

Sach 11 * dressed up in Fire works ; lately brought over 

from the Bear Garden in Southwark, and exposed for the 
Diversion of the Citizens of London : at 6d. a piece.' This 
book, however, is very dreary fun. 

But bears and bulls, though baited, were never allowed to 
be killed by their adveriaries, which, however, was not the 
case with cock-fighting, a pastime passionately indulged in 
in this reign. There were many cock-pits — one historical one, 
the Council Chamber at Whitehall, where in 17 10 Guiscard 
stabbed Harley with his penknife, and which went by the 
name of the Cockpit certainly till 18 10. There was 'The 
Royal Cock Pit on the South Side of St. James Park,' where 
mains used to be fought for such prizes as *4 Guineas a 
Battel and 40 the odd Battel.' And there was a famous one 
near Gray's Inn Walks, or Gardens, where dear Sir Roger 
walked with the Spectator^ and which Brown describes as 
* The Lawyer's Garden of Contemplation, where I found (it 
being early in the Morning) none but a parcel of Super- 
annuated Debauchees, huddled up in Cloaks, Frize Coats and 
Wadded Gowns, to preserve their old Carcases from the 
searching sharpness of Havipstcad Hair.' There had been 
one there previous to 1704, when we find * At the New Cock 
pit at the Bowling Green, behind Grays Inn Walks, this 
present Tuesday being the 28th of March^ will begin a great 
Match of Cock fighting, for Ten Guineas a Battle, and Two 
Hundred Guineas the odd Battle, between the Gentlemen of 
Essex and Cambridgeshire^ against the Gentlemen of London 
and Surry.' In 1706 it was to let, and in 1708 it was burnt 
down under sad circumstances. 'There had been a great 
Match fought on Saturday, and the Weather being hard, two 
of the Feeders, Crovipton and Day, would stay all Night with 
their Cocks ; when by Negligence their Candle fell among 
the Straw, which took Fire. In the Morning one Mr. 
Neii'berryy a great Cocker, sent his two Sons to sec his 

* Sachevcrell. 


Cocks fed, who wonder*d they saw no Snow upon the Cock 
pit ; when coming thither they saw a great Smoak, and 
before they cou'd make any Body hear, the place was all 
on Fire. One of the feeders was found burnt, only some 
part of his Body remaining, and the other is missing.' ^ It 
was repaired and re-opened 1709, but was again to be re-let 
in 1 7 10. There were many others, even extending to the 
suburbs, such as Hampstcad. 

Misson*s description of them is amusing, but it would 
hardly appear from it that he ever witnessed a fight. * Cock 
fighting is one of the great E7iglish Diversions ; they build 
Amphitheatres for this Purpose, and Persons of Quality some- 
times appear at them. Great Wagers are laid ; but Pm to^d, 
that a Man may be damnably bubbled, if he is not very sharp.' 

County matches used to be arranged ; but for a spice of 
arrogance little can beat this : * At the New Cock Pit by the 
Bowling Green behind Gray's Inn Walks, next Tuesday, will 
begin a great Match of Cock Fighting which will continue all 
the Week ; the Gentlemen of Essex against all the rest of 
Great Britain, for 10 Guineas a Battle and 500 Guineas the 
Odd Battle.' These were the highest stakes ever publicly 
advertised in Queen Anne's reign, whatever might have been 
done at private matches — as, for instance, in the Tatler's Club 
{Tatler, 132), Sir Jeoffrey Notch, their chairman, would talk 
about his favourite old game-cock Gauntlett, * upon whose 
head, the Knight, in his youth, had won five hundred pounds, 
and lost two Thousand.' 

The cocks sometimes fought in silver spurs, but generally 
with steel ones, and of these there were several kinds. * Note 
that on Wednesday there will be a single battle fought with 
Sickles, after the East India manner. And on Thursday 
there will be a Battle Royal, one Cock with a Sickle, and 4 
Cocks with fair Spurs. On Friday there will be a pair of 
Shake bags fight for 5/. And on Saturday there will be a 
Battle Royal, between a Shakcbag with fair Spurs, and 4 
Matchable Cocks which are to fight with Sickles, Launcet 
Spurs, and Penknife Spurs, the like never yet seen. For the 
Entertainment of the foreign Ambassadors and Gentlemen.' 

* A Looking-glass for Swearers^ etc., 1 708. 

302 SOQIAL LIFE in the reign oj QUEEN ANNE, 

Cock-fighting even had a literature of its own. In 1709 
was published * The Royal Pastime of Cock fighting &c. by 
R. H. a Lover of the Sport* ; and in the same year was printed 
another edition of * The Compleat Gamesters, by C. Cotton/ 
in which are full directions as to the breeding, feeding, and 
fighting of cocks. As so little is now Renown of this cruel 
sport, a few short extracts from this latter work will make us 
more thoroughly comprehend it as it was then practised. 

In shape, the cock must be neither too large nor too 
small ; with a small head and strong legs ; his spurs, though 
long and sharp, turning slightly inwards. He should walk 
very upright and stately ; and if he crows frequently in his 
pen it is a sign of courage. The combs or wattles are to be 
cut as soon as they appear ; and the cock chickens are to be 
separated as soon as they begin to peck each other. Fighting 
cocks should not begin their career as such until they are 
two years old ; and before a battle they should be dieted — i,e, 
for four days they should be fed with stale bread three times 
a day ; after which they may have a spar, or sham fight, with 
another cock, their spurs being carefully guarded with leather 
balls. They must then be stoved, which meant putting them 
in deep baskets filled with straw, covering them with straw 
and shutting down the lids ; but before undergoing this 
* sudatorium ' they were to be fed with sugar candy, chopped 
rosemary, and butter. In the evening the cock was released, 
and fed with wheat meal and oatmeal, ale, white of eggs, and 
butter. * The second day after his sparring, take your Cock 
into a fair green Close, and having a Dunghill Cock in your 
arms, show it him, and then run from him, that thereby you 
may entice him to follow, you permitting him to have now 
and then a blow ; when he begins to pant, being well heated, 
take him up and carry him home.* He was then to have a 
dose of pounded leaves of herb of grace, hyssop, and rose- 
mary, mixed with butter, and then stoved till the evening. 
Next day he was to rest, and the day after to be sparred, 
which treatment was to be continued for a fortnight ; but for 
the next month, by which time he was to be fit for fighting, 
he was merely to be fed and stoved. He was not to be fed 
before fighting. 




The Queen's love of racing—Visit to Newmarket— Queen's plates- 
Value of matches— Race meetings— Tregonwell Frampton— His 
horse Dragon— The Queen's love of hunting — Sir Roger de Coverley 
— Fox-hunting — Stag-hunting— Hare-hunting — Coursing — Packs of 
hounds— Fishing— Hawking— Netting— The Game Act— Shooting, 
sitting and flying — Match shooting — Archery. 

The horse, necessarily, in those days, when locomotion was 
only obtainable through its agency, was of prime importance : 
farriery was fairly understood, and some voluminous dis- 
quisitions on it were published, with most curious receipts 
for the various ills horseflesh is heir to, and elaborate engrav- 
ing of fleams, firing irons, bits (some of them very cruel), 
and all sorts of harness — even down to curry-combs, dandy- 
brushes, and stable utensils. But it is not here that the 
hack or roadster is to be spoken of, but the horse kept for 
sport — the race horse — about which they had already found 
out the fact, * Like Race Horses cost more in keeping them 
than they're worth.* * The Queen was fond of racing, and 
gave her 100/. gold cups to be run for, as now : nay more, 
she not only kept race horses, but ran them in her own name. 
Her six-year-old grey gelding Pepper ran for her gold cup at 
York (over Clifton and Rawclifle Ings) on July 28, 17 12. 
Over the same course, and for the same stake, on August 3, 
1 7 14, ran her grey horse Mustard, by the Taffblet Barb, 
which, according to the Daily Coiirant of May 14, 1714, was 
entered to run * in Whitsun week at Guildford in Surrey for 
the 50/. plate ' ; and, sad to tell, her brown horse Star (after- 
wards called Jacob) ran at York for a plate of the value of 

' TunbiiJge Walks, 

304 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

14/., and won it, on July 30, 17 14, the very day on which the 
Queen was struck with apoplexy, expiring the next day. 

She paid a visit to Newmarket in April 1705, going to 
Cambridge once or twice during her stay. Luttrell says: 
* Aprill 26, 1705. The queen has ordered her house at New- 
market to be rebuilt, and gave 1000/. towards paving the 
town ; and bought a running horse of Mr. Holloway, which 
cost a 1000 guineas, and gave it to the prince.' Prince 
George shared his august consort's love of horse-racing, and 
in the Gazette, June 18/21, 1705, we find : 'These are to give 
notice. That his Royal Highness the Prince is pleased to give 
a Gold Plate, value One Hundred Guineas to be run for 
at Black Hambleton in Yorkshire, over the four Miles old 
Beacon course, the last Thursday in July, by any Horse five 
years old last Foaling time : No Horse to be admitted to 
run but such as bring a Certificate from the Breeder of his 
Horses Age ; and likewise to be judged and approved to be 
no older than aforesaid, by the Gentlemen whose Horses run 
for the said Plate ; each horse to carry ten Stone weight, 
and start at the usual hours. 

* And his Royal Highness is also pleased to give another 
Gold Plate, Value One Hundred Guineas, to be run for the 
second Thursday in October next, one Heat, over the Heat's 
Course at Newmarket, ten Stone, by Horses five years old, 
whose Age must be certified as aforesaid, and likewise allowed 
by Gentlemen whose Horses run. This year no Marc will 
be admitted to run for cither of those Plates : Although for 
the future his Royal Highness designs to give a Plate of the 
like Value, to be run for at each of the aforesaid Courses by 
Mares only, of the said Age.' 

Indeed, in that year of 1705 the royal couple seemed 
mightily given to racing, for *the queen has appointed 
horse races to be at Datchet after her return from Winchester 
to Windsor.' ' 

Her gold plates, as far as can be made out from news- 
paper advertisements, were, in 1703, 100/., at Stapleton Leys, 
Yorkshire, September 2 ; one at Newmarket on April I2, 
1705 ; at Langton Wold, near Malton, Yorkshire, July 24, 

' Luttrell^ Sept. i, 1705. 


1707 : in 1709 at Black Hambleton, Yorkshire, July 26 ; 
one of so/, at Datchet, August 24 ; one of 100/. at New- 
market, October 6 ; while the Prince's Cup of 100/. for 
mares four years old was run for on October 8 the same 
year; in 171 1, at Clifton and Rawncliffe Ings ; in 1712 at 
Black Hambleton, on July 26 ; and at Clifton Ings, on 
July 28 ; in 171 3 at Hambleton, August i ; Clifton, August 3 ; 
and in the same year one was run for at As6ot Heath 
on August 12 — the first mention that I can find of racing 
there ; in 17 14, Clifton Ings, on July 28. 

A few racing mems of this time will illustrate to what an 
extent this passion for the turf was carried. 1702: * They 
write from Newmarket, That the Lord Godolphin*s and 
Mr. Harvy's Horses ran for 3,000/. His Lordship won ; As 
also the Earl of Argile, and the Duke of Devonshire's ; 
the latter's Horse won, by which Mr. Pheasant got a con- 
siderable sum.' 1703 : * The great horse race at Newmarket, 
run for 1000 guineas between the lord Treasurer and the 
Duke of Argyle, was won by the latter.' Perhaps the earliest 
sporting paper is * News from Neiu Market : or An Account 
of the Horses Match'd to Run there in March, April, and 
May 1704, The Weight, Miles, Wages and Forfeits. Printed 
for John Nutt near Stationer's Hall. Price id' 1707 : * Last 
Monday was a horse race at Newmarket, between the lord 
Granby's Grantham and Mr. Young's Blundel, for 3000/. — 
the latter won.' On April 10, 1708, at Newmarket, the Duke 
of Bedford's bay horse (9 stone) had a match with Mr.. 
Minchall's bay colt (8^ stone) for 1,000 guineas ; but there 
is no record of which won. These were the highest stakes 
recorded during the reign : they were generally for 200 or 
300 guineas. 

Luttrell records a somewhat singular match against time : 
* 14 April 1709. Some days since, a baker at Clerkenwell 
Green, laid with a Vintner there, a wager of 400 guineas 
against 16 Guineas, that his horse could not nin from Shore- 
ditch Church to Ware and back again (being 40 miles) in 
2 hours and 36 minutes, which race was last Tuesday, and 
performed in 2 hours and 28 minutes, but the horse since 

VOL. I. X 

3o6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

The first mention, in this reign, of Epsom Races, as far 
as I can find, is in the London Gazette April and May 26/3, 
1703, when three small plates were to be run for, of 30/., 10/., 
and 5/. value. On May 25, 1704, there was only one to be 
competed for, and that of 20/. They had very early * Epsom 
Spring Meetings*; for, in the Daily C^wr^z;//, February 15, 
1 709, it says : * On Epsom Downes in Surrey, on the first 
Monday after the Frost, a Plate of 20/. will be run for/ etc. 

Races for stakes of little value were common all over the 
country, and were deemed of sufficient importance to be 
advertised in the London papers. Take a few haphazard : 
Nottingham, Kerfall, Boston, Winchester, Croydon, Coventry, 
Quainton, Horsham, Woodstock, Mansfield ; nay, there was 
even a * Jockey Field betwixt Bedford Row and Gray's Inn, 
having a full Prospect of Hampstead and Highgate.' 

What a vast difference there was between those old race- 
courses and ours ! No grand stands, no howling ring, no 
carriages, no ladies ; not even a special dress for the jockeys. 
According to a nearly contemporary print, there were very 
few spectators even — and but a sorry booth, or so, for the sale 
of liquor. 

The most famous sporting man of his time was Tregonwell 
Frampton, Esq., of Moreton, Dorsetshire, * the Father of the 
Turf,' who was keeper of her Majesty's running horses at 
Newmarket — a post he had filled in the time of William III., 
and which he continued to hold under Georges I. and II. He 
is described as being * the oldest, and as they say the cunningest 
jockey in England; one day he lost 1,000 gs., the next he 
won 2,000, and so alternately. He made as light of throwing 
away 500/. or 1,000/. at a time, as other men do of their 
pocket money, and was perfectly calm, cheerful and uncon- 
cerned when he lost a thousand pounds as when he won it.* 
This may be true, but I find no record of his running for any 
such large sums in any match. * April 6, 1708. Mr. Framp- 
ton's Monkey and Mr. Cotton's Snap, 100 Guineas. Ap. 27. 
Sir Cecil Bishop's Quaker and Mr. Frampton's Monkey 200 
guineas. Ap. 28. Mr. Minchall's Cork and Mr. Frampton's 
Trumpeter 500 guineas. Oct. i, 1709. Mr. Pullen's Slouch 
against Mr. Frampton's White Neck 200 g's. 5 Oct Mr. 


Frampton's Teller against L'd Dorchester's Colt, 200 g*s.* And 
even his sporting bid in Sept. 17 13 was not for high stakes, 
although he challenged dukes to compete. * Mr. Frampton 
that keeps the Queen's Running Horses, has made a Sporting 
Proposal to three Dukes, allowing them to joyn their Stables, 
and Name to him any 6 Horses or Mares (the Horse called 
Wyndham * excepted) against 6 of his now in his Stables • • . 
they are to run for 100/. each horse,' etc. 

Thus we see he owned many horses, but the most famous 
of all was one named Dragon, to whom it is alleged Frampton 
behaved with cruel barbarity. On Oct. 30, 171 2, Dragon ran 
against Lord Dorchester's Wanton for three hundred guineas, 
and on April 22, 171 3, encountered the redoubtable Wyndham 
for the same stakes. His alleged mutilation and death are 
told by Dr. John Hawkesworth in No. 37 of T/ie Adventurer. 
There is no record of his death, but in an old song, called 

* Newmarket Horse Race,' belonging to the early part of 
George the First's reign, it says — 

For I'll have the brown Bay, if the blew bonnet ride, 
And hold a thousand Pounds of his side. Sir ; 
Dragon would scow'r it, but Dragon Grows old ; 
He cannot endure it, he cannot, he wonnot now run it, 

As lately he could : 
Age, age, does hinder the Speed, Sir, 

which would infer that Dragon was old and worthless as a 
racer before his death, and the other story falls to the 

When young, the Queen was very fond of hunting, and, 
in fact, pursued it after her accession to the throne, when, 
from her increasing size, she no longer mounted the saddle. 

* The Queen came last Thursday to Hampton Court, and 
having assisted in council, and dined there, returned at night 
to Windsor, where she takes the divertisement of hunting 
almost every day in an open Calash in the forest,'^ Le, she 
drove down the long rides and saw what she could of the 
hunt. Again,^ three years later : *This morning her Majestic 
and the prince went for Winchester to take the diversion 

* Belonging to the Duke of Somerset. 
* Luttrell, Aug. 15, 1702. » Ibid. Aug. 28, 1705. 

X 2 

3o8 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

of hunting/ Still later * : * The queen was hunting the st^ 
till four this afternoon, and she drove in her chaise, above 
forty miles/ 

The country gentry then, as now, were ardently fond of 
sport ; but then the hunting field was a thoroughly neigh- 
bourly gathering, there were no subscription packs, and no 
fast trains to bring every snob that possesses, or can hire, a 
* hunter.' The runs might not be so fast as now, nor were 
they ever recorded in any sporting paper — horrible dis- 
advantages, doubtless, but still they brought neighbours 
together, engendered a kindly feeling, and gave legitimate 
occupation to people whose brains were not addled with too 
much reading. Where can there be a prettier picture of 
a thoroughbred old English sportsman than that which 
Addison draws of Sir Roger ^: *The Walls of his great 
Hall arc covered with the Horns of several kinds of Deer 
that he has killed in the Chacc, which he thinks the most 
valuable Furniture of his House, as they afford him frequent 
Topicks of Discourse, and shew that he has not been Idle. 
At the lower End of the Hall, is a large Otter's Skin stuffed 
with Hay, which his Mother ordered to be hung up in that 
manner, and the Knight looks upon it with great Satisfaction, 
because it seems he was but nine Years old when his Dog 
killed him. A little Room adjoining to the Hall is a kind 
of Arsenal filled with Guns of several Sizes and Inventions, 
with which the Knight has made great Havock in the Woods, 
and distroycd many thousands of Pheasants, Partridges, and 
Woodcocks. His Stable Doors are patched with Noses that 
belonged to Foxes of the Knights own hunting down. Sir 
Roger shewed me one of them that for Distinction Sake has 
a Brass Nail struck through it, which cost him about fifteen 
Hours riding, carried him through half a dozen Counties, 
killed him a Hrace of Geldings, and lost above half his Dogs. 
This the Knight looks upon as one of the greatest Exploits 
of his Life. The per\crse Widow, whonfi I have given some 
Account of, was the Death of several Foxes ; for Sir Roger 
has told me that in the course of his Amours he patched 
the Western Door of his Stable. Whenever the Widow was 

> Sfel/ti. « Sj\vfaf.v\ 115. 


•cruel, the Foxes were sure to pay for it. In proportion as 

his Passion for the Widow abated, and old Age came on, 

lie left off Fox hunting ; but a Hare is not yet Safe that 

Sits within ten Miles of his House.* 

Hunting commenced both earlier in the season and in the 

<lay than now. * It must be imagined it was near Day when 

-u'e went to Bed and therefore could not be expected we should 

^et out a Hunting at Five or Six in the Morning.' * From a 

set of nearly contemporary prints we gather that possibly 

little attention was paid to earth-stopping, when fox-hunting, 

for one part of the engraving shows a fox being dug out. 

In another part the hounds are breaking up the fox, which 

lias not been denuded of his brush. Only the gentlemen 

are represented as being on horseback, the huntsmen having 

leaping poles. This was better for them than being mounted, 

for the country was nothing like as cultivated as now, and 

perfectly undrained, so that they could go straighter on foot, 

and with these poles leaps could be taken that no horseman 

-would attempt. 

Nor should the Fox shun the pursuing Hound 
Nor the Tall Stag with branching Antlers crown'd.' 

From the engravings referred to, we find that the stag 
Avas first found, or harboured, with a bloodhound — the stag- 
hounds were coupled, and let loose when wanted by the 
huntsmen, who were on foot. Its death was duly celebrated 
by a * Mort,* or blowing of horns, when a hunting knife was 
presented to the principal man present, to cut off its head, 
after everyone had passed his opinion as to his age, weight, 
etc. : the deer was then carted home. Guns were carried 
wherewith to shoot the stag, if necessary, when at bay. 

Budgell, in Spectator No. 117, well describes a run after 
a hare, and the discipline of the hounds who were close upon 
the hare, when the huntsman threw his pole between them — 
this the well-tutored dogs would not pass, and the hare was 
rescued. Gay, too, tells the story of a run well : — 

Now at a Fault the Dogs confus'dly stray. 

And try t'unravel his perplexing Way ; "^ 

' The Quaker's Art of Courtship, 1 7 10. ^ Rural Sports, Gay, ed. 1 713. 

3IO SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

They trace his artful Doubles o'er and o*er, 
Smell every Shrub, and all the Plain explore, 
'Till some stanch Hound summons the baffled Crew, 
And strikes away his wily Steps anew. 
Along the Fields they scow'r with jocund Voice, 
The frighted Hare starts at the distant Noise ; 
New Stratagems and various Shifts he tries, 
Oft' he looks back, and dreads a close Surprize ; 
Th' advancing Dogs still haunt his list'ning Ear, 
And ev'ry breeze augments his growing Fear : 
'Till tir'd at last, he pants, and heaves for Breath ; 
Then lays him down, and waits approaching death.' 

Or what better description could we have of coursing a 
hare than the following : — 

The Greyhound now pursues the tim'rous Hare, 
And shoots along the Plain with swift Career ; 
While the sly Game escapes beneath his Paws, 
He snaps deceitful Air with empty Jaws ; 
Enrag'd, upon his Foe he quickly gains. 
And with wide Stretches measures 'b'er the Plains ; 
Again the Cunning Creature winds around, 
While the fleet Dog o'ershoots, and loses Ground ; 
. Now Speed he doubles to regain the Way, 

And crushes in his Jaws the Screaming Prey. 

Maiiy packs of hounds were advertised for sale during 
Anne's reign — not such large packs as we now have, but 
small packs, with which a man could then show sport, and yet 
the keeping of which need not be costly. Two or three are 
given for example's sake : * Any Gentleman that hath a mind 
to purchase a good pack of cloddy strong Hounds, fit for any 
Country, from 15 couple to 10, may be accommodated,' etc. 
•There are to be disposed of 18 Couple of Hare Hounds, well 
siz'd and well marked, at reasonable rates.* * There are 9 
Couple of good Fox Hounds (with a Tarrier) (4 Couple bejng 
stanch finders) to be sold at a very reasonable Price. These 
Hounds are as proper for Deer as Fox.' *Lost the 1 6th 
Instant from the Earl of Litchfield's Foxhounds in some 
Woods near Crawford in Kent, a small White Beagle, with 
Red Spots on her Ears, and a short Tail, (being a Tarrier),' 

There were cockney hunts, with deer, both at Hampstead 

' Rural Sports^ Gay, ed. 1 713. 


and Muswell Hill, and live deer were bought and sold com- 
monly ; indeed there is one advertisement which has a touch 
of old Leadenhall Market about it. ' Any person who has 
Beagles, Foxes or Hares to dispose of, may hear of a Pur- 
chaser by giving Notice to the Porter at Sion Chappel near 

One sport then in vogue must not be omitted from the 
list — ottcr-hunting. 

If you'd preserve a num'rous Finny Race, 

Let your fierce Dogs the Ravenous Otter chase ; 

Th' amphibious Creature ranges all the Shores, 

Shoots through the Waves, and cv'ry haunt explores : 

Or let the Gin his roving Steps betray, 

And save from hostile Jaws the Scaly Prey. 

Angling was extensively practised, with almost the same 
appliances and tackle as now, even down to the wicker creel 
at the side. Will Wimble * makes a May fly to a Miracle ; 
and furnishes the whole country with angle rods.' Isaac 
Walton had not long been dead (Dec. 15, 1683), and his 
disciples in the * Contemplative Man's Recreation ' were 
many and experienced. Hear what Gay says about making 
a fly to suit the water : — 

Oft' have I seen a skillful Angler try 

The various Colours of the treach'rous Fly ; 

When he with fruitless Pain hath skim'd the Brook, 

And the coy Fish rejects the skipping Hook, 

He shakes the Boughs that on the Margin grow, 

Which o'er the Streams a waving Forrest throw ; 

When if an Insect falls (his certain Guide) 

He gently takes him from the whirling Tide ; 

Examines well bis Form with Curious Eyes, 

His gaudy Colours, Wings, his Horns and Size, 

Then round his Hook a proper Fur he winds, 

And on the Back a speckled Feather binds. 

So just the Properties in ev'ry part. 

That even Nature's Hand revives in Art. 

Hawking, too, was a sport not then extinct, the land not 
being so parcelled into fields, and fenced in, as now ; so that 
the flight of the birds could be easily followed. The birds 
were startled by five or six spaniels trained to the work. Here 

312 SOCIAL LIFE in the rcigtt of QUEEN ANNE. 

is a description of one lost by the Earl of Abingdon: *a 
small tlack and white Hawking Spaniel, his Hair not very 
long, more black than white, long Back, with a thick Head.' 
In brook hawking, men used to beat the rushes with poles, 
and they also hawked partridges and pheasants. The latter 
are depicted in the engraving as being poked off their roosts 
with poles. 

* They went bat-fowling with the same nets as are now 
used, and tljey also netted partridges at night, with the aid 
of a lanthorn. In wild-fowl shooting they also used a horse 
for stalking. There were decoys for ducks, and we get an 
insight as to how they were managed. * These are to pve 
Notice, that if any Person that understands the management 
of a Decoy, wants a place, he may have one about 40 Miles 
from London provided he brings a Certificate from the last 
Master he served as to his ability .... he shall have as good 
Wages as is usually given, or a third Bird, as he shall ag^ree 
when he seeth the Decoy.' 

It was not every person that might shoot game : * The 
first of them, says he, that has a Spaniel by his Side, is a 
Yeoman of about an hundred Pounds a- Year, an honest 
Man ; He is just within the Game Act and qualified to kill 
an Hare or a Pheasant ; he knocks down a Dinner with his 
Gun twice or thrice a"Week ; and by that means lives much 
cheaper than those who have not so good an Estate as him- 
self. He would be a good Neighbour if he did not destroy 
so many Partridges ; in short he is a very sensible man ; 
shoots flying ; and has been several times foreman of the Petty 
Jury.' ' This game Act, which he was just within, was the 
3rd James I. cap. 14, clause 5, which says that no one not 
having forty pounds per annum, or 200/. worth of goods and 
chattels, may shoot game ; and should they do so, * then any 
person having lands, tenements or hereditaments, of the clear 
yearly value of one hundred pounds a year, may take from 
the person or possession of such malefactor or malefactors, 
and to his own use for ever keep, such guns, bows, cross- 
bows, &c. &c,* and this Act was in force till 1827, when it 
was repealed. 

' spectator^ No. 122. 


Shooting flying was not an ordinary accomplishment : it 
was but just coming in, and most people took * pot shots/ 
and would not risk shooting at a bird on the wing. 

The dreadful Sound the springing Pheasant hears 
Leaves his Close Haunt, and to some Tree repairs ; .. ' 
The Dog, aloft the painted Fowl surveys, 
Observes his Motions, and at distance Bays. 
His noisie Foe the stooping Pheasant eyes, 
Fear binds his Feet, and useless Pinions ties, 
Till the sure Fowler, with a sudden Aim, 
From the tall Bough, precipitates the Game. 

Partridges, because they flew well, and strongly, were then 
not shot, but snared, by means of a trained dog. 

Now the warm Scent assumes the Covey near. 
He treads with Caution, and he points with Fear. 
Then lest some Sentry Fowl his Fraud descry. 
And bid his Fellows from the Danger fly. 
Close to the Ground in Expectation lies. 
Till in the Snare the flutt'ring Covey rise. 

* But if I miss Sitting, I commonly hit 'em Flying,' says 
Bellair in Mrs. Centlivre's * Love at a Venture,* which shows 
that it was only when the former failed, that he tried the 
latter plan. And, in an advertisement for a gamekeeper, it 
is noticed : ' Any one that is a very good Coach man, and 
can Shoot flying, perfectly well, may hear of a good Place.* 
If being a good coachman was useful to a gamekeeper, what 
can we say to this : * Any Gentleman that wants a Man for 
Shooting, Hunting, Setting, or any Manner of Game, may 
hear of one well qualified. He is a good Scholar, and shaves 

Luttrell notes. Mar. 15, 1707: * Yesterday the lords past 
the bill for the preservation of the game, in which is a clause, 
that if any poulterer, after the ist of May next, sells hare, 
pheasant, partridge &c. shall forfeit 5/. for every offence, 
unless he has a certificate from the lord of the mannor that 
they were not taken by poachers.* The killing of game must 
have been earlier then than now, for, appended to Spectator 
No. 156, Aug. 29, 171 1, is the following : * ADVERTISEMENT — 

314 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

Mr. Spectator gives his most humble service to Mr. R. M. of 
Chippe7ihani in Wilts^ and hath received the Partridges/ 

There were rifle matches in those day. One w^ shot at 
the artillery ground, Finsbury, on July i6, 1 703, for a cup 
value twenty-five guineas : * No gun to exceed 4 foot and a 
half in the Barrel, the distance to be 200 yards, and but one 
Shot a piece, the nearest the Centre to win.' On July 7, 
1709, was a match for four pieces of plate: 'to stand 100 
yards distance from the Target.' A deer, value 50^., was 
to be shot for more than once — and the prize once sank as 
low as * a pair of breeches.' There was one very singular 
prize : * A very fine brass Gun, in the form of a Walking 
Cane, to be us'd as a Gun or Pistol, and in it a fine Prospect 
Glass, and a Perpetual Almanack engrav'd about the Head. 
and a Sun Dial in the Head, and several other ingenious 

Archery was still kept up, as we see by the following adver- 
tisement * : * All Gentlemen who are Lovers of the Ancient 
and Noble Exercise of Arctiery^ are hereby Invited by the 
Stewards of the Annual Feast for the Chrkenwell Archers, to 
Dine with them at Mrs. Mary Bartoris^ at the Sign of Sir 
John Oldcastle, upon Friday the i8th Day of July 1 707 at 
One of the Clock, and to pay the Bearer Tlwmas Beaumont^ 
Marshal to the Regiment of Arc/ters^ Two shillings and Six- 
pence ; and to take a Sealed Ticket, that the certain Num- 
ber may be known, and Provision made accordingly.' 

> HarL MSS, 5961. 154. 




Challenges — The stakes — The combatants — Description of fights — 
General combativeness — Boxing — Cudgel -playing — Pedestrianism — 
Tennis — Cricket — Football — Skating — Billiards — Country wakes — 
Bowling — Bowling greens — Formal gardening — Clipping trees — 
Books on gardening — Trees and flowers — Town and country life — 
Country labourers. 

In those days, when everyone with any pretensions to gentility 
wore a sword, and duelling was rife, it is no wonder that 
exhibitions of skill in that weapon were favourites. Like 
modern prize fights, they drew together all the scum and 
riff-raff, as well as the gentry who were fond of so-called 
sport. They were disreputable affairs, and were decried 
by every class of contemporary. The preliminaries were 
swagger and bounce, as one or two out of a very large 
number will show * : — 

* At the Bear Garden in Hockley in the Hole. 
A Tryal of Skill to be Performed between two Profound 
Masters of the Noble Science of Defence on Wednesday next, 
being this 13th of the instant July 1709 at Two of the Clock 

* I, George Gray, born in the City of Norwich, who has 
Fought in most Parts of the West Indies viz. Jamaica, Bar- 
badoes, and several other Parts of the World ; in all Twenty 
five times, upon a Stage, and was never yet Worsted, and 
now lately come to London \ do invite James Harris, to meet 
and Exercise at these following Weapons viz. : — 

Back Sicord, 
Sico7'd and Dagger, 
Szi'ord and Buckler, 

Single Falchon 

Case of Falchons, 

» Harl. MSS. 5931, 50. 

3i6 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

* I, James Harris^ Master of the said Noble Science of 
Defence, who formerly rid in the Horse guards, and hath 
Fought a Hundred and Ten Prizes, and never left a Stage to 
any Man : will not fail (God Willing) to meet this brave and 
bold Inviter at the Time and Place appointed, desiring Sharp 
Swords, and from him no Favour. 

^tSr Note, No person to be upon the Stage but the 
Seconds. Vivat Regma' 

* At the Bear Garden in Hockley in the Hole. 
A Tryal of Skill to be Performed between these two following 
Masters of the Noble science of Defence, on Wednesday the 
Fifth of April, 1 710, at Three of the Clock precisely. 

* I, John Parkes from Cove fit ry, Master of the Noble 
Science of Defence, do Invite you T/iomas Hesgate, to meet 
me and Exercise at these following Weapons, viz : — 

Back Sword, \ | Single Falclion^ 

Szuord and Dagger, I J Case of Falclions^ 
Sword and Buckler, ] \ And Quarterstaff. 

* I, Tliomas Hesgate a Barkshire Man, Master of the said 
Science, will not fail (God willing) to meet this brave and 
bold Inviter, at the Time and Place appointed ; desiring 
Sharp Swords, and from him no P^avour. 

* ^S^ Note. No Person to be upon the Stage but the 
Seconds. Vivat ReginaJ * 

The challenger would wager some twenty or thirty 
pounds, and the stakes would be deposited and delivered 
to the challenged : the challenger receiving the nioney taken 
;it the door,'^ or, as we should term it, gate money ; which, 
frequently, twice or thrice exceeded the value of the stakes. 

There is one remarkable exception, I have found, to this 
monetary arrangement, but it is the only one in my ex- 
perience. For, in an advertisement of the usual character, 
there comes : * Note. That John Stokes fights James Harris, 
and Thomas Hesgate fights John Terriwest three Bouts each 
at Back Sword, for Love.' 

Preliminaries arranged, handbills printed and distributed, 

» Ilarl. MSS. 5931, 277. » d^ Sorbicre. 


the combat duly advertised in at least one newspaper, and 
the day arrived : like the bull and bear, the combatants 
paraded the streets, preceded by a drum, having their sleeves 
tucked up and their swords in hand. All authorities agree 
that the fights were to a certain extent serious : * The Edge 
of the Sword was a little blunted, and the Care of the Prize 
fighters was not so much to avoid wounding each other, as 
to avoid doing it dangerously : Nevertheless, as they were 
obliged to fight till some Blood was shed, without which no 
Body would give a Farthing for the Show, they were some- 
times forc'd to play a little ruffly. I once saw a much deeper 
and longer Cut given than was intended.' * 

Ward ^ gives a short description of one of these fights : 
* Great Preparations at the Bear Garden all Morning, for the 
noble Tryal of Skill that is to be play'd in the Afternoon. 
Seats fiird and crowded by Two. Drums beat, Dogs yelp, 
Butchers and Foot soldiers clatter their Sticks ; At last the 
two heroes, in their fine borrow'd Holland Shirts, mount the 
Stage about Three ; Cut large Collops out of one another, 
to divert the Mob and Make Work for the Surgeons : Smok- 
ing, Swearing, Drinking, Thrusting, Justling, Elbowing, 
Sweating, Kicking, Cuffing all the while the Company stays.' 

Steele gives a good account of a prize fight ^ : * The Com- 
batants met in the Middle of the Stage, and shaking Hands, 
as removing all malice, they retired with much Grace to the 
Extremities of it ; from whence they immediately faced about, 
and approached each other. Miller with an Heart full of Reso- 
lution, Buck with a watchful untroubled Countenance ; Buck 
regarding principally his own Defence, Miller chiefly thought- 
ful of annoying his Opponent. It is not easie to describe 
the many Escapes and imperceptible Defences between Two 
Men of quick Eyes, and ready Limbs ; but Miller's Heat laid 
him open to the Rebuke of the calm Buck, by a large Cut on 
the Forehead. Much Effusion of Blood covered his Eyes in 
a Moment, and the Huzzas of the Crowd undoubtedly quick- 
ened his Anguish. The Assembly was divided into Parties 
upon their different ways of Fighting : while a poor Nymph 

' Mi->on. * Comical I'ictu of London and Wtstmiustcr. 

• Spc'tator^ No. 436. 

3i8 SOCIAL UFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

in one of the Galleries apparently suffered for Miller^ and 
burst into a Flood of Tears. As soon as his Wound was 
wrapped up, he came on again in a little Rage, which still 
disabled him further. But what brave Man can be wounded 
with more Patience and Caution } The next was a warm 
eager Onset, which ended in a decisive Stroke on the Left Leg 
of Miller. The Lady in the Gallery, during the second Strife, 
covered her Face ; and for my Part, I could not keep my 
thoughts from being mostly employed on the Consideration 
of her unhappy Circumstance that Moment, hearing the Clash 
of Swords, and apprehending Life or Victory concerned her 
Lover in every Blow, but not daring to satisiie herself on 
whom they fell. The Wound was exposed to the View of 
all who could delight in it, and sowed up on the Stage. The 
surly Second of Miller declared at this Time, that he would 
that Day Fortnight fight Mr. Buck at the Same Weapons, 
declaring himself the Master of the renowned Genptan ; but 
Buck denied him the Honour of that Courageous Disciple, 
and asserting that he himself had taught that Champion 
accepted the Challenge.' 

I have been, to my great regret, unable to find a con- 
temporary print of one of these combats ; the nearest 
approach to it being the fight between Dr. Sacheverel and 
Dr. Hoadlcy, which furnishes a graphic, though burlesque, 
representation of the scene. 

Looking at the class from which these gladiators sprung, 
it is not surprising to hear that some of these prize fights 
were pre-arranged, or, to use modem slang, 'squared.' In 
Spectator 449 is a letter, from which the following is an 
extract : ' Being in a Box at an Alehouse, near that renowned 
Seat of Honour above mentioned,* I overheard two Masters 
of the Science agreeing to quarrel on the next Opportunity. 
This was to happen in the Company of a Set of the Frater- 
nity of Basket Hilts, who were to meet that Evening. When 
this was settled, one asked the other. Will you give Cuts or 
receive ? the other answered. Receive. It was replied. Are 
you a Passionate Man ? No, provided you cut no more nor 
no deeper than we agree/ 

> Hockhy in the Holt. 


The very children were bitten with the mania. * Appren- 
tices, and all Boys of that Degree, are never without their 
CudgelSy with which they fight something like the Fellows 
before mentioned, only that the Cudgel is nothing but a stick ; 
and that a little Wicker Basket which covers the Handle of 
the Stick, like the Guard of a Spanish Sword, serves the com- 
batants instead of defensive Arms.' * 

This sword-fighting, however, was seeing its last days, 
and was, in the next reign, to be superseded by pugilistic 
encounters. At present, boxing, although extensively prac- 
tised, had not been reduced to a science. Whatever was it 
made everybody so pugnacious ? * Anything that looks 
like fighting,' says Misson, * is delicious to an Englishman. 
If two little Boys quarrel in the Street, the Passengers stop, 
make a Ring round them in a Moment, and set them against 
one another, that they may come to Fisticuffs. When 'tis 
come to a Fight, each pulls off his Neckcloth and his Waist- 
coat, and give them to hold to some of the Standers by ; 
then they begin to brandish their Fists in the Air ; the Blows 
^re aim'd all at the Face, they Kick one another's Shins, they 
tug one another by the Hair &c. He that has got the other 
down may give him one Blow or two before he rises, but no 
more ; and let the Boy get up ever so often, the other is 
obliged to box him again as often as he requires it. During 
the Fight, the Ring of Bystanders encourage the Combatants 
with great Delight of Heart, and never part them while they 
fight according to the Rules. The Father and Mother of the 
Boys let them fight on as well as the rest, and hearten him 
that gives Ground or has the Worst. 

* These Combats are less frequent among grown Men than 
Children, but they are not rare. If a Coachman has a Dis- 
pute about his Fare with a Gentleman that has hired him, 
and the Gentleman offers to fight him to decide the Quarrel, 
the Coachman consents with all his Heart : The Gentleman 
pulls off his Sword, lays it in some Shop, with his Cane, 
Gloves and Cravat, and boxes in the same Manner as I have 
describ'd above. If the Coachman is soundly drubb'd, which 
happens almost always, that goes for payment ; but if he is 

' Misson, 

320 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

the Beator, the Beatee must pay the Money about which they 
quarreird. I once saw the late Duke of Grafton at Fisticuffs 
in the open Street, with such a Fellow whom he lamb'd most 

There was cudgel playing — for a new hat ; * he that 
breaks most Heads to have the Hat ; he that plays puts in 
six-pence.' Quarterstaff was played, and there was a some- 
what dangerous game — 'there will be three bouts with 
threshing flails' * A Tryal of Skill is to be fought &c. be- 
tween John Parkes * of Coventry, and John Terrewest Note 
— They fight at the Ancient Weapon called the Threshing 

Mild athleticism seems to have obtained among a few 
of the upper middle class : for instance, Addison speaks ' of 
the dumb-bell with which he used to practise every morning, 
and also of a kind of Indian club exercise, * brandishing of 
two short Sticks grasped in each Hand, and loaden with 
Plugs of Lead at either End. This opens the Chest, exer- 
cises the Limbs, and gives a Man all the Pleasure of Boxing, 
without the Blows.' 

There were foot races, but I can find but one or two 
notices of them, and there is very little like professional 
pedestrianism, except the following very mild feat : * A 
Wager of lOo/. was laid last week, that a German of 64 years 
old, should walk in Hyde Park 300 miles in 6 dayes, which 
he did within the time, and a mile over.' ^ 

Tennis was a fashionable game, although I only find one 
public court mentioned, * facing Oxenden Street near the 
Haymarkct.' Ward gets quite moral on the subject of this 
game : * Rightly considered, it's a good Emblem of the 
World. As thus : the Gamesters are the Great Men, the 
Rackets are the Laws, which they hold fast in their Hands, 
and the Balls are we little Mortals which they bandy back- 
wards or forwards from one to t'other as their own Wills and 
Pleasure directs 'em.' 

* John Parkes or Sparkes was buried at Coventry, and on his tombstone was 
inscribed, inter nlia^ that he was a man of mild disposition, a gladiator by profcs*. 
sion, who fought 350 battles in different parts of Europe, when he retired. 
He died, 1733. 

» Spectator^ No. 1 1 5. • Luttrell, Sept. 13, 1709. 


Cricket was played, and sufficient interest was felt in the 
matches : on one or two occasions they were advertised in 
the newspapers. In 1705: *This is to give notice, That a 
Match at Cricket is to be plai'd between 1 1 Gentlemen of 
the West part of the County of Kent against as many of 
Chatham for 1 1 Guineas a man, at Mauldon in Kent on the 
7th of August next* And in 1707: 'There will be two 
great Matches at Cricket plaid, between London and 
Croydon ; the first at Croydon on Tuesday July i, and the 
other to be plaid in Lamb's Conduit Fields near Holborn, on 
the Thursday following, being the 3rd of July.* 

On the approach of winter football came into vogue, and 
it was played in the streets. 

When lo ! from far 
I spy the furies of the Foot ball war : 
The 'prentice quits his Shop, to join the Crew, 
Increasing Crowds the flying Game pursue. 
Thus, as you roll the Ball o'er Snowy Ground, 
The gathering Globe augments with every Round. 
But whither shall I run ? the Throng draws nigh. 
The Ball now skims the Street, now soars on High ; 
The dext'rous Glazier strong returns the bound, 
And jingling sashes on the Penthouse sound.* 

' In Winter Foot-halls is a useful and charming Exercise. 
It is a Leather Ball about as big as ones Head, fill'd with 
Wind : This is kick'd about from one to t'other in the Streets, 
by him that can get at it, and this is all the Art of it.'* 

Skating, although practised here in the time of Fitz- 
Stephen, had fallen into desuetude, until it was reintroduced 
by the Cavaliers who had been with Charles II. in Holland. 
Pcpys thought it was ' a very pretty art,* yet got very nervous 
over the Duke of York's skating. * To the Duke, and fol- 
lowed him into the Parke, where, though the ice was broken 
and dangerous, yet he would go slide upon his scates, which 
I did not like, but he slides very well.' Skating was popular 
in London in Anne's reign, but it is doubtful whether it 
obtained in the remote parts of the country. Writes SwiR 
to Stella, Jan. 31, 171 1 : *The Canal and Rosamonds Pond 

' Triiuiy book 2. * Misson. 

VOL. I. V 

322 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN AXNE. 

full of the rabble sliding, and with skates, if you know what 
those are' 

* The Gentile, cleanly and most ingenious Game at 
Billiards' was a resource at home ; and it was played on a 
table like ours — an oblong wooden table, covered with green 
cloth, and with pockets of netting, in precisely the same 
position as now, the cushions being stuffed with fine flax or 
cotton. The game was not played as we play it, but there 
were two balls, a port or archway at one end, and a king or 
cone at the other. The cues were not like ours, but more 
like maces, only much heavier. 'Your Sticks ought to be 
heavy, made of Brazile Lignum Vitce, or some other weight}- 

wood which at the broad end must be 
tipt with Ivory.' The game was net 
only played in private, but in coffee. 

V iS^SJS^ 71 l^^^s^s- * ^^ ^^'^ Greyhound Coffee 

-j<:C;>5 d^^^^i^5w House near Monmouth Street in Soho, 

are to be sold two new Billiard Table?, 
and all other goods and conveniences 
fit for a Coffee House,' etc And 
again : * A very good French Billiard 
Table little the worse for wearing, 
full size, with all the Materials fit for 
French or English play fi:c. Enquire 
at Scot's Coffee House.' Indeed 
Cotton says there were few towns of note in England which 
had not a public billiard-table. He, howe\^r, warns people 
af^ainst * those spunging Caterpillars, which swarm where any 
l^illiard Tables arc set up, who make that single room their 
Shop, Kitching and Bed Chamber.' 

The rough sports, such as cudgel-playing, football, wrest- 
ling, throwing, boxing, leaping, and running, were kept alive 
by the country wakes, which took place on the dedication 
festival of the parish church. These were sometimes supple- 
mented by a grinning match, such as that which drew down 


> Tills illustration, altbou^^h from the 1 709 edition of Cotton's Cmnt/^Vj/ 
Cam: tn\ is of older date ; indeed, it is identical with the fiist edition of 1674. 
The fact uf its being a tcxt-l'ook in Anne's reign shows that the fiune haul not 
then been modilieJ. 


Addison's wrath/ and which was afterwards abandoned, in 
deference to his opinion. 

Near London these wakes, like Hampstead or Deptford 
wakes, were well kept up ; and there was my Lady Butter- 
field in Epping Forest, of whose entertainment and calf- 
roasting we have already had a description through Ward's 
instrumentality. Here is one of her advertisements : * My 
Lady Butterfield gives a Challenge to all England, to Ride 
a Horse, Leap a Horse, Run on Foot or Hallow with any 
Woman in England Ten years younger, but not a Day 
older, because she would not under value herself. Gentlemen 
and Ladies, whilst in the Spring 'tis worth your while to 
come to hear the Nightingal Sing in Wanstead within a Mile 
of the Green Man, in Essex, at my Lady Butterfields at 
Nightingal Hall. This is to give notice to all Gentlemen and 
Ladies, and all the best of my Friends, that on the last 
Wednesday of April is my feast, where is very good Enter- 
tainment for that Day, and for all the Year after from my 
Lady Butterfield.' 

Or another : — 

To ALL Gentlemen and Ladies. 

If Rare Good young Beans and Pease can Tempt Ye, 

Pray pass not by my Hall with Bellies Empty ; 

For Kind Good Usage every one can tell, 

My Lady Butterfield does al excell ; 

At Wanstead Town, a Mile of the Green Man, 

Come if you dare and stay away if you can. 

She had a rival later on, in 17 13. *This is to acquaint 
all Jolly Lads and Lasses. That on Monday the 28th 
Instant, there will be a Meeting of several Gentlemen and 
Ladies at the Opening of Mr. Tucker's new House upon 
Epping Forest, where the Company will be provided with 
good Music and Dancing, and be likewise entertained by 
Country People with the following Diversions, viz. A Beaver 
Hat to be Cudgelled for, A Pair of Buckskin Breeches to be 
wrestled for ; and a lac'd Holland Smock to be danced for, 
by 6 young Women. N.B. The Sport begins at 10 a Clock 

* Spectator y No. 173. 


324 SOCIAL LIFE in the reigfi of QUEEN AAWE. 

in the Morning ; and such care is taken that the Company 

may not return a hungr}', One Ox will then be roasted and 

given gratis' 

Women raced for smocks, silk stockings, or topknots ; 
whilst one would surely have won Sir John Astley's heart. 
* This is to give Notice, That there is a young Woman, 
born within 30 Miles of London, will run, for Fifty or a 
Hundred Pounds, a Mile and an half, with any other Woman 
that has liv'd a Year within the same Distance ; upon any 
good Ground, as the Parties concern'd shall agree to.' 

Even a woman's suspected infidelity was turned into 
s]:)ort. * At Hainmersinith near Kensington^ to morrow, being 
rriday, will be rode a SkimmingtoN TRIUMPH, according 
to the Manner described in Hudibras,' which the reader" will 
Tnd, if he be curious in the matter, in Part. II. Canto II. of 
j^utler s immortal poem. 

One harmless diversion should not be passed over. * At 
Kpsom Old Wells ... on Whitsun Tuesday will be Moris 
])ancing Set against Set, for Lac'd Hats, at 10 a Clock, with 
other Diversions.' 

Ikit the game, par excellence, which combined out-of-door 
sport with the minimum of fatigue, suitable alike to the 
mercurial young, and the steady middle-aged, was bowling ; 
and the bowling greens multiplied exceedingly in this reign, 
especially Cjudging by the advertisements) after 1706. We 
hear of them starting up in all the suburbs: at Putney. 
Iloxton, Maribone, Hampstead, Stoke Newington, Ham 
Lane, etc. 

That the bowls were the same as are now played with 
we see by the following advertisement : * Lost out of the 
Bowl House belonging to Pemlico Green in Hogsdon near 
Shoreditch two pair of Lignum Vita: Bowls and one pair of a 
reddish Wood.' It was not an expensive recreation. • The 
New Green over against Bunhill fields will be open*d on 
Saturday next, and the Old Green to be Bowled on for Six 
l^ence and One Penny for taking up.' Sometimes there were 
prizes bowled for, as * At the Black Gray hound Dog at 
J^ristow Causey, will be a Silver Tobacco Box Bouled for, 
value 30J.' 


It was essentially a sober cit's amusement. * I wonder 
how so many Fat Gentlemen can endure the Green all Day, 
tho' tis pleasant enough to look out o' the window and 
observe 'em — To see a Tun o' Grease, with a broad fiery 
Face, and a little black cap, waddle after a Bowl, rub, rub, 
rub, rub, rub, and lose more Fat in getting a Shilling— Than 
wou'd yield him a Crown at the Tallow Chandler's.' * * A 
Bowling Green is a Place where there are three Things 
thrown away besides Bowls, viz. Time, Money, and Curses ; 
the last ten for one. The best Sport in it, is a sight of the 
Gamesters, and the looker on enjoys it more than him that 
Plays. It is the School of Wrangling, nay worse than the 
Schools, for Men will cavil here for a Hair's bredth, and 
make a Dispute, where a Straw might end the Controversie. 
No Antick screws his Body into such strange Postures ; and 
you would think 'em mad, to hear 'em make Supplication to 
their Bowls, and exercise their Rhetorick to intreat a good' 
Cast.'* A great nuisance in these public bowling-grounds 
were the people who betted on the players' skill. * Cuff, 
Let's be sure to bet all we can. I have known a great Bowler 
whose Better's place was worth above 200/. a year, without 
venturing a farthing for himself ^ 

'-: * A Bowling Green is one of the most agreeable Compart- 
ments of a Garden, and, when 'tis rightly placed, nothing is 
more pleasant to the Eye. It's hollow Figure covered with a 
beautiful Carpet of Turf very Smooth, and of a lively green, 
most commonly encompassed with a Row of tall Trees with 
Flower bearing Shrubs, make a delightful composition ; be- 
sides the Pleasure it affords us, of lying along upon its 
sloping Banks, in the Shade, during the hottest weather.'* ; It 
must have delighted a gardener's heart, in those days, to 
have had something which must, almost of necessity, be orna- 
mented in a somewhat formal manner. . There were no land- 
scape gardeners then, they were all fettered by the precision 
style of elaborate parterres, terraces, cut trees, statuary ; 
and although a more educated mind pined for a better 
state of things, as is evidenced throughout the Spectator 

» Tunbridgc Walks. « HickfJy Pickelty,- • Epsom Wells, 

* The Theory and Practice of Cardeningy by J. James, 1 7 12. 

326 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE. 

whenever mention is made of a garden, the tyranny 
of custom and the gardeners prevailed. *Our trees rise 
in Cones, Globes, and Pyramids. We see the Marks of 
the Scissors upon every Plant and Bush. I do not know 
whether I am singular in my Opinion, but, for my own part, 
I would rather look upon a Tree in all its Luxuriancy and 
Diffusion of Boughs and Branches, than when it is thus cut 
and trimmed into a Mathematical Figure ; and cannot but 
fancy that an Orchard in flower looks infinitely more de- 
lightful than all the little Labyrinths of the most finished 
Parterre.' * These parterres were made in as elaborate devices 
as some of our specimens of leaf-gardening, and looked very 

In the Guardian (No. 173) this practice of clipping trees 
is ridiculed most unmercifully. * I know an eminent cook, 
who beautified his Country seat with a Coronation dinner in 
greens ; where you see the Champion flourishing on horse- 
back at one end of the table, and the queen in perpetual 
youth at the other. For the benefit of all my loving Countf>'- 
men of this Curious taste, I shall here publish a Catalogue of 
greens to be disposed of by an eminent town gardener. . . . 
Adam and Eve in Yew ; Adam a little Shattered by the 
fall of the Tree of Knowledge in the great Storm ; Eve and 
the Serpent very flourishing. 

* St. George in box ; his arm scarce long enough, but 
will be in a Condition to Stick the dragon by next April. 

* A Green dragon of the same with a tail of g^und I\y 
or the present. — N.B. These two not to be sold separately. 

* A pair of Giants stunted, to be sold Cheap. 

* A quickset hedge, shot up into a porcupine, by its being 
forgot a week in rainy weather,' etc. 

There were many works on gardening published in this 
reign, notably that by James, which was a translation from 
the French. It is enriched with beautiful desig^ns for par- 
terrcs, etc., and is undoubtedly the handsomest work on the 
subject. Van Oostcn's * Dutch Gardener ' is another transla- 
tion, as is *the Retir'd Gard'ncr* of London and Wise. The 
latter is a book of about 800 pages, with several woodcuts 

* spectator^ No. 414. 


and copperplate engravings, and consists of two parts — one 
a translation of * Le Jardinier Solitaire/ and the other from 
the work of the Sieur Louis Ligers. This was edited by 
George London and Henry Wise, who are more than once 
mentioned in the Spectator, They were practical gardeners, 
and their nurseries far surpassed all others in England. 
London was chief gardener to William and Mary, and 
afterwards to Anne. During her reign the nurseries were 
let to a man named Swinburne, but the name of the original 
firm was still kept up. 

There is, however, an excellent book in English called 
'the Clergy Man's Recreation,' by John Laurence, A.M., 17 14, 
but it is all about the cultivation of fruit trees. 

Plants would even grow out of doors in the City then, 
and we find the fore courts of houses planted, or at all events 
the walls covered, with jasmines, vines, etc. Whilst the news- 
papers advertise for sale, * Yews, Hollys and all sorts of 
Fillbrca Laurell &c. with all sorts of Fine Flowering Trees as 
Honi suckles, Cittisus, Roses, Saevays both Headed and 
Pyramid, Orange Trees, and Spanish Jesemins, Gilded Hollys 
Pyramid and Headed, Filleroys, Lavvrel Tines, and Arbour 
Vita;,' and amongst the flowers were * Double Emonies, 
Ranckilos, Tulips, Aurickelouses, Double Anemonies, Double 
Ranunculos and Double Junquils.' Ranunculus seems to 
have been a puzzling word, for once again we find it spelt 
* Renunculices.' 

Town and country were eminently antagonistic The 
want of means of communication kept country people in a 
state of stagnation, compared to their brethren of the town, 
whose more fastidious taste could not brook the boorish 
behaviour, and coarse pleasures, of the countryman. 

' Woodcock. No Z^;/rt^/;/^?r shall either ruin my Daughter, 
or waste my Estate — If he be a Gamester 'tis rattl'd away 
in two Nights — If a lewd fellow, 'tis divided into Settle- 
ments — If a nice Fop, then my Cherry trees are cut down 
to make Terras-Walks, my Ancient Mannor House, that's 
noted for good Eating, demolish'd to Build up a Modern 
Kickshaw, like my Lord Courtair^s Seat about a Mile off, 
with Sashes, Pictures and China ; but never any Victuals 

328 SOCIAL LIFE in the reign of QUEEN ANNE, 

drest in the House, for fear the Smoke of the Chimney should 
Sully the New Furniture. 

* Reynard, So that instead of providing her a Gentle- 
man, you*d Sacrifice her to a Brute ; who has neither 
Manners enough to be thought Rational, Education enough 
for a Justice of the Peace, nor wit enough to distinguish fine 
Conversation from the Yelping of Dogs ; Hunts all the 
Morning, topes all the Afternoon, and then goes lovingly 
Drunk to Bed to his Wife. 

* Woodcock, And pray, what are your Town Diver- 
sions } To hear a parcel of Italian Eunuchs, like so many 
Cats, squawU out somewhat you don't understand. The 
Song of my Lady*s Birthday, by an honest Farmer, and a 
Merry Jig by a Country Wench that has Humour in her 
Buttocks, is worth Forty on't ; Your Plays, your Park, and all 
your Town Diversions together, don't afford half so sub- 
stantial a Joy as going home thoroughly wet and dirty after 
a fatiguing Fox Chace, and Shifting one's self by a good 
Fire. Neither are we Country Gentlemen such Ninnies as 
you make us ; we have good Estates, therefore want not the 
Knavery and Cunning of the Town ; but we are Loyal Sub- 
jects, true Friends, and never scruple to take our Bottle, 
because we are guilty of nothing which we are afraid of dis- 
covering in our Cups.' ^ A very pretty quarrel as it stood, 
and one on which, as Sir Roger remarked, * much might be 
said on both sides,' for Addison ^ rather grumbles at the 
old-fashioned courtesy of the well-bred squire, as opposed to 
the greater ease of manners then in vogue : * If, after this, 
we look on the People of Mode in the Country, we find in 
them the Manners of the last Age. They have no sooner 
fetched themselves up to the Fashion of the polite World, 
but the Town has dropped them, and are nearer to the first 
State of Nature than to those refinements which formerly 
reign'd in the Court, and still prevail in the Country. One 
may now know a Man that never conversed in the World, 
by his Excess of Good Breeding. A polite Country Squire 
shall make you as many Bows in half an hour, as would 
serve a Courtier for a Week. There is infinitely more to 

» Tunbridge Walks. » Spectator, No. 119. 


do about Place and Precedency in a meeting of Justices 
Wives, than in an Assembly of Dutchesses.' 

But if the country aristocracy were so behindhand, in 
what state were the labourers ? Their lot was hard work 
and scant wage, only relieved by a village wake or a country 
fair ; no education, no hope of any better position, of the 
earth, earthy ; a man rose at early morning, worked hard all 
day, came home to sleep, and so on without intermission. 
Gay thus describes him and his labours : — 

If in the Soil you guide the crooked Share, 
Your early Breakfast is my Constant Care. 
And when with even Hand you strow the Grain, 
I fright the thievish Rooks from off the Plain. 
In misling Days when I my Threasher heard, 
With Nappy Beer I to the Bam repaired ; 
Lost in the Musick of the whirling Flail, 
To gaze on thee I left the smoaking Pail ; 
In Harvest, when the Sun was mounted high, 
My Leather Bottle did thy Drought supply ; 
When e'er you mow'd I follow'd with the Rake, 
And have full oft been Sun burnt for thy Sake ; 
When in the Welkin gath'ring Show'rs were seen, 
I lagg'd the last with Coiin on the Green ; 
And when at Eve returning with thy Carr, 
Awaiting heard the gingling Bells from far ; 
Strait on the Fire the sooty Pot I plac't, 
To warm thy Broth I burnt my Hands for Haste. 
When hungry thou stood'st staring, like an Oaf, 
I slic'd the Luncheon from the Barly Loaf, 
With crumbled Bread I thicken'd well thy Mess, 
Ah, love me more, or love thy Pottage less ! * 

The dress of the labourer at this time was a broad- 
brimmed flap felt hat, a jerkin, or short coat, knee breeches 
and stockings ; whilst the women wore their dresses very 
plainly made — necessarily without furbelows and hoops, and, 
for headgear, had a very sensible broad-brimmed straw hat, 
or, on holidays, the high-crowned felt hat. 

> The ShephercTs IVeck^The Ditty, ed. 1714.